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dis homines') was up in arms, and the Abbot was dragged, ignominiose satis,' before the King who was then at Stamford.
"The decision against the natives was here confirmed for the last time, and John Waryng, John Parker, Henry Pymn, Jack Blackden, Richard Blackden, Richard Bate, John Christian, junr. Wil liam Bate, John Christian of Ovre, Agnes bis wife, Randle de Lutelovre, and William de Lutlovre, were indicted for the murder of William Fyuche, before Geoffrey de Scrope, but were liberated with a forfeiture of all their goods to the Abbot. The matter was here brought to its termination; the greater part submitted, and the rest were taken by Henry Done, forester of Delamere, at Hockenhull; all of them expiated their insurrection in the stocks and Waverham prison, and Henry Pymn, the prime mover of the sedition,
incurred a forfeiture of all his lands in Dernhall, and was sentenced to offer up a wax taper for the remainder of his life, in the church of Vale Royal, during the celebration of mass on the festival of the Assumption." Pt. i. p. 71.
From among many instances of patient assiduity which might be adduced from these volumes, we transcribe the following detection of error in the Domesday-book.
"A third share, not noticed by Sir Peter Leycester, was retained by the Earl himself, the description of which is much more important than that of the other shares, and is here given below, in the form in which it is noticed in Domesday, with the account of Frodsham, which precedes it in the survey, and to which it will be necessary to refer.
'Ipse Com' ten' FROTESHAM. Edum' tenuit. Ibi 11 hida g'ld'.
T'ra e' ix. car'. In d'nio sunt 11, et un' seru' et viti villí, et 111 bord'.
In BOCELAV H.D. Ipse Coun' ten' ALRETUNE. Godric tenuit; ibi s virg' træ geld'. [cu' ¡¡ car'.
'T'ra e' dimid' car'. Wasta fuit et est.
+ Ibi p'br. et accl'a h'nt i virg' t'ræ et molin'. Ibi hiemale et 11 pis-
terci' denari de placitis isti' hund' p'tineb'. T. R. E. huic TM.
"Presuming the whole of this description to refer to this inconsiderable share of Alretune, held by Godric, to which it has always been referred, and to which the present official rules for reading Domesday refer it, we find it to have had ■ Church of which no other record exists; a mill used in winter only, where the surface affords no solution for such various effects of the seasons; two fisheries and a half, where the nearest stream is a trifling brook; a wood, disproportionate to the extent of the land; two enclosures for taking wild deer, where there is no forest in the neighbourhood; a salt-work in the wich, set apart for the hall of the proprietor of scarcely a third of an obscure manor; and what is still more singular than any of the preceding statements, the third penny of the hundred pertaining to the said manor, in the Saxon period, when in the possession of this obscure proprietor.
"It appeared a probable conjecture, that this description was intended for the account of Frodsham (which immediately precedes it in the Survey), and that had been severed from it by some error of the Norman transcriber. Every thing here would be applicable, and would constitute a beautiful picture of the state of that place at the Conquest. It has been already remarked, that but for the omission of the Church in the Domesday Survey,' the style of portions of its architecture might be referred to the Saxon period. The molinum hiemale would be supplied by a mountain torrent descending from Overton Hill; the fisheries would be in the broad estuaries of the Weever and the Mersey; the wood would be part of the line of natural forests then stretching along this district; the deer toil would be on the verge of the Chace of Mara, recently formed by the Earl ¶; the salt-work
"Greater Domesday-book, p. 263, b, col. 1." +"Ibid. commencement of col. 2."
"See Ellis's Introduction to Domesday (printed by Royal command, in pursuance of an Address of the House of Commons, 1816), respecting the variation of the virgata and leuva of Domesday, p. 1. li. The disproportion here observable will however exist in any of the calculations of these measures."
§"See Frodsham, Edisbury Hundred, p. 32. col. 2."
"As appears by the descriptions of nearly all the townships situated on the North and West side of the Forest Hills."
"They occur on the ring of townships which stretched round the forests of Mara and Mondrem, viz. in Kingsley, Weverham, Moulton, Menshull, Vernon, Church Minshull, &c. These haia were a hedged or paled part of the wood, into which beasts were driven for the purpose of being taken, and are noticed chiefly (as Mr
would be correspondent with the other salt-work reserved for Earl Edwin's other manor at Acton *; and the third penny of the hundred would be appropriately due to a manor held by Earl Edwin before the Conquest, and constituting one of the free burgs of the earldom after it.
"On referring to the original survey, these conjectures (founded on the copy printed by parliamentary authority) were fully confirmed; and an additional circumstance was observable, which greatly corroborated them. The two lines describ ing Alretune were inserted below the re. gular line, at the foot of the column, having been apparently omitted by the transcriber in the first instance, and afterwards added without a consciousness that he was transferring to Goderic's petty_estate_ the privileges of the great lordship of Frodsham, the description of which became divided by this interpolation.
"An error generally extends itself beyond the first subject of it. After Alretune, and before the notice of another hundred (Dudestane) come descriptions of the vills of Alredelie, Done (supposed Utkinton), and Edesberie. Mr. Squire, in the very accurate copy of Domesday, given in Leycester's Antiquities, states the first to be described in Bochelau, and the hundred of the two next to be omitted. This, however, was his conjecture, and was what ought to have been, but was not the fact. The general title of Roelau bundred must be supposed continued, according to the official mode of reading Domesday +, and the marginal note of Bochelau to relate to Alretune only; and in this case, Aldredelie will be severed from the adjacent towns in Old Bochelau Hundred, and transported to the other side of the county into Roelau, or Edisbury Hundred. If we invert this, and make the marginal notice of Bochelau apply to all that follows, until another Hundred is mentioned, similar violence must be offered in the removal of Utkinton and Edesbury from the hundred of Roelau into
"The errors here pointed out are presumed not to be matter of mere curiosity: the proof of antient demesne rests with Domesday; it is also appealed to in the courts, (among other things) in proving the contiguity of mills, and in setting up prescriptions in non decimando §. The accuracy of the original surveyors is not here questioned, but it is presumed to be proved that descriptions have been severed from the parts to which they refer, by inattention or the want of local knowledge in the transcribers of those surveys; and how is this to be rectified. Can a
judge be supposed to possess local knowledge, or could antiquarian conjecture, however accurate, be produced as legal evidence? Could it shake, if necessary, the antiquity of a molinum hiemale' at Alretune, or transfer it to its proper place at Frodsham? If it could not, it is presumed that no more reliance can be placed on Domesday than on any other work of patient labour and judgment, and that it must descend from the rank it holds in the Courts of Law, to a subordinate but high situation, to be considered the royal foundation-stone of English Topography." Part vii. p. 391.
(To be continued. J
70. Observations on the State of Ireland, principally directed to its Agriculture ani Population; in a Series of Letters, written on a Tour through that Country. By J.C. Curwen, Esq. M. P. 8vo. 2 vols. pp. 822. Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy.
UPWARDS of forty years since, the indefatigable Secretary of the Board of Agriculture (Mr. A. Young), published his celebrated 'Tour' through Ireland; in which he did of the state of agriculture and of the not present the most delightful view peasantry, though many pleasing exceptions occurred, of enlightened cultivators, who diffused plenty, happiness, and a spirit of industry around
Ellis observes, p. xxxvi.) in the Domesday description of Worcestershire, Herefordshire, Cheshire, and Shropshire."
*"See Acton, in Nantwich Hundred. The Domesday description of Acton, states it to have in Wich, unam domum quietam ad salem faciendam ;' and the description of Nantwich says, that Earl Edwin bad there unam salinam propriam quæ adjacebat suo manerio de Acatone. De hac salina per totum annum habebat comes salem sufficientem suæ domini.' Earl Edwin is noticed as having other salt-works, one of which was of course the salt-work above alluded to, but it is not recapitulated, in the account of the wiches by name."
+"Information of J. W. Clarke, esq. in whose custody the record is deposited at the Chapter-house, Westminster."
Inelson and Warford, now in Macclesfield Hundred, as well as Alderley, were surveyed in Domesday under Bochelau, as a portion of Aldredelie here mentioned was intended to be. The other part of Alderley, held by the Baron of Halton, was in the adjoining part of Hameston Hundred."
"Ellis's Introduction, p. cv."
them. fo the long interval which has elapsed, much important infor mation has at different times been communicated to the publick respect ing the Sister-Island: but an account of its actual state, by a candid and intelligent agriculturist has hitherto been a desideratum. This deficiency is now supplied by Mr. Curwen, to whom (though we differ toto cælo from him in many of his political views,) we are happy on the present occasion to award our approbation, and our thanks for the mass of interesting statistical information which he has here collected.
Mr. Curwen's Tour was performed in the Autumn of 1813. Having traversed part of Scotland, he embarked at Port-Patrick and landed at Donhaghadee, whence he proceeded through the principal agricultural districts of Ireland.
As indicated in the title-pages of his volumes, Mr. C. directed his attention chiefly to the state of agriculture, and of the lower classes. The result of his investigations is by no means agreeable; poverty and wretchedness, filth and ignorance, are the general characteristics of the Irish colliers or cabin-holders; for which our Author assigns the following causes, in different parts of his work, viz. Inadequate active employment for the male population; the great demand and consequent competition for small farms, which necessarily enhance the price of land; improvident and early marriages; the oppressive manner in which tithes are collected (from which, however, Mr. C. honourably acquits the Clergy); the prevalence of illicit distiliation; and the great number of absentee land-owners, who spend in other countries the rents which their tenants can with difficulty pay. These statements are substantiated by numerous heart-rending facts, which we will not pain our Readers by relating. The remedies he suggests, are, the furnishing of suitable occupation for the large mass of persons at present unemployed (amounting nearly to five-sixths of the entire population), by the judicious introduction of cotton and woollen manufactures, in addition to the staple manufacture of Ireland,a better mode of letting lands, a ge neral commutation of tithes, and above all, the residence of absentee
proprietors on their estates. These various topics are discussed with much temper and moderation; and many pleasing instances are introduced of resident land-proprietors, whose examples and encouragement of industry have in a great degree improved the condition of their peasantry. We extract, with much pleasure, the following brief account of the Bishop of Meath.
"The attention paid to the comforts of the lower orders surrounding the palace does great credit to the feelings and humanity of his Lordship. Greatly is the possessor of wealth to be pitied whose pursuits are exclusively directed to the search after gratifications of a sensual description. To confer and promote the happiness of others, is to a benevolent mind the most enviable prerogative of riches. The warmth which emanates from
the sun gives an animation to all created beings, in which every eye luxuriates! Gratitude for kindness received conveys to the heart of him who bestows a substantial self gratulation which the sensualist has no power to conceive or means to procure!"
"The practice of this house is highly becoming the sacred office executed under its roof. Prayers are read by his Lordship morning and evening so entirely without affectation, and with so proper a
regard to what is fit and right to be done,
that the service cannot be attended without inspiring an earnest desire that the custom prevailed in every family. The time occupied is not of such duration as to interfere either with the pleasure or business of the heads of the house, or the duty of their dependants and servants."
This eminent prelate of the Irish Church does not confine his altention exclusively to the comforts of his dependants: his efforts have also been directed beneficially to revive and promote the interests of the Established Church in his Diocese.
"The disorders which had so long prevailed in the Established Church had been a source of regret to its friends;the obstacles to a correction of them, many and powerful. Notwithstanding the odium and unpopularity attending the attempt, the Bishop of Meath has, in his diocese, done much towards a reform. Above thirty churches and parsonage houses have been built and repaired. The strict regularity with which residence has been enforced, has obtained his Lordship the approbation of every candid individual."
In the course of his tour, Mr. Cur
wen passed through most of the principal towns and cities of Ireland; his accounts of Dublin and Cork, as well as of his visit to the Lakes of Killarney, are very interesting, but do not admit of abridgment: and they would suffer by partial extracts. Generally speaking, the state of Agriculture is but indifferent, though some gratifying exceptions occur, in the estates of the public-spirited resident landproprietors above alluded to. Filthiness, exorbitant charges, want of order and comfort, and execrable wines, are stated to be the characteristics of most of the inns in Ireland. Education is described as being at a low ebb; though the people were in many places desirous of procuring instruction for their children.
Mendicity prevails to an enormous extent; and the beggars are not more remarkable for their importunity than for the ingenuity with which they urge their requests, we had almost said demands, for charity. While Mr. Curwen was at Derry he noticed, what he considers as a singular custom, but what the writer of this article has seen in other towns, in the South of Ireland. A number of beg. gars was permitted to take their stations by turns in the vestibule or lobby of the principal inn, for a certain time. Two or three changes of these wretched objects took place while Mr. C. stopped. From some cause, however, which he could not ascertain, he observed but few beg-, gars at Dublin.
Many curious facts relative to the Natural History of Ireland, and to the character and manners of its inhabitants, are interspersed through these volumes, which we have not room to specify. While they contain much that will gratify the general reader, they present much to engage the most serious attention of the Irish members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom; under whose consideration the affairs of Ireland will probably come, in the ensuing
71. The Monastery: a Romance.
THE amazing fertility of the pen of the Author of Waverley is once more brought to our astonishment, and with such quick succession, that
the Monastery must have been on the stocks of Mr. Ballantyne, at the time of the publishing of Ivanhoe. This latter production, for which an unprecedented demand has been made, and which, at this present time, has hardly reached the remote corners of the empire, is so full of theatrical episode, that both the patentee theatres, as well as some of the minor ones, are contending to pick up the best tale, and turn it to the best advantage. This eagerness of the theatrical caterers may answer their views, but shows a dearth of historical subjects for tragedy, and comic authors capable to find in our present manners sufficient opportunities of handling the whip of satire: and from thence the prevailing bad taste of encouraging none but mongrel dramas founded upon old ballads, or antisocial and barbarous manners of former centuries. This, how. ever, is no disparagement to Ivanhoe as a novel or romance; on the contrary, it shows that the author knows so well the road to the heart, that, if we dare make use of the simile, not unlike our most renowned pastrycook near the Royal Exchange, he seasons his mince-pies so well, that, as they come out of the oven, they are eagerly bought, and greedily devoured. Such has been the destiny of nearly thirty volumes, which, in the short space of little more than six years, have come from the wonderfully-prolific pen of the Author of Waverley.
The Monastery is preceded by an introductory letter to a Captain Člutterbuck, which, with the answer, forms almost a third part of the first volume. From the latter we are informed, that these most interesting and delightful novels are not due to the happy combinations of fortuitous circumstances:
"No, Captain, the funds from which I have drawn my power of amusing the publick, have been bought otherwise than by fortuitous adventure. I have buried
myself in libraries, to extract from the
nonsense of antient days, new nonsense of my own. I have turned over volumes, which, from the pot-hooks I was obliged to decipher, might have been the cabalistic manuscripts of Cornelius Agrippa, although I never saw the door open and the devil come in' *. But all the domes
*"See Southey's Ballad on the young man who read in a Conjuror's Book."
tic inhabitants of the libraries were disturbed by the vehemence of my studies ;From my research the boldest spider fled, And moths, retreating, trembled as I read."
We most cordially give our assent to this declaration, being aware that none but one deeply read in the early records of former centuries, could introduce, amongst the seducing images of fiction, such store of learning and erudition.
We do not intend to give a sketch of the fable or drama which constitutes the principal incidents of the Monastery: 1st, because our Journal embraces too many topics to allow us room enough to do justice to the Author; next, because we conceive, that giving the plan of the Work, and engrossing it, as some contemporary Journals, to above fifty pages of close print, is hurting the sale of the book, or at least diminishing by anticipation the pleasure of the Řeader. We shall, however, as in the bill of a new play, name the dramatis personæ, not in the order in which they are presented, but as we conceive their importance in the novel before us.
The character of the good Abbot Boniface is perfectly well contrasted with the thin palid-cheeked Eustace, Sub-Prior of the convent of St. Mary; that of Edward and Halbert Glen dinning, the two sons of Simon Glendinning, and of Elspeth Drydone their mother, are drawn after nature; the first, a mild well-disposed boy; and Halbert, a high-bred youth; "Gentle if you speak him fair, but cross him and he was a horn devil."
The next and not the less amusing personage, is one Sir Pierce Shafton, who is brought, as a friend of Julian Avenel, to spend three or four days in the tower of Glendearg, the habitation of widow Elspeth, and her two sons, Edward and Halbert: the interest of the novel begins with this coxcomb or dandy, who belongs to a set of fashionable English youths, at that time called or denominated Euphuist. As a specimen of the absurdity of their talking:
"Credit me, fairest lady," said the knight, "that such is the cunning of our English courtiers of the hodiernal strain, that, as they have infinitely refined upon the plain and rusticial discourse of our fathers, which, as I may say, more be seemed the mouths of country roisterers
in a May-game than that of courtly gallants in a galliad, so I hold it ineffably and unutterably improbable, that those who may succeed us in that garden of wit and courtesy shall alter or amend it. Venus delighteth but in the language of Mercury; Bucephalus will stoop to none but Alexander; no one can sound Apollo's pipe but Orpheus."
"Pretty and quaint, fairest lady," answered the Euphuist. "Ah that I had with me my Anatomy of Wit, that allto-be unparalleled volume-that quintessence of human wit-that treasury of quaint invention-that exquisitely-pleasant-to-read, and inevitably-necessary-tobe-remembered manual of all that is worthy to be known-which indoctrines the rude in civility, the dull in intellectuality, the heavy in jocosity, the blunt in gentility, the vulgar in nobility, and all of them in that unutterable perfection of human utterance, that eloquence which no other eloquence is sufficient to praise, that art which, when we call it by its own name of Euphuism, we bestow on it its richest panegyric."
But we forget that we did not intend giving any extracts; and it is well that we have come to that determination, otherwise we might have copied nearly half of the second volume.
The subordinate characters are Mary Avenel, and her uncle Julian Avenel, who had taken a forced possession of the estates of her father; Henry Warden, an bumble teacher of the Holy Word, whose enthusiasm, fanaticism, and audacity, were equal to those of any of the first martyrs in the early ages of Christianity; one Christie of the Clint-hill, a bold ruffian dependent of Julian Avenel; and a Missie Harper, the daughter of Hob Miller, as he was called, although his name was Harper, who plays the part of a page to our favourite Sir Pierce Shafton, after having clearly rescued him from the dangers which were threatening him in the tower of Glendearg.
The ground-work of this novel is in a great measure founded on the superagency of a mysterious White Lady, who is often consulted by Halbert and his brother, and seems to direct all the events, by misleading all the actors. Although we did not approve of the agency of such ideal beings, we were reconciled to it, by transporting ourselves to the superstitious times to which the novel alludes; and we can assure our Readers that far from diminishing the interest of