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by helping his father morning and evening at threshing, he earned the money which paid for his education. From the labour of eight weeks he generally acquired as many pence as would pay for a month's schooling; and thus in the course of three years he received, at different times, so much instruction that he could read very well in the Bible. He considers himself to have derived much benefit from the judicious encouragement of his schoolmaster, Mr. Seaton, of Glinton, an adjoining parish, from whom he sometimes obtained 3d. a-week in rewards, and who once gave him 6d. for repeating from memory the third chapter of Job. With these little sums he bought a few books.
"When he had learned to read tolerably well, he borrowed from one of his companions that universal favourite, Robinson Crusoe, and in the perusal of this be greatly increased his stock of knowledge and his desire for reading. He was thirteen years of age when another boy showed him Thomson's Seasons. They were out in the fields together, and during the day Clare had a good opportunity of looking at the book. It called forth all the passion of his soul for poetry. He was determined to possess the work himself; and as soon as he had saved a shilling to buy it with, he set off for Stamford at so early an hour, that none of the shops were open when he got there. It was a fine spring morning, and when he had made his purchase, and was returning through the beautiful scenery of Burghley Park, he composed his first piece of poetry, which he called, The Morning Walk.' This was soon followed by The Evening Walk,' and some other little pieces.
"But the first expression of his fondness for poetry was before he had learned to read. He was tired one day with looking at the pictures in a volume of poems, which he thinks were Pomfret's, when his father read him one piece in the book to amuse him. The delight he felt, at hearing this read, still warms him when he thinks of the circumstance; but though he distinctly recollects the vivid pleasure which thrilled through him then, he has lost all trace of the incidents as well of the language, nor can he find any poem of Pomfret's at all answering the faint conception he retains of it. It is possible that his chief gratification was in the harmony of the numbers, and that he had thoughts of his own floating onward with the verse very different from those which the same words would now suggest. The various melody of the earliest of his own compositions is some argument in favour of this opinion.
"His love of poetry, however, would soon have spent itself in compositions as
little to be remembered as that which bas just been mentioned, had it not been for the kindness of Mr. John Turnill, late of Helpstone, now in the Excise, who was indeed a benefactor to him. From his instruction Clare, though he knew a little of the rudiments before, learnt writing and arithmetic; and to this friend he must therefore consider himself indebted, for whatever good may accrue to him from the exercise of those powers of mind with which he is naturally endowed. For it is very probable, that without the means of recording his productions on paper, Clare would not only have lost the advantage he may derive from the publication of his works, but that also in himself he would not have been the poet he is; that, without writing down his thoughts, he could not have evolved them from his own mind; and that his vocabulary would have been too scanty to express even what his ima. gination had strength enough to conceive. Besides, if he did succeed in partial instances, the aggregate amount of them could not have been collected and estimated."
The last notice of Clare informs us, that he was living with his parents, working for any one who would employ him, without any regular occupation. A singular accident led to the publication of the Poems :
"In December, 1818, Mr. Edward Drury, bookseller, of Stamford, met with the Sonnet to the Setting Sun, written on a piece of paper in which a letter had been wrapped up, and signed J. C. Having ascertained the name and residence of the writer, he went to Helpstone, where he saw some other poems, with which he was much pleased. At his request Clare made a collection of the pieces be had written, and added some others to them. They were sent to London, and the publishers selected those which form the present volume. They have been printed with the usual corrections only of orthography and grammar, in such instances as allowed of its being done without changing the words: the proofs were then revised by Clare, and a few alterations were made at his desire."
The subjoined is an extract from a little Poem, on Helpstone, which was written before the Author was seventeen years of age. There is a grammatical error, which will not escape the Reader's observation.
"Hail, bumble Helpstone! where thy valleys spread, And thy mean village lifts its lowly head; Unknown
Unknown to grandeur, and unknown to fame;
No minstrel boasting to advance thy name: Unletter'd spot! unheard in poet's song; Where bustling labour drives the hours along;
Where dawning genius never met the day; Where useless ignorance slumbers life away;
Unknown nor heeded, where, low genius
Above the vulgar and the vain to rise. "Mysterious Fate! who can on thee depend? [end: Thou opes the hour, but hides its doubtful In Fancy's view the joys have long appear'd [cheer'd; Where the glad heart by laughing plenty's And Fancy's eyes oft, as vainly, fill; At first but doubtful, and as doubtful still, So little birds, in winter's frost and snow, Doom'd like to me, want's keener frost to know;
Searching for food and 'better life,' in vain, Each hopeful track the yielding snows retain ;
First on the ground each fairy dream pur[view, Though sought in vain; yet bent on higher Still chirp, and hope, and wipe each glossy bill;
And undiscourag'd, undishearten'd still, Hop on the snow-cloth'd bough, and chirp again,
Heedless of naked shade and frozen plain: Till, like to me, these victims of the blast, Each foolish, fruitless wish resign'd at last, Are glad to seek the place from whence they went,
And put up with distress, and be content."
From the more recent productions we select a "Sonnet to Religion." "Thou sacred light, that right from wrong discerns; [on earth;
Thou safeguard of the soul, that heaven Thou undervaluer of the world's concerns, Thou disregarder of its joys and mirth; Thou only home the houseless wanderers have; [are borne ; Thou prop by which the pilgrim's woes Thou solace of the lonely hermit's cave, That beds him down to rest on fate's sharp thorn;
Thou only hope to sorrow's bosom given; Thou voice of mercy when the weary call; [ven; Thou faith extending to thy home in heaThou peace, thou rest, thou comfort, all in all; O sovereign good! on thee all hopes depend, [end." Till thy grand source unfolds its realizing
24. Miscellanies: By the Rev. Richard Warner, Rector of Great Chatfield, Wilts; Honorary Member of the Impe
IN the progress of our literary labours, we have so frequently had the satisfaction of paying the justice to Mr. Warner, which he so well deserves, for his industry, his abilities, and his zealous endeavours to support the best interests of the Established Church, and we are sorry to perceive that the present publication is likely to be his last :
"Though most of the trifles," he says, "contained in these volumes, have already appeared in print, yet their previous publication can scarcely be predicated; since the limited circulation of a work confined to a few subscribers, precluded the extensive diffusion of some of them; and others were contributions to a local periodical publication, of short duration, and very contracted sale. Recommended by no depth of thought, and little novelty of remark, they may, possibly, be considered as hardly worth this endeavour to press them into wider notice; but something, perhaps, will be allowed to the partiality praise neither of genius nor learning) is of an Author, who (claiming for them the still willing to flatter himself that they may not be unuseful to the best interests of religion and morality. At all events, the offence of this publication (if au offence it be) will, it is hoped, find pardon, from the declaration which accompanies it, that it is a valedictory one:
Hic cestus artemque repono.'
I now leave the field to abler men; and shall quit it contented and grateful, if, in the estimation of an indulgent Publick, I may be numbered among the least of those writers who (to use the language of one of the brightest ornaments of English literature) have given confidence to virtue.'"
To this affecting prefatory address we shall only add, that there is not a single article in these volumes which does not add to the fair fame Mr. Warner has so long acquired.
The subjects of the different Essays are these:
"On the Decay and Loss of Intellect; a Letter to jun. esq.-On the Admiration of Talent and Learning, unassociated with Piety and Virtue: a Letter to the same.-The Sceptic Reclaimed. -Reason
-Reason and Insanity: a Letter from a Gentleman under Derangement.-An Account of Monsieur Hamard, a French Emigrant; in a Letter to the Editors of
-The Compilation of the Book of Common Prayer: an Historical Sketch. The Story Teller, with Anecdotes.-The Jokes of Hierocles: translated from the Greek.-A Biographical Sketch of the late Rev. William Gilpin, Vicar of Boldre."
The last of these Essays, enriched as it is by various interesting Letters by Mr. Gilpin, is a Biographical article of great intrinsic value.
From the "Story Teller," a good collection of original anecdotes, a few of the shortest shall be selected:
"During the progress of the repeal of the Stamp Act, it was said by Lord Bute, and his friends, that the K-g was against the repeal. Lord Rockingham asserted that his My had given his full approbation. This Lord Strange denied: on which Lord Rockingham said, it is necessary, then, that we should request an audience, that we may be clearly inform ed what his My's real sentiments are upon the subject.' The two noblemen, ac. cordingly, applied for an audience, and were admitted to the royal closet. When they came out, Lord Rockingham remark. ed, you now see I am authorised to say, -that bis My approves of the measure.' 'No,' replied Lord Strange, I do not see that by any means; though his My has expressed his approbation, I do not know that you are authorised to say so.'
derate; but that his My's answer was manly, frank, and noble."
"The religious principles of the late Charles Fox have been frequently called in question, but without sufficient foundation; originating probably with free thinkers, who were desirous of sanctioning their own infidelity, by enlisting so superior mind in their cause; or with political enemies, who thought to give the coup de grace to his reputation, by stamping his character with infidelity. His partiality for Paley's writings, which be read with
avidity, proves, at least, that he had a taste for arguments in favour of Christianity. To this favourable symptom of the turn of
his mind to subjects and discussions corroborative of our holy faith, may be added an article of his practice, which he communicated to a confidential friend; that, from early infancy, whenever he went to bed, whether early or late, under the influence of wine, or in his sober senses, he never omitted saying the Lord's Prayer."
25. America, and the British Colonies: an Abstract of all the most useful Infor mation, relative to the United States of America, and the British Colonies of Canada, the Cape of Good Hope, New South Wales, and Van Diemen's Island, exhibiting at one view the comparative Advantages and Disadvantages each Country offers for Emigration, &c. By William Kingdom, jun. 8vo. pp. 360. Whittaker.
Nay, then,' cried Lord R. we must go in again. They returned immediately to the K-g, and Lord R. informed his M-y of the doubts entertained by Lord Strange; and requested permission to take down his M-y's words in writing. Having obtained leave, he wrote the following sentence: His My has declared his approbation of the Stamp Act.' The K-g_26. having read the lines, instantly took the pen, and wrote under them these words:
When I said this, the conversation turn. ed only on the enforcement, or the repeal. No modification was then suggested.'"
"When Mr. Fox was in the ministry during the American war, and a plenipo-tentiary had been appointed to the American States, Fox asked the K-g if it would be agreeable to him to receive an American Minister in return. His M-y made a just and proper answer, specifically adapted to the unfortunate situation of public affairs. Mr. Fox, the phrase of your question rather surprises me. Jt cannot be agreeable to me; but I can, and I do, agree to it.' Fox himself related this anecdote to the late David Hartley, ac knowledging, that his own phrase agree able was indeed unsuitable and inconsi
Observations on Emigration to the United States of America; illustrated by original Facts. By William Savage. 8vo. pp. 66. Sherwood and Co.
THE vain idea of substituting commerce and poor-rates, as reme dies for growing population, instead of increase of territory, are the leading causes of our present distress. The rush of males into effeminate trades, as weaving, &c. has augmented the evil, by confining coIonization to the able-bodied and valuable inhabitants, weavers having no employment in America (Kingdom, p. 53), and the settlers in Upper Canada, being chiefly Scotch and Irish, because at home they had not the resource of poor's rates. In short,
it appears plain, that were females more employed in the lighter manu, factures, and relief from poor's rates withheld to healthy persons, we should retain, by means of the wives earnings, a most valuable agricultural peasantry, and yet see the excess of the population relieve itself by seasonable, enriching, and voluntary emigration. It did so during the union of Great Britain and America; and if, in every infant colony, one emigrant settler employs three at home, it is plain that reform here is indis pensable, in the wise sense of the word, not that of factious and mischievous jargon, i. e. breaking things to pieces instead of repairing them. That such is the case, appears plain from a comparison of the state of population in England with that of infant countries. On the banks of the Ohio, the population is only one to one and a half square miles, or 960 acres, but in England, upon the same quantity of ground, 192 persons, in Lancashire 400 (Kingdom, p. 18.); whereas, allowing for wastes, woods, and cattle, Lea acres per head is required in the view of sufficient elbow-room, for every enter of meat consumes five acres. In some districts of the Cape of Good Hope, each family has, upon an average, forty-six square miles of land (Id. 120); and it is astonishing, that Europeans, with the knowledge of this fact, should commit a grand error. The object of commerce is wealth, not simple main tenance, yet they fly to that in remedy of deficiency of territory. This is much like such a folly as would be importation of dinners and suppers from a hundred miles distance, instead of removing to the spot, and the result is dearness of provisions, exceedingly pernicious in the view of sale and exportation of our manufactures, and accumulation of capital.
Let us hear Mr. Kingdom:
"Of the beneficial results of Emigra tion, in a pecuniary point of view, to those who leave this country, with the intention of employing themselves in agriculture, there can be little doubt; for it will be found, that the mere increase in the va
lue of the land alone, after 15 or 20 years occupation, independent of the produce from it during that period, offers large returns for their labours, and may justly be considered amply sufficient to compensate for the deprivation of a few lux
uries at the commencement of a settlement." Kingdom, p. 315,
It appears that " money sunk in the rearing of sheep alone, in New South Wales and Van Diemen's island, will in the course of three years double itself, besides paying an interest of 75 per cent." Id. p. 282.
At Van Diemen's island,
"Large tracts of land, perfectly free from timber, or underwood, and covered with, the most luxuriant herbage, are to be found in all directions, but more particularly in the environs of Port Dalrymple. This sort of land is invariably of the very best description, and millions of acres still remain unappropriated, which are capable of being instantly converted to all the purposes of husbandry. There the colonist has no expense to incur in clearing his farm; he is not compelled to a great preliminary outlay of capital before he can expect a considerable return: he has only to set fire to the grass, to prepare his land for the immediate reception of the plough-share; so that if he
but possess a good team of horses, or
oxen, with a set of barsness, and a couple of substantial ploughs, he has the main requisites for commencing an agricultural establishment, and for insuring a comfortable subsistence for himself and family." (ld. p. 297.)
Add to this, excellent water-carriage, from settlement on the banks of a navigable river.
Mr. Kingdom's interesting book is an East Indian's cargo of valuable information, packed, selected, and loaded with excellent skill and judg ment; and, as fortunes with large capitals may be made any where, it is very useful for us to know, where they can be made without. It is most certain, that America is the very worst place for emigration, though the most common, because best known, and offering exoneration from debts in England. Nothing, however, can be clearer than, that there exist openings both for temporarary residence for purpose of returning with wealth, and for provision of our superabundant population in one island only of the South Seas: and that from thence we could cheaply be supplied with raw materials, at least wool, without foreign heavy tariffs, which would enable our manufacturers at home to undersell all other nations. While we are starving seventeen millions of hungry
bipeds in two insular rabbit warrens ; why not inclose the immense commons of our British empire, and try to exhibit some fat prize colonial farmers and landholders, as well as fat native oxen. We have only to invite the settlement of steady young men, with small capitals, and give a power of returning, after five years, to labourers. But our limits will not allow us to expatiate on the subject; and we therefore warmly recommend Mr. Kingdom's work to the particular notice of our merchants and legislators, as presenting a fertile field for the adoption of measures, in our opinion, both wise and indispensable.
Mr. Savage's pamphlet is a welldigested tract, properly exposing the precariousness and danger of settling in America; and, we know, that he is well supported by other authorities. We shall conclude with observing, that the empire subject to the Crown of Great Britain is immense and grow ing; that it appears destined to civilize one full half of the globe; and that, while its native territory cannot afford to keep seventeen millions at home, its foreign property is equal to the support of one hundred in comfort. It wants only a wise conjunction of interest and intercourse with its colonies, and accordant habitancy, to render its navy, commerce, revenue, resources, and fellow-feelings, a common interest. A merchant's family would play their cards into each other's hands easily, upon this plan; and why not a nation? For instance, if a horse-shoe at "Onandinga in America costs 5s." (Savage, p. 50.) it is evident that, similar wants existing in our own colonies, there are ample encouragements for exportation of our own wrought goods, of a certain kind, for many years to come. Add to this, a future colonial navy in aid of the Mother Country, against the jealous anger of her elder Daughter, if time and prudence do not wear out her enmity, and incline her to peace and union.
UPON all controvertible points, mankind are prone to think in extremes; and novel propositions in politicks or religion produce new parties, or new schisms. Mr. Wix, thinking that the wicked Lady of Babylon might be easily brought to repentance and reformation, proposed to reconcile her to the chaste Protestant part of her family. The Bishop of St. David's thinks that the result might be dangerous, as either leading to corruption of innocence, or at least to new schism. We perfectly believe Mr. Wix to have had the best intentions, and we know, in justification of him, that Popery and Protestantism are not so much distinguished 'by differences, as by the simple proceeding in the latter of omission. Amputation, pruning, rubbing off lichens and mosses, were the chief processes used in the Reformation. But, as it is an axiom in politics, never to force innovation, but to wait till the public mind is prepared to receive it, we are justified in thinking, from the strong opposition to the Catholic Bill, and the rooted inveteracy of Protestants to Popery, that such a seasonable period is not arrived. In all measures of dubious result, every thing pos sible should be left to time, which produces more changes in human events than any other cause whatever. Time may induce the Roman Catholicks themselves to undertake the revisions and reforms so desired by Mr. Wix; but so long as enmity exists between them and the Protestants, it is a rule that no confidence is to be placed in a reconciled enemy; and therefore we may fear that the object of such a proposed reconciliation would only be in reality to draw the Protestants into a snare. all events, we think that the affair should be left to circumstances; and dismiss the subject with expressing our full conviction, that both the Bishop and Mr. Wix adorn their profession, and have excellent intentions, though of opposite opinions.
Hints on Conversation; with consolatory Reflections on Adversity, Melancholy, &c. translated from the French [of Mons. Bordelon] by a Lady. 2d. Edit. cr. 8vo. pp. 539. Rivingtons, &c.
THE study of this useful book would go far towards forming a wise and