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2153, and 2161, and the pedigree rolls of existing families, rendered the extensive portion of the Work which relates to this subject, an undertaking of less labour than would be imagined; where these failed the parochial registers were examined, and in many instances were searched through from beginning to end.

"The documents which bave elucidated the ecclesiastical department have been already enumerated. The antient monuments are given from a most valuable MS. (Harl. MSS. 2151) consisting of church notes taken at the close of the sixteenth and the beginning of the following century, and all the accounts of the present churches, and of existing monuments, were written on the spot, and the printed copy set up from the original notes so written. The only exceptions to this consist of the church notes of Sale, furnished by the Rev. I. T. Allen, and those of Malpas and Iscoyd, taken by Archdeacon Churton, whose well-known accuracy rendered a new copy unnecessary.

"The Author can also positively state that every township was personally visited by himself, and many of them repeatedly; that every existing object described (unless otherwise mentioned) was seen by his own eyes, and that his notes were either taken on the spot in the words in which they appear in the printed Work, or the descriptions re-written in a very few days subsequent to his visits, but this mode of transcription was very rarely adopted, from a wish to avoid the possibility of multiplying clerical errors.

"Such have been the efforts of the Author to give as perfect a form as his humble powers enabled him to the Work which he now submits with diffidence to the censure or approval of the Publick; and although the incessant labour of six years, devoted to the extension and correction of previous collections, has been exclusively directed to the attainment of all possible accuracy, he is perfectly

aware that, on a subject involving such a multiplicity of minute facts and dates, perfect exactness never was attained and never will be attainable. Errors, neither inconsiderable in number or importance, are to be found in the copies and abstracts of original documents which the collectors of former days have left, and other misstatements have crept into the returns of existing families, in some cases from unavoidable oversight, in many from inattention, and in a very few from wilfulness, from an anxiety to aggrandize family importance, or to conceal unavoidable blemishes. In reducing these documents to connected narratives, compilers have multiplied original mistakes tenfold: many of these have doubtless been corrected; but the Author must also fear

that he often in his turn may have erred in his conceptions of the subjects; and that further clerical errors must have occasionally occurred in committing these conceptions to paper; and he is aware that the Press has in many cases added others of its own, although he is bound to acknowledge the extreme care and attention with which the correction of it was superintended by Mr. Bentley, and his conviction that the immense complication of dates and figures put such occasional errors beyond all possible means of prevention. Still, however, whilst he makes this candid avowal, he fully trusts that such unavoidable inaccuracies are as few as the nature of the Work can possibly admit of. No labour or expence has been spared in the amassing of materials; every nerve has been strained to ensure the most fastidious exactness in the statements; and though his judgment may and must have sometimes erred, he can conscientiously asseverate, that in every case his opinion (humble as it is) has been given as scrupulously to the best of his belief and knowledge, as if his verdict had been required in a matter of judicial importance.

"With this statement he takes his leave of the Publick, and if,-trusting to the importance of his subject, and not to any merit of his own in treating of it,— he may presume to hope that his name will, for some generations at least, be included in the honourable list of those whose lives have been dedicated to illustrating the antiquities of the proverbial mother of " THE CHIEF OF MEN" the CHESHIRE PALATINATE, his anxious toils and imperfect services will have bad an ample reward."

in these Volumes, the extensive PaAmong the many valuable articles rish of Malpas is one of the most conspicuous; and we have much pleasure in extracting from it some excellent biographical notices:

"Reginald Heber, M. A. previously Fellow of Erazenose College, Oxford, was presented by William Drake, esq. in exchange for Chelsea with Mr. Drake's brother, Dr. Thomas Drake, of Amersham. He was the second son of Thomas Heber, esq. of Marton Hall, in Yorkshire, where he was born, Sept. 4, 1718. From Manchester School, he was entered a commoner of Brazenose College, Oxford, March 4, 1747, and was chosen Fellow, Nov. 15, 1753. In July 1766, on the decease of his brother without issue male, the Vernon estate at Hodnet in Shropshire, devolved to him, as did also the family estate in Yorkshire in 1803, on the death of his brother's widow, Mrs. Heber, of Weston, in Northamptonshire.

"Dec. 5,

"Dec. 5, 1766, he was inducted into the valuable living of Chelsea, which had several years before been purchased for him by his brother, and another kind relative. In 1770, as has been said, he exchanged this living for Malpas, where he built an excellent new rectorial house on a new site, commanding a most extensive view of Flintshire and Denbighshire, and some other counties. Mr. Heber married April 15, 1773, Mary, third daughter and co-beiress of Martin Baylie, M. A. rector of Kelsal and Wrentham, in Suffolk, who died in January following, leaving him an infant son, Richard Heber, esq. now of Hodnet and Marton, and M.A. of Brazenose College. He married to his second wife, July 30, 1782, Mary, eldest daughter of Cuthbert Allanson, D.D. rector of Wath in Yorkshire, by whom he had Reginald Heber, M. A. a commoner of Brazenose College, Oxford, afterward fellow of All Souls College, and now rector of Hodnet; Thomas Cuthbert Heber, M.A. third BOD, fellow of Brazenose, who died in 1816; and one daughter, Mary.

"Mr. Heber died Jan. 10, 1804. He has an elegant copy of English verses, in the Oxford Verses on the King's Accession, published in 1762, but without his name; "An Elegy written among the Tombs in Westminster Abbey:" printed for Dodsley; inserted also, but without his knowledge, in Pearch's Collection.

"His eldest son, Richard Heber, well knowu in the literary world, and described under the character of Allicus in the “Bibliomania” of Dibdin, edited in early life an elegant edition of Silius Italicus.His second son, Reginald, is author of the Bampton Lectures of 1815, of three compositions which successively obtained the University Prize-" Carmen Seculare," "Palestine," and an Essay on the Sense of Honour ;" and of several minor poetical productions which have been published collectively."

Of the Rev. Dr. Thomas Townson a good biographical sketch is given, from materials communicated by Mr. Archdeacon Churton. Having extracted in vol. LXX. i. page 48, an abridged account of Mr. Churton's Memoir of Dr. Townson, when reviewing his valuable edition of that eminent Divine's Works, we shall content ourselves, on the present occasion, with giving his Epitaph:

"On a plain white marble slab, against the South wall of the chancel: The Reverend Thomas Townson, D.D. Archdeacon of Richmond, whose remains are interred, as he directed, near the North wall of the churchyard, was sometime Fellow of

St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxford,

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was fervent without enthusiasm,
his liberality

inexhaustible, yet studiously concealed;
his cheerfulness invariable,
and his countenance heavenly.
His life and death were alike edifying,
the one was piety, the other peace.
He expired full of hope in Jesus Christ,
on Sunday evening, April 15, 1792,
aged 77 years."

We take one more Epitaph, from a brass plate in the nave :

"Heere lyeth interred the body of Standley Burroughes, gent. chiefe steward to the Right Hon'ble Robert Viscount Cholmondeley, who after a faithfull discharge of another's trust, perfected the account of his owne dayes October the 12th, in the yeare of our Lord 1653. In a note the Author adds, "This epitaph is concise, apposite, and ject of it well deserved. striking; which, tradition says, the subHe took into his service a little boy, named William Povey, to give him his horse, saying, 'If (as the father feared) he is too little to bridle him, he must get into the manger. And if he is a good boy, and lives with me till I die, I will settle an annuity of 10%. a year or him for life.' A grant to that effect was accordingly made and kept in his hands, till, upon occasion of sickness, he ordered it to be given up to Povey; saying, If I die, it is his; and if I live, we shall never differ about it.' This Povey, who died in 1723, aged 94, was one of three persons employed in the Grand Rebellion to bury plate under the gravel walk at Bickley Hall (where Robert, Earl of Leinster Viscount Cholmondeley lived), and to put firkins of money into what have since, from that circumstance, been called the money pits.' Upon searching for these treasures afterwards, the plate was safe, but the money was gone. Povey used, in later life, to read Sanderson's History of the Rebellion, and weep over it, well remembering those days of trouble. Information of his daughter, Mary Betteley, who died a widow, and upwards of fourscore, in 1782.-Communicated by Archdeacon Churton."



19. The Rawdon Papers, consisting of Letters on various Subjects, literary, political, and ecclesiastical, to and from Dr. John Bramhall, Primate of Ireland. Including the Correspondence of several most eminent Men, during the greater Part of the Seventeenth Century. Faithfully printed from the Originals; and illustrated with literary and historical Notes. By the Rev. Edward Berwick, Chaplain to the Marquis of Hastings, &c. Lond. 8vo. pp. 430. Nichols and Son. COLLECTIONS of this kind generally consist of curious illustrations of antient manners, state affairs, and latent biography. In literary character, they mingle the secresy of the private epistle with the familiar narrative of the newspaper. They furnish the Antiquary and the Historian with fortunate elucidations of obscure difficulties, and they amuse the general reader, by desultory miscellany. The Statesman and Historian may rummage and study them for instruction; the Lounger may dip into and skim over them for entertainment. In short, they form bays at the mouth of the great literary river Plata, where the larger aquatic birds can fish and dive; and the humbler martins pursue insects and refresh their wings.

It must be evident to persons of common knowledge of life, that numerous incidents in History can never be explained, unless by the narrative of the parties concerned in originating the transactions. For want of such information, the most interesting things become mysteries. For instance, who knows precisely the cause of the breach between Buckingham and Richard the Third; or why Blood was pensioned by Charles II? The courtiers about the person of Elizabeth, knew that she never recovered her spirits after the decapitation of Essex: and when the curious ring-story was published, the fact of her melancholy, recorded in the private letters of a contemporary *, gives authenticity to the romantic incident, and explains the silent de spair which seemed to attend her last

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Salmon formerly abounded in excess: "Upon the 27th of May, at Colerain only, they had taken 62 tuns of salmon." P. 18.

Noblemen in the seventeenth century presented churches with sets of bells. Ibid.

Archbishop Laud was an epicure. He complains bitterly of some Lenten presents of bad salmon and eels, and Martinmas beef, " as hard as the very horn the old runt wore when she lived." Pp. 47, 48.

Of the state of medical knowledge, we have various amusing accounts:

"Cardinal Mazarine is certainly be lieved to be in no condition of escaping death, because of the desperate fever, wherein he hath lain for some time, his physicians being at last driven to this only remedu of lapping him in cow-dung, to cool the heat of his body, renewing the same every day, as often as the dung begins to dry." P. 125.

Amazing storms attended the death of Cromwell, and removal of his coffin to Tyburn. P. 134.

Rainy weather rendered the roads impracticable for coach-travelling. P. 134.

We know that it was discussed in the Common Council of London, whether the Regent's Answer to the party Address on the Manchester business, should be styled gracious. These Letters show that the debate was founded upon ignorance of Royal etiquette.

"It is unparliamentary for the King to anticipate the freedom of the votes of a House of Parliament by the prejudging any thing undebated." P. 143.

Town houses, without "gardens for pleasurable retreat,” were not approved in 1661. P. 156.

In furnished lodgings, the lodger was to find linen and pewter, or “allow a great rate for them." Ibid.

We remember that drums were

beat to drown the voice of Louis XVI. when on the scaffold. M. de Santerre, the Paris brewer, has had the credit of this ingenious invention; but it appears that it was practised at the execution of Sir Harry Vane, the regicide. P. 166.

We find, p. 186, a Secretary ap pointed, who could neither wrile nor read, and invalids going to hot climates "in order to recover flesh.”

In p. 192, doctors and midwives appear

appear in consultation about the pregnancy of a lady, but unable to tell whether she was in that state or not, "though the child was quick :" and people sent all over the country for an eagle's stone, esteemed of great virtue in hard labour;" the biggest the best. This the lady, when in pain, 66 wore upon her arm a good while. P. 194.

Gentlemen wrote to their friends, "when they wanted a wife," for them to look out one, which they accordingly did. P. 199.

Charles II. and several of his nobles, rode at the coronation, fine horses, without making a previous enquiry whether they had been trained to endure drums and musick. The Duke of York was thrown twice; and the King was in great danger, till he commanded the musick to cease. P. 201. Honey was deemed a good preservative from the stone:

"I pray (says Lord Conway) acquaint John Totnal, that I desire him to get some bee-bires at the Tunny Park, for if ever I live to come into that country, I believe I shall use a great deal of honey, as I do at this present, and have, I thank God, kept myself a great while thereby free from any fits of the stone, and do daily void so much gravel, by the use thereof, as is hardly to be believed." P. 207.

The effect of sugar is mentioned in various publications upon calculous disorders; and therefore importance is to be attached to this preventive of the noble Lord's.

In p. 209, we have a Letter from the redoubted quack Mr. Valentine Greatracks, who cured diseases upon the Tractor plan.

In p. 216, we hear of a very good living, worth near 1201. yearly.

In 1666, the Dublin people having proposed to send 105,000 bullocks to London for relief of that city, lately burnt, Parliament voted the importation of Irish cattle to be a nuisance. Lord Clarendon suggested in an amendment, that it might as properly be declared adultery. P. 219. -Swords were drawn in the House of Commons on the subject. P. 220.

It was part of physical rule, that a man should not see his wife, when sick, at least, under some circumstances.

"At Ragley (says Lord Conway), I met nothing but the sad condition of my wife, whom I could not see all the while I

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"We had yesterday an unfortunate passage. Addy Loftus brought an Irish dog to fight with a mastiff, before the King [Ch. If.]; the Irish dog had all the advantage immaginable, and dragged him five or 6 times about the ring, so that every body gave the mastiff for dead; all men were concerned as if it had been their General; and yet, at last, the Irish dog ran away. I lost my money, and afterwards the King called me to him, and said he would lay 500l. that neither I nor all the men in Ireland could bring an Irish wolf dog that would not run away. I pray speak with my Lord Dungannon about it; for tho' I will not upon any man's confidence, venture so much money, yet I will be willing to go my share; and I am sure the King will lay it. I pray speak with my Lord Lieutenant, and know what dogs he hath." Pp. 231, 232.

Thus the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was to assist in providing dogs for a canine duel.

Gardeners received immense wages: "I am very glad you have pieced up with Francis; my Lord Chesterfield gives 1007. a year standing wages, and 10d. a week board wages, and many other profits of his garden, to a worse gardener than Francis." P. 250.

To posting a man for refusing to fight a duel, cudgelling was added. P. 251.

The gestures used in public worship were matters of study, like dancing:

"We saw them at prayers, according to the English mode; and I must needs say, they acted their devotions extraordinary well."

Bishops upon occasions headed a party of soldiers:

"The Bishop of London [Compton] ril at a head of a troop [of William the Third's horse] into London, with this motto on their banuer, Nolumus leges Anglia mutari." P. 293.

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By making these curious selections, we merely intend to gratify our Readers. The Historical matter is often of great interest, and must be particularly pleasing to various great families, who are descended from the writers. The notes are satisfactory; and the Work may, on the whole, be pronounced a valuable addition to the historical library.

19. An Historical and Descriptive View of
the Parishes of Monkwearmouth and
Bishopwearmouth, and the Port and
Borough of Sunderland. Compiled from
Publications of undoubted Authority, ori
ginal Communications, and personal Re-
search. By George Garbutt.
8vo. pp.
508. Nichols and Son.

more especially to John Brough Taylor, Esq. F.S.A. for the copy of Bp. Morton's Charter, and other valuable materials, and for his uniform assistance and support.

Passing over the early Annals of the Town, which are essentially connected with those of the Nation, we meet with the foundation and subsequent history of the Monastery of Wearmouth and its Abbots.

"With the exception of the tower and some detached parts of the present church, no vestige of this once celebrated monastery now remains."

We next come to the parish of Monk Wearmouth, which is divided into five townships, viz. Monkwearmouth, Monkwearmouth-shore, Fullwell, Southwick, and Hilton.

"Monkwearmouth is of great antiquity, and probably had its origin contemporary with the monastery. It is universally held under lease from the Dean and Chapter of Durham.

OUR opinion of the utility of Topographical History has been so frequently expressed, that it is scarcely necessary to say that we are pleased to see an excellent Volume; and we are the more pleased, as it is the production of a Printer, who, from local and many other circumstances, is better adapted for such an undertaking and owes its present consequence to the than any other person, the Clergy excepted. From them, however, the Publick is not often thus favoured.

"The fame and reputation of the monastery at Wearmouth, as the seat of learning and religion during the Saxon ages; the antiquity of the Borough of Sunderland as a town and port, and its connection with the civil dissensions of this country at various periods; the progress of commerce and trade, and the vast increase of its wealth and population in modern times; the number and useful ness of its public and charitable institutions; and its local importance as the chief port of the county of Durham,-all present themselves as legitimate objects of historical research.

"Towards the accomplishment of this Work, the elaborate publications of Hutchinson and Surtees afforded the basis; whilst the liberal communications, which have been received from various quarters, facilitated the completion of the super


"In taking a retrospective view of his labours, the Editor feels great pleasure in gratefully acknowledging the assistance he has received."

Among these Sir Cuthbert Sharp stands prominent; as do the Rev. John Drysdale, the Rev. Peter Wilcock, the Rev. Samuel Turner, and Mr. Alexander Wilson. To many other gentlemen thanks are also given for various communications; and

"The township of Monkwearmouthshore is comparatively of modern date,

extensive ship-building yards which, during the war, were established there, and the increasing commerce upon the river.

"Nothing remarkable is recorded in history respecting the township of Fulwell

but it may not be deemed uninteresting if we advert to an account of the discovery of a gigantic human skeleton, two Roman coins, and a small urn of unbaked clay, on what is called Fullwell hills *.

"The village of Southwick is extremely pleasant, commanding a fine view of the surrounding country, the towns of Bishopwearmouth, Moukwearmouth, and Sunderland, together with the German ocean. It is inhabited by several respectable fa


"Hilton Manor, with the Castle, was the possession of the family of the Hiltons, before the Norman conquest, and continued above 700 years, to the time of John Hilton, esq. the last male heir, who died there, Sept. 25, 1746. He was a good and pious man. His portrait is still preserved at Hilton, let into a pannel above the fire-place in the great drawing-room. It represents a gentleman of middle age, with blue eyes, light hair, fair complexion, somewhat high cheek bones, of a placid and benevolent countenance, and open aspect. There was in the same house, a considerable number of other family por traits, all bearing a striking resemblance

See these described by Dr. Peter Col. linson in vol. XXXIII. p. 492. EDIT.


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