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that it could not be traced from the deck. We had scarcely time to make any useful exertions; for in a few minutes the ship fell broadside against the cliff, along the face of which she was violently hurried by the current, towards a ridge of broken rocks, which in a short time would have torn the stoutest vessel to pieces. The heavy swell which prevailed caused the ship in her passage to beat against various rocky ledges which projected under water. One of the blows she thus sustained, drove the rudder out of its place; but it fortunately hung suspended by tackling which had been employed to secure it on coming amongst the ice. At this instant, when all human exertions seemed perfectly fruitless, the current eddied off shore, the land-breeze sprang up, a boat that we had put overboard succeeded in taking us in tow, and-what appeared almost miraculous-one of the last thumps the ship received caused the rudder to fall back into its place. By this combina

ment, but occasionally we saw some of such an enomous size, that every other feeling gave place to astonishment. One of these larger bergs we estimated to be 200 feet high above the water, and above half a mile in length. Its surface was broken by mountains of no mean size, with deep valleys between. Enormous as the se dimensions must appear, you will be more surprised when I inform you, that the part of an iceberg which projects above water, amounts only to a ninth part of the whole mass, that being the proportion of ice which floats above salt water. Arthur's seat clothed in snow would have formed only one pinnacle to this berg. When these bodies became familiar to us from their frequency, we derived much pleasure from the various shades and gradations of colour they exhi bited. The more compact parts were generally of a bright verdigris blue; towards the base a fine sea green prevailed; here and there a tint of red was seen, and the summits alone were snow-white. As the part of the icetion of favourable circumstances, we which is covered by the sea decays more rapidly than that which is in the air, it often happens that one of these islands becomes top-heavy and tumbles over. We never saw one in the act of making this revolution, but most of them bore evident marks of having been overturned twice or thrice; the old water lines, intersecting each other in various directions, being still deeply engraved on their surfaces.

"We first beheld the land (Resolution Island) during a fog, which soon became so thick that we could not see the length of the ship. In consequence of this, we got involved in a field of ice: then, to add to our distress, it fell calm; and although we could perceive that we were carried along by a violent current, yet the fog deprived us of ascertaining its direction, and the depth of water was too great to admit of our anchoring. After remaining in this situation for two or three hours, receiving occasionally some heavy blows from the ice, an alarm was given that we were close ou the rocks. We all ran upon deck, and beheld a tremendous cliff frowning directly over the mast heads of the ship. It was perfectly perpendicular, covered in many places by sheets of ice; and its summit was so high, and shrouded in so thick a fog,

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succeeded in getting round the point we so much dreaded; and, setting all sail, we steered from the land. Upon the first alarm of danger, the women and children, of whom we had a large number on board, going to Lord Selkirk's colony, rushed upon the deck much terrified. The officers, however, succeeded in calming their fears, and prevailed on them to go below out of the way of the sailors: but scarcely had this been effected, when the current carried us against a large iceberg; which had grounded upon a ridge of sunken rocks that lay at some distance from the shore. The crash of the masts and yards, together with the grinding of the ship's side against the ice, terrified them more than ever; but we speedily got clear of the second danger without receiving further damage. Our troubles, however, were not at an end; the ship had received so much damage whilst on the rocks, that, on examination, a great deal of water was found in the hold. All hands were instantly set to the pumps; but, to our mortification, we found that the water rushed in faster than we could, with every exertion, discharge it. Affairs now wore a gloomy aspect; the water in the hold increased to upwards of five feet, and the men were getting tired at the pumps, when fortunately the weather


cleared up a little, and we saw the Eddystone, one of the vessels that accompanied us, at no great distance we bore down, and informed them of our situation. Every assistance in their power was promptly supplied; they sent 20 men and two carpenters. The services of the latter were invaluable, as our own carpenter had died in the earlier part of the voyage. With this fresh accession of strength, we kept the leak from gaining upon us; and after some time the carpenters succeeded in discovering and patching up the broken parts so as sensibly to diminish the influx of water. Their operations were, however, slow; and it was not till the evening of the second day that we succeeded in getting all the water out of the ship. During the whole of this time, not only the officers and men worked hard, but even many of the women, recovering their spirits, proved eminently useful at the pumps. As the water decreased, the carpenters were enabled the more readily to repair the damage that had been sustained: and they ultimately succeeded so well, that one pump proved sufficient to discharge the water as fast as it leaked in. In this state we have continued ever since.

"In these straits the Hudson's Bay vessels are generally visited by a tribe of Esquimaux, who frequent the shores during summer, and come off to the ships for the purpose of bartering their whole wealth, which consists in whale and sea-blubber, for iron, which has become an article of the first consequence to them. Accord

ingly, one day when we were above

20 miles from the shore, these poor creatures ventured off in their skin canoes, pulling with the utmost anxiety to reach the vessels. It sometimes happens, when the ships have a fair wind, that they run past the Esquimaux haupts without stopping: in the present instance, however, we were detained by light contrary winds, which enabled them to overtake us; and when they did so, they expressed so much joy and exultation, that it was easy to conceive how great their disappointment must have been when they missed us. In a short time we were surrounded by 30 or 40 canoes, each carrying one man, with his small cargo of merchandize, which, to their great satisfaction, they speedily ex

changed for pieces of iron, hoops, knives, saws, hatchets, and harpoons, and tin-pots. The wind continuing contrary during the remainder of the day, we stood in towards the land, and gave the women of the tribe an opportunity to come off, which they did, in five large canoes, framed like the large one, of skins, but open, and each capable of carrying from 20 to 30 people. The oars were pulled by women, but there was an old man in each boat to direct them. As they brought off a great many children, I suppose we saw the whole tribe, amounting to nearly 200 souls.

"The features of the Esquimaux are not the most regular in the world: but it was pleasing to see their flat, fat greasy faces. When they had disposed of their articles of trade, we presented the women and children with a few needles, beads, and other trinkets, and sent them away bighly delighted. Since that time we have been contending against contrary winds; but by perseverance have succeeded in getting within a few days sail of York Factory, at which place I shall conclude and despatch.

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Ancient Anecdotes, &c. from VALERIUS MAXIMUS, by Dr. CAREY, West Square. (Continued from p. 24.)

commander of

Fe Roman army in Spain, (U. C.

612) finding it difficult to prevent the defection of the natives, resolved to terrify them into quiet submission by the severity of punishment. Accordingly, whenever he captured any of them who had gone over from the Roman lines, to join their yet unconquered countrymen, he condemned them to suffer the amputation of their hands.- Lib. 2, 7, 11.

The elder Scipio Africanus, at the reduction of Carthage, (U. C. 552) got into his power a number of men who had abandoned the Roman standard, and deserted to the enemy. He put them all to death, but made a distinction, in point of severity, between the Romans and the other


Italians. The latter he beheaded, as faithless allies; the former he crucified, as traitors to their country. Lib. 2, 7, 12.

The junior Africanus also, having recovered a number of deserters at the final destruction of Carthage, (U. C. 607) caused such of them, as were not Romans, to be exposed to wild beasts in the public spectacles.Lib. 2, 7, 13.

Paulus Emilius, after his victory over Perseus (or Perses*), king of Macedonia, (U. C. 586) exercised a different species of severity in the punishment of deserters. He caused them to be trodden to death by elephants. Lib. 2, 7, 14.

In the war against the Tarentines and king Pyrrhus, (U. C. 475) a considerable number of Roman prisoners having been gratuitously restored by that prince; the senate decreed, that such of them as had served in the cavalry, should be degraded to the rank of foot soldiers; that those of the infantry should be turned down to the companies of slingers, which (as I have already observed in a former communication) were the least respectable portion of a Roman army. In addition to these degradations, those unfortunate men were neither to be admitted within the intrenchments of the camp, nor allowed to intreach themselves without, or even to enjoy the shelter of such tents as the rest of the army used. And the only condition, on which any of their number could obtain a restoration to his former rauk, was that of producing the spoils of two enemies, killed with his own hand.-Lib. 2, 7, 15.

The Roman consul Petilius having been killed in battle, (U. C. 577) the Senate ordered that his whole army should forfeit, not only their pay for the current year, but also the arrears of pay due to them; because they had not rather chosen to perish in defence of their general, than suffer him to fall.-Lib. 2. 7, 15.

During the second Punic war, (U. C. 537) Hannibal offered to release six or eight thousand Roman prisoners

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for a moderate sum. But the Senate (wishing to inculcate the doctrine, that men of spirit ought rather to fall bravely in battle, than suffer themselves to be taken) refused to accept the offer (2, 7, 15.)-And this refusal was given at a time (as we learn from Livy, 22, 57) when the Roman government found such difficulty in procuring freemen to recruit their armies, that they were under the necessity of purchasing (at a higher price per head) a considerable number of slaves, to whom they gave their liberty, on condition of their consenting to become soldiers.

On the day of a Roman general's triumph, it was the custom that he should first invite the consuls to supper, and then request them not to come; lest, on that joyous occasion, he should see any superior seated at the same table with him.-Lib. 2,8, 6.

The Roman censors, Camillus and Postumius, (U. C. 301) imposed fines on men who had lived to an advanced age without marrying.-Lib. 2, 9, 1.

A Roman senator having divorced his wife without consulting any of his friends, (U. C. 646) the censors expelled him from the senate, on account, not of the divorce itself (which was otherwise allowable), but of his inconsideration in an affair of such serious importance.

(To be continued.)


No. I.

I. A CONQUERED PROVINCE. CoThe sorrowful countelossal Bust. nance and dishevelled hair shew the character which the Romans gave to the images of conquered provinces. (Visconti, Description des Antiques, &c. p. 2.) These figures are in general designated by particular attributes, relative to their commerce, religion, rivers, &c. like the Ungaria (Hungary) of the Capitoline Museum. Sometimes the Province is seen kneeling to the Conqueror; at others, with the hands tied behind, and no other dress than a tunick, as the costume of slaves.

II. GORDIAN PIUS. Half-length, in a military habit, engraved Monumento Gabini, no. 14. It has the arms


not usually seen in antique Busts. (Visconti, p. 2.) There is a marble Bust of this Emperor at the Capitol, and a head on the gems of the Palais Royal. (Tom. ii. pl. 50.) This head has a singular crest on the helmet, apparently a dog's or wolf's head, terminating in an undulatory train of horse hair. By the way, the appearances on some coins have produced a strange opinion, that there were four Gordians, of which see Histoire des quatre Gordiens, Par. 1695, 12mo. Historia trium Gordianorum, of Cuper, 1697, 12mo. and Spanheim de us. et præst. Num. tom. ii. Diss. xi. p. 243, seq. But the coins of Gordian Pius have mostly AUG.; the others AUGG.; and if AUG. sometimes occurs with the others, they have then the adjunct of AFR.


III. BACCHUS AND ARIADNE. bas relief. Bacchus and his fair companion, crowned with vine leaves, each holding a thyrsus, are carried upon two cars, drawn by Centaurs. Among the accessory figures, executed with very elaborate skill, is a little Fawn, mounted upon the croupe of the Centaur, who offers him drink from a horn or Rhyton. The medallion in the middle contains the busts of two Romans, whose ashes are deposited in this tomb. The head-dress of the woman is in the costume of the third century of the Christian æra. Thus Visconti, p. 3. This marble offers room for some important remarks. The most curious fact concerning statues of Bacchus is, according to Winckelman, their representation of the second species of ideal youth, borrowed from the form of eunuchs, i. e. mixed features of both limbs of effeminate round contour, and the salient haunches of fe


males. This he ascribes to Bacchus

having been brought up in the habits of a girl, and refers to Apollodor. Bibl. 3. p. 85. b.; Plin. 36, 4.; Senec. Edip. v. 419. The cone of the pine at the end of the thyrsus has been hitherto unexplained. "In all parts of Greece (says M. Chateaubriand, Trav. 194.) it is more or less customary to infuse the cones of the pine in the wine vats, and thus communicate to the liquor a bitter and aromatic taste. To this custom, as I presume, of ancient origin, is owing the consecration of the cone of the pine to Bacchus." As to the car, Beger and Buonarota

have published cars of Bacchus (one with Ariadne) drawn by Centaurs. Montfaucon says, that it was on account of their love of wine: and in the Mythologia Natalis Comitis, p.724, is this passage, "Per hæc igitur, quæ dicta sunt de centauris, significare voluerunt antiqui vino non esse immoderatè indulgendum."

IV. DOMITIAN. A Colossal Bust, from the Villa Albani. He is in a cuirass, crowned with laurel. (Visconti, p. 3.) Portraits of this Emperor are very rare, because the Senate ordered his statues to be destroyed. There are only two known, even at Rome; one a fine head at the Capitols the other a statue, at the Guistiniani Palace, which is also in a cuirass. Thus Winckelman. Mongez (Rec. d'Antiq. p. 15.) mentions a naked heroic statue at the Villa Aldobrandini; another from the Villa Albani in the French Museum; and a portrait on a gem of the Florentine Collection, i. pl. 10. No. 2.

(To be continued.)


Colchester, Feb.3. N answer to Mr. Lawrence's inquiry

in the last Number of your interesting Miscellany, p. 22, having occasion lately to ride over to Tolleshunt Knights, I requested permission to see the Church. The only object I found worth notice was the ancient Monument in the North wall, which attracted the attention of your correspondent, and has continued in his recollection from the year 1761. The tomb has suffered much from damp and the decay of time; but the Knight, though not entirely destroyed, has undergone the most mischievous mutilation: his arins, legs, and sword, have been wantonly broken off: the two canine animals are gone: his nose is chipped off: and what remains of the figure, is sadly defaced by some who have, it is supposed, improperly amused themselves during the hours of divine service, in engraving their names upon its venerable trunk.

The story related by your Correspondent respecting the combat with his Satanic Majesty is still traditionary at Tolleshunt Knights.

Yours, &c. W. W. FRANCIS.

*+* The Drawing and Account of Staveley Church were safely received.


All these

ed Antiquarian friends. are duly and handsomely acknowledged in the Preface.

After an enumeration of the va

17. The History of the County Palatine and City of Chester; compiled from original Evidences in Public Offices, the Harleian and Cottonian MSS. parochial Registers, private Muniments, unpub-rious sources of information which lished MS Collections of successive Cheshire Antiquaries, and a personal Survey of every Township in the County; incorporated with a Republication of King's Vale Royal, and Leycester's Cheshire Antiquities. By George Ormerod, LL.D. F. R. S. and F. S. A. Three Volumes Folio. Lackington and Co.

THES HESE splendid Volumes are highly creditable to the abilities, the good taste, and the patient industry of the Author. Nor are they less so to the liberality of the Publishers, and to the skill and attention of the Artists. The "History of Cheshire" (and more especially the Large Paper copies) may fairly come into competition with the proudest specimens either of English or Foreign Typography; and the numerous Embellishments are in the firstrate style of eminence. They consist of one hundred and ninety-four Engravings on copper and on wood, exclusive of no less than three bundred and fifty-seven Armorial subjects, which are attached to the Pedigrees. The dispatch, also, and the regularity, with which the several portions have been completed, deserve commendation.

Though Cheshire may be said to have been hitherto without a regular Topographical Historian, several publications have prepared the way for this more complete Work.


"Vale Royal" of Master William Smith, published by Daniel King the "Historical Collections" of Sir Peter Leycester; the "Natural History" of Dr. Leigh; and the "Magna Britannia" of Messrs. Lysons, have proved an excellent ground-work for Mr. Ormerods who has very ably incorporated with them the great variety of MS Collections of Dr. Gower and Dr. Latham; superadding an amazing mass in the British Museum, and other public depositories; with his own important researches, and the communications of many distinguish GENT. MAG. February, 1820.

have enabled Mr. Ormerod to" toil through his long and arduous undertaking," he adds,

"The Publick are entitled to an account of the manner in which they have been brought to bear upon the present Work. It is with regret that the Author is compelled to speak so long of himself and his labours, but the egotism is unavoidable.

"A considerable portion of the district described in the following Work has been familiar to the Author from childhood, himself with collecting documents relative and from an early period he has amused to its genealogical antiquitics. He had formed an intention of pursuing the subject with a view to publication in 1809 (as already mentioned), but this measure was first positively decided upon in 1813. From that time to the present his hours have been dedicated to the pursuit with little intermission. The County has been

examined in the summer and autumn from the central points of his own residence at Chorltou, and that of a near relative at Bradwall, and the winter and spring have been devoted to researches among the Harl. MSS. and the other literary treasures of the public repositories in the metropolis.

"All of the foregoing documents to which he has had access, or which have been lent to him, have been made to bear upon the subject, but the principal outline of his arrangement was as follows:

"The basis of the manerial history consisted of the extracts from Domesday, and the first grants of the Earls or of their

greater tenants, from which the fines and Inquisitions, with the aid of the Villare Cestriense, brought down a tolerably clear descent to the time when they connect with existing title deeds. Nearly all the manerial proprietors, or their agents, were in their turn requested to supply the necessary continuations, and the instances are very few in which the request was not complied with, though, as might be obviously expected, with various degrees of precision.

dence already mentioned, the later entries "The immense fund of genealogical eviof the Randle Holmes in Harl. MSS. 2119,


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