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saints), but from their prayers and other forms of their Church being performed by their priests in the Latin tongue, of which the lower orders of their bearers must be totally ignorant, consequently not able to join in


Now, Mr. Urban, I look upon the Dissenters' form of worship as bor. dering, in some degree, on that of the Roman Catholick, in this respect of keeping the Congregation in continual ignorance of what their ministers are about to utter.

In consequence of their discarding every particular form of prayer in their service, they are completely at the mercy of their minister as to the words and subjects of their prayer, without it being possible to know (till the minister has uttered it) the tenor or purport of any sentence of to accord their minds with the spirit it; consequently they must be unable of the prayer to such a degree of certainty as they would if they had a form of prayer to go through; for one mind may be bent upon humbling itself before the Divine Presence, imploring forgiveness for some particular sin, at the same instant that another may be fervently bent upon offering up a thanksgiving for some particular blessing experienced, when, at that very moment, their minds are baulked (if I may use the expression), or called off to a prayer then offered up by the minister for the welfare of the Nation, or some other such general subject; whereas, had they a written form (as the Established Church has), they would be able to attune their minds to each prayer in succession.

I know it has been argued that, by repeating forms of prayer so continually, minds of men become so habituated to them, that they utter them mechanically, without even thinking or knowing what they utter. That such is too often the case, is to be regretted; but that cannot apply to those who have a true sense of our religion, and who seriously feel their aweful situation when so immediately throwing themselves into the presence of their Maker; besides, what may

be applied against the form of prayer


ing that read or explained too often;
which, I am sure, no Christian will al-
low. Yours, &c.
M. L.


Feb. 4.

YOUR Correspondent Lancashire
(vol. ii. p.602) may be
assured that the most effectual way of
producing fine short green grass is,
the keeping of sheep on the land, and
in winter feeding them with hay and
turnips. A cow pasture will proba
bly be the richer field of the two; but
it will be tufty; for I think the cow
rather than the ewe avoids
"The green sour ringlet,
Whereof the superstitious ewe not bites."
If grass-land has been originally
very ill laid away, unless it is of so
small an extent that it may be called
a grass-plot, perhaps the end will be
with or without a crop, sowing it
sooner attained by ploughing it up,and
with attention merely to cleanliness,
away with white clover and Dutch or
hop clover (for the large red clover
is not permanent) and rye grass, or
any other favourite fashionable grass.
I presume your Correspondent's fields
are covered with long white grass,
as the Scotch poet says,

"The windle strae,
Sae limber and gray-

Did shiver beneath their tread;"
but if the land is wet, no remedy will
be effectual previous to draining, and
for real sound draining the cuts must
be deep, and reach the fountain head,
not such shallow things as may be
disturbed by mould warps, or the
operation of frost, &c.

All sorts of manure may be applied to old bad hidebound grass without effect, and yet, except in trusty hands, the plough is a dangerous experiment; if Lancashire's land is dry and sound, the safest choice will be to winterfeed sheep with plenty of turnips.

Bone manure, it is well-known, may be procured in the vicinity of large towns; there are mills for the purpose, but the bones may be very beneficially broken grossly by the hand. Yours, &c.



R. S.

Feb. 8.

ERMIT me to correct an error, (as to into which your able Corresponference through continual use) will dent BYRO has fallen, in inserting certainly apply to the Bible, by bav-Lord Grey de Wilton among the na

tives of Bucks. The following inscription, copied from his monument at Whaddon, may perhaps be considered by your Readers as satisfactory evidence; although one Correspond ent seems inclined not to place any credit upon epitaphs. Fuller, however, whom I presume to have been your Biographer's authority, was not acquainted with Lord Grey.

"To the Glorie of the God of Hostes.

"Here under resteth Arthur Lord Grey

of Wilton, borne at Hames in France, who from his youth trained upp under his father the Lord W. Grey in militarie affaires, served in Queen Marie's tyme at St. Quintin's and Guiennes, being then of th' age of XX yeares; here leaving his father prisoner, bee was dispatched into Scotland for the truice at Edinboroe; and after in Queene Elizabeth's tyne served under his father at Leete : lastly, he was implied L. Deputie into Ireland, and there he defeated the Spanish fort at Smerwick, rooted out the traytors of the English pale, and subdued the rebells in the rest of all

the provinces, and having governed there about twoo years, retourned into England, and died at Whaddon the 14th of October 1593, in the 57th yeare of his age."

The latter part of this inscription confutes a note in Smeeton's re-publication of Clarke's “England's Remembrancer," which state, that Lord Grey" died at his residence in Tothill-street, Westminster."

If one name is substracted from the list of eminent natives, there are a few others not yet noticed by Byro: the two following may suffice for the present:

John Forster, author of "England's Happiness promoted by a Plantation of Potatoes," dedicated to King Charles II. 1664, 4to. Hanslage,

1626, died 1693.

Margaret Andrewes, "A Virgin and a Saint," Lathbury 1667, died LATHBURIENSIS.


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the present state of our Coinage have given rise to some reflections in my mind on the same subject, which perhaps you will allow me to submit to your Readers through the medium of your Magazine.

The absence of historical devices from the issues of the modern mint, and especially from those of Great Britain, has been frequently noticed and lamented. Indeed it is the more to be deplored, as the late extensive coinage afforded an illustrious opportunity of remedying the defect, which every friend to the real glory of his country must be sorry to have seen altogether neglected. Instead of reverses that would have tended to memorialize the events of the past reign (one of the most remarkable of those which are recorded in the page of history) we are presented with the perpetual recurrence of the Royal arms, enclosed indeed, on the halfcrown pieces, within the collar of the Garter, but exhibiting no other material variety.

To this monotonous appearance the sovereigns and crown-pieces do indeed present some contrast-but the George and Dragon, which occupy the field on the reverses of the latter, bear a greater resemblance to a Perseus or Bellerophon after the antique, than to the tutelary Saint of Britain. A representation of that admirable specimen of modern architecture, the Waterloo Bridge, would have formed a more interesting device-and, accompanied by such a motto as GALLI DEVICTI, would have recorded one of the most illustrions events of modern history, as well as the form of one

of our finest edifices: the date of the battle might have appeared in the exergue. The venerable British Oak would have been equally ornamental, and an excellent companion to the Palm of Judea and the Silphin of Cyrene.

It is well known that the admirable

suggestions contained in the 96th paper of the Guardian gave rise to

* This William Lord Grey was obliged to ransom himself by the sale of the best part of his patrimony, Wilton Castle, Lathbury, &c.

+ Leith, where he was wounded in the shoulder.

Tothill-street, though now one of the most low parts of the metropolis, has a strong claim to notice; it is the birth-place of Betterton; and in its vicinity, if not upon the very site, the celebrated John Mansel, Ld. Chancellor to Hen. III. feasted that Monarch, with Alexander King of Scotland and Margaret his Queen, in 1956. § See her "Life," and Dr. Gibbons's "Pious Women."


those wonders of modern coinage, the farthings of Queen Anne; which, as Pinkerton truly remarks in his Essay on Coins and Medals, “will do honour to the engraver, Mr. Croker, to the end of time."

I am not so sanguine or presump. tuous as to imagine that any remarks of mine will lead to a similar result, however desirable. Still I cannot belp indulging a faint hope that the attention of our Government will in process of time be directed to this object, and redeem the character of our national coinage from the reproach of poverty of invention, under which it so justly labours at present, and which is by no means attributable to any want of talent to xecute such a design, as may be clearly proved by the inspection of Mudie's admirable series of medals, which are indeed an honour to any age, and an ornament to any cabinet-but which, not being intended for circulation, cannot hereafter be referred to as examples of numismatic excellence on the part of the directors of our mint, nor form what the coinage of a nation ought to exhibit, and what the wise policy of the Romans always contrived that theirs should be, an imperishable and universal record of national history.


An Account of his Life and Writings may be seen in the Notes to Hutchinson's History of Cumberland.

Mr. Thomas Sanderson, a native also of Sebergham, has published a small volume of poems, many of which are very elegant. Mr. Sanderson was also the editor of Relph's Poems, lately published at Carlisle, and to which he annexed an account of his life, and a pastoral elegy on his death. Mr. Sanderson is still living in a most beautiful rural situation upon the banks of the river Line in Cumberland.

Mr. Robert Anderson, another Cumberland poet, is still living in Carlisle. Some time ago he published a volume of poems, entitled "Cumberland Ballads." In these he accurately describes the manners and rustic sports of his native county, in its own dialect. Another edition, with considerable additions of this gentleman's poems, is about shortly to be published by subscription.

Mr. Robert Curlisle, a native of Carlisle, is still living. He has arrived at considerable eminence as a Painter; and is no less celebrated as a votary of the Muses. He has published several detached poems. Mr. Carlisle, if memory does not deceive me, is also author of two Novels, "The Rose of Cumberland," and "The Heir of Gilslaud."

The late Miss Susan Blamire, of Mr. URBAN, Kellington, March 10. Thuckwood-nook, near Carlisle, from

to the list of and deceased Poets, inserted in your last Supplement, p. 595, I would wish to subjoin the Rev. Francis Wrangham, 1790; and a few more names of persons, who, though their poems are, many of them, written in a provincial dialect, are by no means unworthy of a place in a catalogue of

British Poets.

what I have

appears to have been a Poetess of
very superior rank. I am not con-
scious that any of her works were
ever published: neither am I certain,
(not having the book at hand to re-
fer to) whether any account of her
life is given in Hutchinson's Cumber-
land. The following copy of verses,
written by her when in a declining
state of health, and which is the only
one which I have at present in my
possession, may, perhaps, amuse some
of your Readers.

"How sweet to the heart is the thought of
When Hope's fairy pictures brightcolours
How sweet, when we can from futurity

The first candidate I shall propose for this honour is the late Rev. Jesiah Relph, for some time perpetual Curate of Sebergham, a small rural villagesituated near Carlisle. His poe tical works were first published shortly after his death, under the superintendance of the Rev. T. Denton, of Ashted in Surrey. Mr. Denton, I have been informed, was also himself A balm for the grief that afflicts us toWhen wearisome sickness has taught me a poet. A second edition was also to languish [its wing, published a few years ago at Carlisle. For health and the comforts it bears on The chief and best of them are Pas. Let me hope, oh! how soon would it lessen

torals, written in the dialect of his native county (Cumberland).

my anguish, [bring. That To morrow will ease and serenity When

When travelling alone, quite forlorn, unbefriended,

Sweet the hope that To-morrow my wanderings should cease; Then at home, when with care sympathetic attended, [in peace.

I should rest unmolested, and slumber in When six days of labour each other succeeding, [opprest; When hurry and toil have my spirits What pleasure to think, as the last is receding, [rest. To morrow will be a sweet Sabbath of And when the vain shadows of time are retiring, [in sight, When life is fast fleeting, and death is The Christian believing, exulting, expiring, [light.

Beholds a To-morrow of endless de

The Infidel, then, sees no joyous To-mor


Yet he knows that his moments are hasting away;

Poor wretch! can be feel without heartrending sorrow,

separate existence, so far am I, for iny own part, from seeing any just reason to believe, or even to suspect, that, but for its sensible activity (or power of voluntary motion), I do not at all perceive on what valid ground we can pretend to ascribe to any earthly creature the possession of a sentient nature: whilst, wherever the former principle is known with certainty to have been imparted, the latter (without the most palpable absurdity) cannever be imagined to have been withholden.

But, whether this opinion be or be not well-founded; to talk, in any case whatever, of one specific faculty or quality being superadded to another, has always appeared to me a mode of speaking altogether unphilosophical. For it seems, by necessary implication, to favour the long-exploded doctrine of abstract principles, of faculties and

That his joys and his life will expire qualities subsisting independently of

with To-morrow.

Yours, &c.




March 12.

'T is laid down in page 2. of the Quarterly Review for Nov. 1819, "as the most probable conclusion to which our reason can carry us, that life in general is some principle of activity added by the will of Omnipolence to organized structure; and that in man, who is endowed with an intelligent faculty in addition to this principle possessed by other organized beings, to life and structure an imma. terial soul is superadded."

Now, highly as I both approve the principles and estimate the talents of this writer, I can by no means induce myself to acquiesce in the correctness of the preceding doctrine. I object to it, in toto, on the following ground, viz. that of the phænomena for which it professes to account, it assigns a cause wholly gratuitous, and unneces sarily complicated. I readily indeed acknowledge, that, of every animal with which we are acquainted, both the active and the perceptive powers and qualities are so intimately connected with organized structure, as, for their actual exercise, to depend entirely on it. But, that in the instance of any individual inhabitant of earth, either of the above-mentioned properties is ever found in a state of

any actual hypostasis or substance. Whereas, nothing whatever is, in fact, more obviously inconsistent with the suggestions of right reason, than to impute to any two classes of living creatures the least essential difference in their several principles of action and perception; without mentally deriving such difference from a correspondent dissimilarity in the ori ginal constitution of their respective


But, if such essential diversity in the original constitutions (or elementary substances) of different terrestrial ani-mals be thus indisputably certain, why talk, in any case, of one principle or faculty being superadded to another?

Is it not, beyond comparison, more consonant with the spirit and the language of sound philosophy, to conceive and represent all the various properties and powers which distinguish any given class of living beings, as perfectly coeval? (I mean, as all, ab origine, equally inherent in the essence peculiar to their kind?) than to regard and speak of them as the respective attributes of different generic natures intimately related and combined?

Let us, for the purpose of illustration, instance in the two following completely distinct properties, perception and activity. These two properties (in a Ingher or lower degree attributable to evory animated being)


reason compels us to consider as to- Mr. URBAN,

different in kind. But

March 9,

HE dismal apprehensions

solely on this ground, proceed further Try feeling, enhetained and an

to regard them as the specific attribules of two substances or natures essentially different?

If so, I certainly, for my own part, do not see what limits we can rationally set to the actual variety of such substances, which will obviously be required, in order to perfect the constitution of every individual bird or beast that moves upon the surface of this earth; there being, beyond dispute, in every such individual a variety of distinct faculties, instincts, appetites, and passions; which, on the principle of reasoning above advanced, must needs be allowed to indicate, most clearly, a correspondent difference in the elementary substances to which they severally appertain.

If, however, it be once admitted that the striking difference observable in the two properties above referred to affords no kind of rational presumption, that two equally distinct essences are indispensably required for the purpose of completing the specific nature of an eagle or a horse, are we not (by parity of reason) equally constrained to own, that, in the mysterious substance which constitutes the human soul, there may be combined, together with those lower attributes of which man confessedly partakes in common with the rest of the animal creation, the incomparably nobler principles of intellectual ability and moral feeling? And that, without the least impeachment of the soul's simple and homogeneous nature; any more than we can justly be regarded as impeaching the integrity, or perfect soundness of the musical string, merely by ascribing to it its well-known power of producing an infinite variety of tones?

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pressed with regard to the national debt and taxes, very much diminish the sum of human happiness in this country. The two portraits of a Colony, without and with taxation, sent herewith, I am greatly in hopes, are calculated to assuage the one and allay the other. If so, there can be no means more effectual than through the extensive circulation of your Magazine.

Suppose 2500 families agree to emigrate, and they obtain a grant of land from a parent state. The first rank, we will suppose, to consist of 250 persons, taking with them four thousand pounds each, making a total of one million: the second rank are 500, taking out stores, &c. with a view of becoming traders: the third rank are 1750, mechanics, labourers, &c. each person having as much store as will last till the colony is established. By previous arrangement, all offices,civil, ecclesiastical, &c. are to be adminis tered gratuitously by the upper ranks; the labourers are to prepare the houses of the opulent, and be rewarded by small grants of land for the erection of their own cottages.

All being thus settled, the houses built, and the stores which each individual had taken out for immediate sustenance being exhausted, the two lower ranks of the Colony must now, by traffic or labour, look out for future maintenance. The traders have goods to sell; and they, as well as the upper ranks, need the assistance, in various ways, of the labouring people; hence wages are given. The money expended by the upper ranks, either for necessaries purchased of the traders, or for the hire of the lower ranks, now forms the circulating medium of the colony; and, supposing the upper ranks to live at the rate of 2001. per annum, each family, the circulating medium will be at the end of the first year fifty thousand pounds; of the second, one hundred thousand; and, at the end of twenty years the whole million will have been put into circulation.

Let us now take a view of the state of the settlement at this period. For twenty years all has gone on joyously: no taxes, no tithes, no placemen, no rent; the lowest rank has had plenty


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