« 上一頁繼續 »
young Artist, with due contrition, in formed him of the true cause, the old gentleman was much pleased with his ingenuousness. In the following year Mr. Pennington, merchant of Philadel phia, paid a visit to the West family, and being struck with the genius of the boy, upon his return home to the city, sent him a box of paints and pencils, with several pieces of canvass, and six engravings by Grevling. Nothing could exceed the rapture of West upon the receipt of this present; he rose at the dawn of the next day, carried the box into the garret, prepared a pallet, and began to imitate the figures in the engravings. Enchanted with his art, he forgot to go to school, and joined the family at dinner, without mentioning how he had been occupied. In the afternoon be again retired to his study in the garret; and for several successive days thus devoted himself to painting. The schoolmaster, however, sent to know the reason of his absence. Mrs, West recollecting that she had seen Benjamin going up stairs every morn ing, and suspecting that it was the box which occasioned this neglect of the school, affected not to notice the message, but went immediately to the gar ret, and found him employed on the picture. Her anger was changed to a different feeling by the sight of his performance; she kissed him with transports of affection, and assured him that she would intercede to prevent him being punished. It was ever the highest pleasure of Mr. West emphatically to declare, that it was this kiss that made him a painter. His mother would not allow him to complete the picture, lest he should spoil the half he had already done. Sixty-seven years after, it was sent over to him by his brother, and the President showed it to every stranger admitted to his painting-room, declaring, that with all his subsequent knowledge and experience, he could not vary the situation of one single colour for the better. A short time after young West went to Philadelphia with his friend Mr. Pennington, and while paint. ing a view of the river with the vessels, was introduced to one Williams, a painter, who lent him the works of Fresnoy and Richardson, which, by inspiring him with enthusiasm for his art, much contributed to his advancement. Upon his return to Springfield, be amused himself by painting upon the detached pieces of broken furniture in the shop of a cabinet-maker, not far from his father's. These sketches have Leen since sought for by the Americans, and purchased at enormous prices.
Twelve months after his visit to Philadelphia, young West went to Chester county, and in the course of painting a number of portraits became acquainted with one William Henry, an extraordinary mechanic, who had acquired a fortune by his abilities. This was the person that first set him upon painting History; and the subject of the first historical picture was the Death of Socrates, which Mr. Heury took great pains to explain to him from Plutarch. By Mr. Henry's interest, the young artist was sent to Philadelphia, to receive classical instruction from Provost Smith, until sixteen years old. When he had attained that age, a general consultation of the Quakers took place, as to his future destiny, when, after much debate, it was agreed that he should follow the profession of a painter.
In 1760 he left Philadelphia for Leghorn, where he procured letters of recommendation to many persons of the highest distinction at Rome, by virtue of which he formed an intimacy with Mengs, Batteni, and other artists, of the first character in that city.
After spending some time in the antient capital of the world, he returned to Leghorn, and proceeded from thence to Florence, where he pursued his studies in the galleries of that place with such unwearied ardour as considerably injured his health. Having completed bis tour of Italy, he came to London through France, and after visiting several places in England, was about to return to America, when by the advice of Reynolds and Wilson, the two greatest painters of their day, he was induced to alter his resolution and to remain this country. He had before his departure from Philadelphia, formed an attachment to a Miss Shewell, who being apprised of his resolution to settle in England, came over with the father of her lover, and the young couple were married in London in 1764.
The year following, Mr. West was chosen a member and one of the direetors of the Society of Artists, which three years afterwards became incorporated with the Royal Academy, in the formal tion of which Mr. West had a principal concern. It was about this time that he had the bonour of being particularly noticed by his late Majesty, to whom he was introduced by Dr. Drummond,' Archbishop of York. On this occasion the King gave him a commission to paint for him the picture of Regulus, which was the first piece exhibited by Mr. West on the opening of the Royal Academy in 1769. From that period bis exertions have been unparalleled in
the extent and variety of his productions; as there has not been one exhibition without some distinguishing specimen of his genius.
During the short interval of peace after the treaty of Amiens, Mr. West visited Paris for the purpose of inspect ing the works of art, and when his design was made known to his late Majesty, directions were given to accommodate him with letters of recommendation to Our minister there, and the high authorities of that country. At Paris he received many flattering marks of distinction, and all places containing works of art were ordered to be opened to him for his observation. Nor have the honours which he has received in England been sparing; for in 1772 he was appointed historical painter to his late Majesty; and in 1790 surveyor of the Royal pictures.
In 1791 he was elected President of the Royal Academy, and the same year be was chosen a Member of the Society of Dillettanti.
In 1792 he was chosen a Member of the Society of Antiquaries, and in 1801 a Governor of the Foundling Hospital.
In 1804 he became a Member of the Royal Institution. Abroad he was chosen a Member of the Academy of Florence; a Member of the National Institute at Paris, and also of the Philosuphical Society of Philadelphia. was also a Member of the Society established at Boston for the Encourage ment of Arts and Sciences; and of the Academy of Arts at New York.
At the close of a long and active life, devoted uniformly to the bigher branch of art, which he bas cultivated in a manner that will be equally glorious to himself and bis Royal patron, Mr. West produced the largest picture ever exhibited, and one which displays the most vigorous powers of conception and execution, This is the great Painting of our Saviour presented to the view of the people by Pilate; and which followed the truly admirable one of Christ healing the sick. In 1816 this incomparable artist and truly amiable man bad the misfor tune of lesing his wife, to whom he had been married above fifty years.
Mr. West has written two excellent Letters on the advantages of Sculpture in Painting, which are inserted in Lord Elgin's Memorandum of his Pursuits in Greece; and besides these, he was the author of "A Discourse delivered to the Students of the Royal Academy at the Distribution of Prizes ;" and "A Speech at the Anniversary Meeting," 1793, 4to. Mr. West has left two sons, on whom his property will devolve. This princi
pally consists of numerous works from his own pencil, and some choice specimens of the old masters, particularly of Titian; the whole valued at upwards of 100,0007.
REV. DR. THOMAS HAWEIS.
Feb. 11. At his house in Beaufortbuildings, Bath, aged 86, the Rev. Tho mas Haweis, LL. D. M. D. Rector of Aldwinckle All Saints, Northamptonshire, Chaplain and principal trustee to Selina Countess of Huntingdon (whose Funeral Sermon he preached), founder of the London Missionary Society, and Father of the Missions to the South Sea Islands.
He was a native of Truro in Cornwall, educated at the grammar-school of that town, and at Christ's College, Cambridge; where he took the degree of LL.B. in 1772. Not long after he took orders, be distinguished himself as a popular preacher, and was appointed assistant chaplain to the Rev. Mr. Madan, at the Lock Hospital, London. In February 1764, he was presented for a limited time (the living being then within a few days of a lapse, and the value of the advowson being 11007.) to the Rectory of Aldwinckle; but the presentation was attended with some noise, and occasioned "A faithful Narrative of Facts relative to the Presenta tion of Mr. Haweis to the Rectory of Aldwinckle;" ""An Answer to a Pamphlet, entitled, A faithful Narrative of Facts, &c. by Martin Madan ;" and "Remarks on the Answer of the Rev. Mr. Madan, to the faithful Narrative of Facts," &c.; all which are impartially epi tomized in our vol. XXXVII. 507–510. His other publications were, a Volume of Sermons on Evangelical Principles and Practice, 1763; the Evangelical Expositor, in two vols. folio; the Commu nicant's Spiritual Companion; Improvement of the Church Catechism, 1776; Scriptural Refutation of the Argument for Polygamy, 1781; Hints respecting the Poor, 1788; Essays on the Evidence, Doctrines, and Influence of Christianity, 1791; Translation of the New Test. from the Greek, 1795; a Word in Season, designed to encourage the Missionary Society to perseverance, 1795; a Plea for Peace and Union among the Members of the Church of Christ, 1795; Missionary Instructions, 1795, Memoir respecting an African Mission, 1795; a Sermon, with an Introductory Address to the People of Israel, 1797; Life of the Rev. Mr. Romaine, 1797; History of the Church of Christ, from the death of our Saviour, 1800; Reply to the Ani-\ madversions of the Dean of Carlisle (Dr.
Milner), in the History of the Church of Christ, 1801; View of the present State of Evangelical Religion throughout the World, 1812.
The remains of Dr. Haweis were interred in the Abbey Church at Bath.
REV. ROGERS RUDING, B.D. Feb. 16. At Maldon, Surrey, in his 69th year, the Rev. Rogers Ruding, B.D. vicar of that parish. This respectable gentleman was the second son of Rogers Ruding, esq. of Westcotes in the county of Leicester, by Anne, daughter of James Skrymsher, esq. He was born at Leicester, Aug. 9, 1751; was educated at Merton College, Oxford, of which he was some time Fellow; and proceeded B.A. 1771; M.A. 1775; B D. 1782.
He married Charlotte, fourth daughter of his uncle John Ruding, esq. by whom he bad three sons, all deceased, and two daughters, who, with their mother, survive to lament the loss of a kind husband and affectionate father.
In 1793 he was presented by his College to the vicarage of Maldon; and was afterwards elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London: he was also an Honorary Member of the Philosophical Society at Newcastle-uponTyne.
In 1798 he published "A Proposal for restoring the antient Constitution of the Mint, so far as relates to the Expence of Coinage; together with the Outline of a Plan for the Improvement of the Money, and for increasing the Difficulty of Counterfeiting" 8vo. In 1812 he circulated Proposals for publishing by subscription his "Anuals of Coinage," which valuable work appear ed in 4 volumes 4to. in 1817, under the following title: "Annals of the Coinage of Britain and its Dependencies, from the earliest Period of authentic History to the End of the 50th year of King George III." For the illustration and embellishment of these Volumes, thie Society of Antiquaries permitted the Plates of Mr. Folkes's work on Coins to be used.
Mr. Ruding was deeply skilled in this bis favourite pursuit. It was his opinion, "that the Coinage of this Kingdom has long been extremely defective. The barbarity of the workmanship is evident from the slightest inspection: and the constant disappearance of the money, in a short time after it has been issued from the Mint, irrefragably proves that the principles on which it is constructed, are not less imperfect than the execution."-" To trace the progress of the Errors in our Coinage, from the earliest times down to the pre
sent, and to offer to the consideration of the publick a theory less liable to ob jection than that which has hitherto been acted upon," were the main ob jects he proposed in the above elabo rate work, which will carry down his name to posterity with great credit.
On account of the limited number printed in quarto, the impression was wholly taken off by his Subscribers; which induced some spirited Publishers to engage Mr. Ruding in an octavo edition, with several new Plates, and additions to the present time, which will, no doubt, prove a standard work on the Coinage of this Country. Mr. Ruding very properly enabled his original Subscribers to procure the additional plates and supplemental matter, by publishing them separately.
Mr. Ruding contributed to the Archaologia of the Society of Antiquaries, "Some Account of the Trial of the Pix," vol. XVII. p. 164; and a "Memoir on the Office of Cuneator," vol. XVIII. p. 207. -He was also a valuable contributor to the Gentleman's Magazine; particularly on the subject of Coins; the latest of which appeared in our last number.
REV. MATTHEW Haynes.
Feb. 15. The truly reverend Matthew Haynes (see p. 190) of Vincent-street, Westminster, was venerable in piety and years. His dissolution, morally speaking, was accelerated by the injudicious cutting of a corn, which was followed by an inflammatio pedis; and although most skilfully cured, yet the repeated necessary incisions and exhaustions by applica tions of cataplasms and medicines to prevent gangrene, and consequent debility from being confined to his room above four months, brought on a return of diarrhea, with which he had periodically been afflicted for some time past, baffling every effort to arrest its fatal progress, he gradually wasted away,"his skin cleaving to his bones." After bearing his infirmities with the most Christian patience and resignation, be expired in the arms of his son without a sign, a struggle, or a groan. In the early part of his life he professed an inclination for the stage, and was most flatteringly received by the great Gar. rick; but an accident from some mortar falling in his eye whilst viewing an antient edifice under repair, caused a most dreadful inflammation, which, through improper treatment from a then-celebrated oculist, who had separated the eye-lid to get at the cause of the malady, it became an insuperable impediment to his appearance in public, which occasioned the Roscius of the age
to say, "we must get rid of that eye, Mr. Johnson" (the name under which Mr. Haynes bad introduced himself), 66 or the cart will break down," alluding to the Thespian vehicle. This (at that time) painful frustration of his wishes, he frequently would say, he considered as a most singular interposition of Providence, which kept him from pursuits too frequently the bane of all morality, virtue, and religion.
He was of an autient British family, being descended from Gwyr y Glyn of Glamorgan, whose different branches settled in Shropshire, Devonshire, and Gloucester.
His great uncles, John and William, went in 1700 to South Carolina. From John descended the celebrated Colonel Isaac Haynes, whose unfortunate destiny gave occasion to a violent discussion in the House of Peers, and produced a challenge from Lord Rawdon, now Marquis of Hastings, to the Duke of Richmond, of fortification memory.
He married early, and lived in the most perfect connubial felicity fifty-six years with a most amiable and truly pious woman, the partner of his cares; yet he never had but one child, a son, now living, but was blest with seeing his children's children to the third ge neration live in unity and the bonds of peace. A life spent in the practice of every moral and religious duty, undeviatingly virtuous, made him, as he expressed himself, "perfectly at ease as to the state of his soul." He retained his faculties to the last, never wore spec tacles, and read in a small printed book the day previous to his dissolution; on the morning of which, desiring his son to go for the Rev. Mr. Saunders of St. Andrew's, Blackfriars, and, as if having a prescience of the hour of his depar ture, asked him, "how long he thought he would be gone?" upon being told about two hours, "let me know," said he, "the utmost, because I shall want you about twelve o'clock;" his words were, "Take me to thyself, dear Lord, for I am ready!" For about an hour he seemed in a trance,-the world faded from his sight, and about one o'clock he resigned his spirit into the hands of Him who gave it, at the advanced age of eighty-six years, seven months, and twenty-two days.
REV. ANTHONY FRESTON.
The Rev, Anthony Freston was son of Robert Brettingham, Esq. of Norwich, and nephew of Matthew Brettingham the Architect of Houghton. Whilst yet a child he took the name of Freston in
pursuance of the will of his maternal uncle William Freston, Esq. of Mendham in Norfolk, who died in 1761. The Frestons were descended from an antient Yorkshire family, one of whom, John Freston, Esq. of Alltofts, founded in his life-time a fellowship and two scholarships in University College, Oxford, and by his will bearing date, 1594, directed the same foundation to be established at Emanuel College, Cambridge. Richard Freston of the Norfolk branch, was Treasurer to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, in 1534, and was afterwards knighted; he married Ann Coke of the Holkham family. His descendants resided either at Mendham Hall or Wickendon Hall, till the family became extinet in the male line by the death of William Freston above mentioned.
Mr. Anthony Freston, the subject of this article, was entered a Commoner at Christ Church College, Oxford, in December 1775, and there he took a Bachelor's degree in 1780. Having in the mean time married a Cambridge lady, the widow of Thomas Hyde, Esq. he removed in 1783 to Clare Hall in Cambridge, where he took the degree of M A. the same year. In 1792 he was instituted to the perpetual cure of Needbam in Norfolk, in his own patronage; and in 1801 was presented by Thos. Westfaling, Esq. a college friend, to the rectory of Edgworth in Gloucestershire. Dr. Huntingford, then Bishop of Gloucester, appointed him Rural Dean of the Deanery of Stonehouse in that diocese.
By his wife, who survives him, Mr.
Consigns its victim to the silent tomb,
Pours on the wounded mind her opiate balm, [calm, And bids the bursting heart be firm, be Teaches the pious Christian how to die, And points the path to bliss and immortality."
Mr. Freston died in his 63d year, on the 25th of December, 1819, after a long and painful illness, which he supported with the greatest resignation. He was a kind father, a warm-hearted friend, a pious Christian, and a zealous advocate for the doctrines of the Church of Eng. land.
His publications were, "Provisions for the more equal maintenance of the Clergy," 1784, 12mo (anonymous); a volume of Poems, 1787, 8vo; a Discourse of Laws, 1799; an Address to the People of England, 1796, 8vo. (anonymous); à Collection of Evidences for the Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1807, 8vo; Sermons on the most important Doctrines of Christianity, &c. &c. 1809, 8vo.
THOMAS JENKINSON WOODWARd, Esq.
T. J. Woodward, Esq. (whose death is noticed in p. 189), was a native of Huntingdon, where his family had been long established. In early life he had the misfortune to lose both his parents, and inheriting a handsome patrimony, was sent to Eton School, in which distinguished seminary, under the superintendance of the late Dr. Bernard, he made good proficiency in classical learning, and laid a solid foundation of those acquirements in general Literature, which proved the ornament and delight of his maturer years. On leaving Eton, Mr. Woodward was admitted a student of Clare-hall in the University of Cambridge, where he proceeded in 1769 to his degree of bachelor of civil law; and shortly afterwards married the daughter and heiress of the late Thos. Manning, esq. of Bungay in Suffolk, of whom honourable mention is made in our Magazine for 1787, p. 181. By this union he secured to himself a source of domestic happiness, which has flowed on uninterrupted for the enviable term of fifty years. Mr. Woodward is survived by bis widow, but leaves no family. During his residence at Bungay and in its environs, he was appointed a Magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant for the county of Suffolk; and on his subsequent residence at Walcot House, an estate situate at Diss in Norfolk, he was also appointed to the same offices for the latter county. In the discharge of these important du ties, which he continued to fulfil for both counties to the final period of his life, he displayed an active and vigorous
mind; sound discrimination, an even temper, and a most impartial judgment. No man ever died more universally re gretted, both by his private friends, and by the whole community around him, who mourn their loss of an excellent and upright magistrate, of a most discreet and confidential adviser, to whom they had ready access on all occasions, and of a most kind and benevolent friend.When the volunteer system was esta blished, Mr. Woodward had a commission given him of Lieutenant-colonel of the Diss Volunteers, by whom he was so generally beloved and esteemed in this new office of their commander, that at the end of their labour in the service of their country, they presented him at parting with a handsome piece of plate, as a testimony of their united approba tion and regard. With talents which would have done him honour and credit in any direction, the department of science to which his taste and inclinations more peculiarly inclined him, was the study of English Botany. To this favourite pursuit he devoted for many years a considerable portion of his lei sure hours; and by his valuable researches and discoveries in that elegant branch of natural philosophy has justly merited and obtained a very high rank on the list of modern botanists. sive of several learned and ingenious papers in the Linnæan Transactions, of which Society he was one of the original members, Mr. Woodward has not favoured the world with any distinct botanical work; but the extensive assistance he confessedly gave Dr. Withering in the second edition of his " Botanical Researches," the frequent references made to his name in most of the later publications on this subject, and the continued correspondence kept up with him by Botanists, both at home and abroad, on abstruse questions relating to plants, in themselves bespeak his attainments, and prove the estimation in which he was held by men of letters. In the social circle of his friends, he was uniformly a cheerful, animated, and instructive companion, and rendered himself a welcome guest at every party, by much store of various knowledge, much anecdote, and the pleasantry and urbanity of a perfect gentleman. passed by none in devotion to his Prince, and in sincere attachment to the Constitution of his country, both in Church and State, he studiously avoided all unnecessary discussion of questionable points, and every topic which might indicate or foment a spirit of party: thus evidently showing that he was actuated by no other zcal than the love of mankind,