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Cambridge, March 3.-Members' Prizes -The subjects for the present year are, for the Senior Bachelors, "Quantum momenti, ad studium rei Theologicæ promovendum, habeat litterarum humaniorum cultus." For Middle Bachelors, "lu Georgium Tertium, Oratio Funebris."
March 10,-Sir William Browne's me. dals-The subjects for the present year are-For the Greek Ode: MonFor the Latin Ode: "Ad Georgium Quar tum, Augustissimum Principem, Sceptra Paterna accipientem." For the Greek Epigram: "Inscriptio, in Venam Aquæ ex iis visceribus Terræ Arte eductam," -For the Latin Epigram: "Impransi disquirite."
Ready for Publications
A Catechism on the Evidences of Chris tianity, by the Rev. Dr. YAtes.
Sermons on the Death of his Majesty George III. by the Rev. J. DAVIES, the Rev. T. PixcHBACK, and the Rev. GEORGE BURDER.
A Sermon on the Death of the Duke of Kent and his Majesty George III. by the Rev. A. REED.
The best provision for the Poor, a Ser. mon preached at the opening of St. Matthew's Chapel, Manchester, by the Rev. R. BRADLEY.
The Truth, Nature, and Universality of the Gospel; a Sermon preached at Stirling, June 29, 1819; by Ralph WardLAND, D.D. 8vo.
A Sermon delivered at the Meeting house, Dean-street, Southwark; by J. M. CRAMP.
Seasonable Advice to Youth on the Study of the Scriptures. By the Rev. F. A. Cox, A.M.
Historical Work on the Persecutions in France; by the Rev. MARK WILKS. The Life of Brainerd; by the Rev. Dr. STYLES.
The Picture of Yarmouth, embellished with Twenty Engravings, and a Ground Plan of that ancient and populous Borough; by JOHN PRESTON, Esq. Collector of his Majesty's Customs for that Port
The Adventures of Thomas Eustace, of Chinnor, Oxfordshire, who fled from his Apprenticeship at Amersham, and was shipwrecked off the Coast of America, when he hung by his hauds, to the side of the Ship, for eighteen hours, in consequence of which he lost his limbs, but was at length restored, and became the Master of Amersham Workhouse, in 1818. By a CLERGYMAN,
The Thistlewoods uprooted in Catostreet; or, the Radicals unmasked and ontwitied; with an Engraving of the Radical Parliament,
Preparing for Publication.
A Refutation of the Objections to the New Translation of the Bible. By J. BELLAMY, Author of the "Anti-Deist," & c.
A Volume of Sermons by Mr, BRADLEY, of High Wycombe.
A New Quarterly Journal and Review, to be entitled "The Investigator," The object of this Work is to connect sound Learning and the various branches of Polite Literature, with an undeviating attention to the principles of pure and undefiled Religion, and to the best Interests of Society, without distinction of Sect or Party.
Picturesque illustrations of Buenos Ayres and Monte Video, consisting of 24 Views, and faithful representations of the Costumes, Manners, &c. of the Inbabi. tants of those cities and their environs, Taken on the spot by E. E. VIDAL, Esq. and accompanied with descriptive letterpress.
A "Splendid and Unique Illustration of Pennant's London," from the Chiswick press. The work we are informed, when bound, will constitute twenty-four volumes in atlas folio; but as the whole is in loose sheets, and classed in appropriate port folios, the possessor may please himself in making any arrangement he may choose. Although the illustrations are so very numerous, amounting to more than three thousand prints and drawings, the. work is susceptible of great additions. Hence the purchaser has the option of either binding it in its present very copious state, or augmenting its embellishments to almost any extent, The key to this treasure is to be found at Mr. Trip hook's.
The History of the Rebellion in 1745 and 1746-containing the causes of the Pretender's defeat at Culloden, and a variety of interesting Anecdotes hitherto unknown. By CHEVALIER Johnstone, Aidede-Camp to Prince Edward Charles Stewart and Lord George Murray. With an account of his subsequent adventures in Scotland, England, Holland, France, Russia, and America. The Manuscript of Chevalier Johnston was originally deposited in the Scots College at Paris.
An Account of Timbuctoo and Housan Territories in the Interior of Africa, by
EL HAGE ABD SALDM SHABEENIE, a na-
A History of the Zodians, illustrating
A Series of Characteristic Portraits of the Cossacks attached to the Prussian Army which occupied Paris in 1815 and 1816; with ample details of the History, Manners, and Customs of the different Tribes to which they belonged.
Le Guesta d'Enrico IV. in Italian verse, by Mr. GUAZZARONI, author of the Italian Grammar, &c.
A Geological Primer, in Verse, with a' Poetical Geognosy; or, Feasting and Fight. ing; and sundry right pleasant Poems; to which is added, a Critical Dissertation on King Cool's Levee, addressed to the Professors and Students at the University of Oxford.
A new and splendid Edition, in Monthly Numbers, of the Genuine Works of Hogarth; from the original Plates purchased from his Executrix, by Messrs. BOYDELL, and now the property of Messrs, BALDWIN, CRADOCK, and Joy. These plates have the advantage of Hogarth's last thoughts, and the present Impression of them is to be superintended by Mr. HEATH, and illustrated by Mr. NICHOLS.
Taxidermy; or, the art of Collecting, Preparing, and Mounting objects of Natural History for the use of Museums and Travellers.
"Royal Virtue." A Tour to Kensington, Windsor, and Claremont, or a contemplation of the character and virtues of George III. the Duke of Kent, and the Princess Charlotte, in the scenes where they were principally displayed.
We long felt surprize that Mr. COXE'S excellent History of the House of Austria has not reached a new edition, particu. larly as the Work is no less interesting than elaborate, and much admired abroad, being in fact the only regular history of that family in any language. A strong proof of its merit and authenticity has been given by those who must be cousidered as competent judges; for the archdukes John and Louis, in their passage through Salisbury, honoured the author with a visit, and thanked him, not only in their own names, but in those of the Emperor and the archduke Charles, for the able and authentic manner in which he had illustrated the History of their House. At length, however, we have the satisfac tion to announce a new edition, in five volumes octavo, of a work which ought
to undergo the attentive perusal of every one who professes to understand the His of its different States. It embraces a petory of Europe, and the political relations riod of 800 years.
Mr. BOWDITCH, the conductor of the celebrated Mission to Ashantée, has just published the interesting Travels of Mr. MOLLIEN in the Interior of Africa. These Travels, performed by a Gentleman whose adventurous spirit was not to be daunted even by the tremendous shipwreck of the Medusa, in which he was involved, record, we understand, some very important Geographical Discoveries; they make us acquainted with the sources of the Senegal, the Gambia, the Rio Grande, and the Faleme, and correct the erroneous notions entertained respecting the situation of the river, which has been a subject of so much source of the Niger, and the course of that speculation.
LITERATURE IN GREECE.
for Sept. 1819, contains, among other The Greek Journal, Hermes No Logios, articles, a memoir in the form of a letter, of the services rendered during twenty mas-they are both numerous and imyears, to Greece, by the brothers Zosiportant. "These worthy and respectable sons of the country," says the writer, "could no longer endure to see it covered with the shades of ignorance; but concluded that to be rendered happy, it must be enlightened. They have established at Joannina, in Epirus, their native country, a school of the first order, have enriched it with an excellent library, have assigned considerable funds for the pensions to poor students, and have spared emolument of professors, have granted no expense to assist in raising their unfortunate country. To their munificence we owe the Greek Bibliotheca of Mr. Coray, with its excellent commentaries, the fruit of much study and learning. of the brothers Zosimas has resided from The eldest his youth at Moscow. The venerable mofew years ago in that ancient capital of ther of the Emperor Alexander, being a the Czars, desired to see the benefactor of Greece, caused him to be presented, endistinguished good-will, and among other tered into conversation with him, with things said to him" M. Zosimas, the benefits which you confer every day on your countrymen, are known to my sou, and to me: continue them! and assure yourself, that independently of our satisfaction, the blessings of those whom you render happy, will rise even to heaven." Turning afterwards to the other Greeks who were present, "Gentlemen," said she, "this is the true ornament of your nation."
Messrs. Zosimas have formed at Moscow a considerable collection of autiqui
ties, &c. with which they purpose some day to enrich their native country, Greece.
The Greek printing-office established at Chios, has began its labours. The first work it has produced, is an excellent discourse by Professor Bambas, at the opening of the great college of Chios. This is so well executed, and printed with so much elegance, that even the Parisians speak of it as worthy to be attributed to the Paris press. This establishment bids fair to be
come the means of distributing throughout Greece a succession of important works, destined to contribute to the regeneration of that classic country.
At Zagori, in the province of Epirus, a grand college is about to be established. The voluntary contributions towards this noble undertaking amount to about 3,000%. M. Neophytos Doucas, a learned ecclesiastic, has given for his share a sum approaching to 5007.
ANTIQUARIAN AND PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCHES.
In our former Numbers* we have frequently had the satisfaction of noticing the important discoveries made by M. Caviglia and Mr. Salt amongst the Py. ramids of Egypt. The most splendid of M. Caviglia's labours was that of uncovering the colossal Andro-sphynx, in front of the pyramid of Cephrenes. The labour was immense: it cost him three mooths incessant exertion, with the assistance of from 60 to 100 persons every day, to lay open the whole figure to its base, and expose a clear area, extending 100 feet from its front;- -a labour in which they were greatly impeded by the moveable nature of the sand, which, by the slightest wind or concussion, was apt to run down like a cascade of water, and fill up the excavation. This colossal figure is cut out of the rock; the paws, and some projecting lines, where perhaps the rock was deficient, or which may have been repaired since its first construction, being composed of masonry.
On the stone platform in front, and centrally between the paws of the sphynx, which stretch out fifty feet in advance of the body, was found a large block of granite, two feet thick, fourteen high, and seven broad. It fronts the East, as does the face of the sphynx, is highly embel lished with sculptures in bas-relief, representing two sphynxes on pedestals, and priests presenting offerings, with a wellexecuted hieroglyphical inscription be neath the whole covered at top, and pro. tected as it were with the sacred globe, the serpent, and the wings. Two other tablets of calcareous stone, similarly or namented, were conjectured, with the former, to have constituted part of a temple, by being placed one on each side of the latter at right angles to it. One of them was in its place, the other thrown down and broken. A small lion couchant, with its eyes directed towards the sphynx, was in front of this edifice. Several frag ments of other lions and the fore-part of a sphynx, were likewise found; all of
See vol. LXXXIX. i. pp. 349. 445. ii. 62.
which, as well as the sphynx, the tablets, walls, and platform, on which the little temple stood, were covered with red paint, which would seem here, as in India, to have been appropriated to sacred pur poses; perhaps as being the colour of fire. A granite altar stands in front of the temple, one of the four horns being still in its place, and the effects of fire visible on the top of the altar. On the side of the paw of the great sphynx, and on the digits of the paws, are Greek inscriptions; as also on some small edifices in front of the sphynx, inscribed to the Sphynx, to Harpocrates, Mars, Hermes, to Claudius, (on an erasure, in which can be traced a former name, that of Nero,) to Septimus Severus (over an erasure of Geta), &c.
A rich harvest of Antiquities has been obtained in exploring the contents of several of the ruined edifices and tumuli which, when viewed from the top of the great Pyramid, appear in countless puinbers scattered among the pyramids, extending on the left bank of the Nile, North and South as far as the eye can reach. They have been mentioned by travellers, but never examined before with the attention they merit. The stone buildings to which they gained access, by freeing them from the sand and rubbish with which they were choked, and which Mr. Salt supposes to be mausoleums, are generally oblong, with their walls slightly inclined inward from the perpendicular, flat-roofed, with a parapet rounded at top, and rising about a foot above the terrace. Their walls are constructed of large masses, made nearly to fit with each other, though rarely rectangular. Some have door-ways, ornamented above with a volute, covered with hieroglyphics; others only of square apertures, gradu-, ally narrowing inward. The doors and windows are all on the North sides; perhaps because least exposed to the windcarried sands from the Libyan desert. The inside of the walls of the first he examined was stuccoed, and embellished with rude paintings; one of which represented the Sacred Boat, another a Procession; and
Antiquarian and Philosophical Researches.
in the Southern extremity were found several mouldering mummies, laid one over the other, in a recumbent position, Many of the bones were entire; and on one skull was part of its cloth covering, inscribed with hieroglyphics. The second which he examined had no paintings, but contained several fragments of statues; two of which composed the entire body of a walking figure, almost the size of life, with the arms hanging down and resting on the thighs. Mr. Salt thinks this was intended as a portrait, the several parts of which were marked with a strict attention to Nature, and coloured after life, having glass eyes or transpa rent stones, to improve the resemblance. A bead was also discovered, which Mr. Salt describes as a respectable specimen of art. Many of the fragments of granite and alabaster sculptures give a higher idea of Egyptian art than has usually prevailed, much attention being shown to the marking of the joints and muscles, In another of these buildings was a sculptured boat of a large size, with a square sail, different from any now in use on the Nile.
In the first chamber were basreliefs of men, deer, and birds, painted to resemble nature: the men engaged in different mechanical occupations. In the second apartment there were similar productions,-a Quarrel between some boatmen, executed with great spirit; men engaged in agricultural pursuits, ploughing, hoeing, stowing the corn in maga. zines, &c.; vases painted in vivid colours; musicians, with a group of dancing women. Another chamber was without embellishment; a fourth had figures and hieroglyphics; and, in a fifth, were hieroglyphics executed on white plaster, as it would appear, by means of stamps, Jo all the mausoleums which were opened, fragments of mummy cloth, bitumen, and human bones, were found; but, what is perhaps most singular of all, in one apartment or other of all of them was a deep shaft or well. One that was cleared out by Mr. Caviglia was sixty feet deep; and, in a subterranean chamber a little to the South, at the bottom of the well, was found, without a lid, a plain, but highly-finished sarcophagus; and from this it may be inferred that, in each mausoleum, such a chamber and sarcophagus may be found, at the bottom of the well,
RUINS OF BABYLON
All information relative to the once powerful and mighty city of Babylon must excite the most pleasing emotions in the mind of the traveller and historian. Even its very site deeply impresses the imagination with an awful sense of its former greatness. It is with infinite pleasure extract a few remarks from
a communication made by Capi Edw. Free derick to the Literary Society of Bombay.
After adding some general observations rishing city, he proceeds to describe the on the ancient condition of that once Bouexisting state of the ruins, and introduces many interesting remarks on the present appearance of the country. He says,
left a short distance off the direct road "that the ruins of the mound lie on the from Hillah; and a traveller merely sees Belus's tower as he rides along, and must turn out of his way if he wishes to examine it, which will occupy a longer time than travellers generally have leisure for, as appears from their own acknowledgsurprised by the wandering Arabs. As to ments, not to notice their dread of being the other travellers who have visited this plaisance too far to place implicit cuncelebrated spot, it would be carrying com. fidence on their relations, as they appear merely to have passed over the ground, and sometimes not even to know that they were amidst the ruins, until their guides told them it was Babel they were riding
They of course had no time to examine the heaps of rubbish.
"Other travellers visited only one bank of the Euphrates, not caring to risk meetcuriosity on the other. ing with the Arabs while gratifying their From Belus's
tower (which is four miles from Hillab in
"I accordingly rode to them, and per-
The intelligent Writer introduces some interesting details on the river Euphrates, and mentions several curious customs adopted by the present inhabitants of the country. He says, "that part of the Euphrates which lies between Karakoolee and Hillah, a distance of upward of sixteen miles, winds extremely, and particularly where it passes Belus's tower a quarter of a mile distant. Arguing from the well-established fact, that streams, on so soft a bottom and tevel a surface, in the course of years change their beds, we may, without violating probability, presume that the Euphrates had anciently flowed between Belus's tower and the other large mound laying about three quarters of a mile to the West of it, mentioned in this account as the one with the walls of a large house still standing in it, and the decayed tree. But if we admit that the river may have changed its course from what it held in those ancient times, and that it now flows to the Westward of both the palace and the tower, instead of passing between them, as it is said to have done, the positions of the palace and tower are then exactly marked by these two mounds; for, with the exception of Niebuhr's watch-tower, there is not a single mound on the Western bank to be found, nor do the natives ever procure any bricks from that side, though the principal part of the town of Hillah is situated on it. If this conjecture be admissible, then the ancients and moderns agree in their accounts of this far-famed city with regard to the site of its two principal edifices; but if it be rejected as improbable, we still remain as much in the dark as ever, when we come to look for the remains of the palace.
The reeds and bitumen were evidently but seldom used with the furnace-baked, which I observed most generally cemented with a thin layer of lime and sand. The dimensions of the bricks were, clay, sundried, four inches seven tenths thick, seventeen inches and a half broad; furnacebaked, three inches thick, twelve inches broad, and generally weighed thirty-one pounds.
"The Euphrates, as far as Korna, which is one hundred and twenty miles from the head of the Persian Gulf, is navigable for vessels of three hundred tons, and from thence to Hillah, boats not exceeding eighty can come up during six months in the year. Their construction is singular: they have one very large mast with a latteen sail; the body almost a half-moon, no keel, and a rudder of the most awkward shape: the hull is extremely ill-contructed, the ribs and planks being roughly nailed together, and the outside covered with bitumen. When they are going to Korna or Bussora from Hillah,
they sail if the wind be fair, or float down the stream if it be foul. In returning or ascending the stream, they have one end of a long rope tied to the head of the mast, four or six men take hold of the other end, and by this means pull her against the current.
"It is curious to observe, notwithstanding the lapse of ages, how some local customs and usages continue in practice. The circular boats made of reeds, and in form of a shield, which attracted the notice of Herodotus so much, and which, in his time, were used on the river betweeen Babylon and Armenia, differ hardly at all from those in use at the present day; which perfectly agree with the description given by that venerable historian. Another curious method of navigation exists in these times, which is noticed as early as the time of Xenophon. Merchants in Armenia, when embarking on the Tigris, collect a great number of goatskins, which, having inflated, they fasten together, forming a kind of square raft; these are from fifty to a hundred in number; over them are placed mats, then the merchandize, aud upon the top of all, the owners and passengers. It is then set adrift, and, floating down the stream, it occasionally strikes against islands and shallow parts of the river, the bottom of which being of a soft nature, seldom destroys the skins.
"The flowing of the tide at Korna is a singular sight: it prevails against the stream of the Euphrates, but finds the current of the Tigris too powerful; and, as you stand at the confluence of the two rivers, you see the flood-tide flowing up the Euphrates on the one hand, and forced back by the strength of the Tigris on the other, forming, by this contrary direction of two currents, a violent eddy between them. The tides of the Persian Gulph are sensibly felt in the Euphrates twenty miles above Korna, or one hundred and forty miles from the mouth of the river."