the air,' as they have most unpoetically been called. Like them, however, they

ADVICE TO SERVANTS. appear in astounding numbers, nobody To the faithful, honest, and industriknows whence, and are found alike all over this continent, from Hudson's Bay 1. A good character is valuable to every to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the At- one, but especially to servants; for it is lantic to the Pacific. About broodtime, their bread, and without it they cannot they unite in millions to seek a comfort- be admitted into a creditable family; and able home. Their numbers are far be- happy it is, that the best of characters it yond all computation: they darken the is in every one's power to deserve. heavens with their vast armies, and 2. Engage yourself cautiously, but stay break down the forests on which they long in your place; for long service shows settle. Not less strange is the inexpli- worth, as quitting a good place through cable faculty which other pigeons pos- passion is folly, which is always repented sess to find the way to their home. of too late. Birds have been taken, that had never 3. Never undertake any place you are been further from the place of their birth not qualified for; for pretending to do than a few miles; they were carried by what you do not understand exposes rail to the distance of more than a thou- yourself, and, what is still worse, deceives sand miles, and then let loose. They thoso whom you serve. were seen to fly around a few times in 4. Preserve your fidelity; for a faithful large circles, and then in a straight line, servant is a jewel, for whom no encouwith marvellous swiftness, directly to ragement can be too great. their home! They cannot sec it, for the 5. Adhere to truth; for falsehood is roundness of the globe would prevent that; detestable, and he that tells one lie must no other sense can possibly come to their tell twenty more to conceal it. aid, and yet they never fail to reach the 6. Be strictly honest; for it is shameplace from which they were taken!

ful be thought unworthy of trust. Thus birds travel from land to land all 7. Be modest in your behaviour: it over the carth, some sailing high in the becomes your station, and is pleasing to air, passing without astonishment over your superiors. populous cities, disdaining fertile valleys 8. Avoid pert answers; for civil lanand plains covered with rich grain, bent guage is cheap, and impertinence is prowith fixed purpose upon the way to their voking. last year's home; others, like the swal- 9. Be clean in your business; for slovens low, gladdening both Europe and Africa, and sluts are disrespectful servants. and, at the appointed time, leaving her 10. Never tell the affairs of the family nest to seek a warmer climate, as the you belong to; for that is a sort of treasoul is anxious to leave this earthly chery, and often makes mischief; but keep home to seek a better world above. The their secrets, and have none of your tender nightingale travels, both sexes together, from north to south; but in 11. Live friendly with your fellow-serearly spring the females leave several vant; for the contrary destroys the peace weeks earlier, and wing their way from of the house. Egypt and Syria, alone, to northern re- 12. Above all things, avoid drunkengions. Of finches, the females only mi- ness; for it is an inlet to vice, the ruin of grate, the males remain behind, and be your character, and the destruction of ing thus widowers during the long win- your constitution. ter, have, from the French, received the 13. Prefer a peaceable life, with moname of célibataires. Not inaptly has, derate gains, to great advantages, with therefore, the question been asked, whe- irregularity. ther the females of birds are not, per- 14. Save your money; for that will be haps, more sensitive to the magnetic cur- a friend to you in old age; be not expenrent that whirls around our globe than sive in dress, nor marry too soon. the males ?

15. Be careful of your masters' pro

perty; for wastefulness is a sin. The lightsome countenance of a friend 16. Never swear; for that is a sin giveth such an inward decking to the without excuse, for there is no pleasure house where it lodgeth, as proudest pa- in it. laces have cause to envy the gilding. 17. Be always ready to assist a fellow


servant; for good-nature gains the love rude dwelling, and showed that no idle of every one.

hands were there. Unyoked oxen browsed 18. Never stay when sent on a mes- in the bushes hard by, and the faint tinksage; for waiting long is painful to a ling of a cow-bell was heard at intervals, master, and quick return shows dili- its patient wearer, meanwhile, watching gence.

the spreading flames, as if lost in wonder 19. Rise early; for it is difficult to re- at the sight of so much fire and smoke. cover lost time.

Within and around the house were strewed 20. The servant that often changes a few necessary articles of furniture; a his place works only to be poor; for the shining rifle with powder-flask and bulletrolling stone gathers no moss.

pouch were suspended from wooden hooks; 21. Be not fond of increasing your ac- a long hunting-knife, more formidable quaintance; for visiting leads you out of still, a ponderous axe, worn bright with your business, robs your master of your use, were visible; and two modest beds, time, and puts you to an expense you covered with whitened linen, invited the cannot afford; and above all things take weary to repose. A huge mastiff, the care with whom you are acquainted; for guardian of the night, with protuberant persons are generally the better or the lip and threatening eye, lay at full length worse for the company they keep. by the door-sill

, snapping at the large 22. When out of place, be cautious blue-winged flies which disturbed his slumwhere you lodge; for living in a disrepu- ber. Three little children, their hands table house puts you upon a footing with blackened with coal and smoke, were those who keep it, however innocent you building mimic houses of brake and brush, are yourself.

and seemed the very impersonation of 23. Never go out on your own business health and enjoyment. The father was a without the knowledge of the family, lest stout, stalwart man in the prime of life; in your absence you should be wanted; and was evidently well fitted to 'dare thé for leave is light, and returning punctu- wolf, and grapple with the bear.' He ally at the hour you promise shows obe looked out from the open door, enjoying dience, and is a proof of sobriety. the scene, and gazing complacently upon

24. If you are dissatisfied in your the result of his day's labour; while bis place, mention your objections modestly wife, a fair-haired, delicate woman, in to your master or mistress, and give a cleanly dress, busied herself with careful fair warning, and do not neglect your skill in preparing the evening meal. business, or behave ill, in order to pro- This was their

first year in the woods. voke them to turn you away; for this Over a long and weary way they had will be a blemish in your character, which travelled the preceding winter, and here you must always have from the place they had pitched their tent, to build a you served.-Anon., Christian Maga- goodly heritage for their children. His axe zine, 1762.

had since made the old forest ring with

the sound of falling trees: and her gentle THE PIONEERS.

song, learned in her father's home, made In the remote West, many miles from glad the heart of one whom she had sworn any settlement, rose a small log-cabin, love and obey through life. It was not surrounded by a few acres covered with without many tears that she left friends piles of logs and massive trees, recently and companions for a home in the new felled. Many a blow had been given world of the West. She parted with with the axe before the sturdy arm of them as if for ever; and her woman's heart the woodsman had accomplished so much. was almost broken as the word farewell The logs and trecs, with piles of brush lingered on her tongue. That she should and leaves gathered around them, were

no more see her father's face nor hear her on fire, crackling and sparkling; the bril- mother's, voice, was a sad thought; but liant flames ascended in wreaths to the this was not the sum of her grief. There mild autumnal sky, its glare driving the was the trysting-place of her youthful wood-birds from their evening rest in the love; the hills and vales which first adjacent forest, while columns of smoke, grected her infant eye; the venerable arising in various shades, and in many a church, in which were gathered weekly fanciful form, created a picture to which the good and beautiful for prayer and the pencil of Weir could alone do justice. praise; and there also were the buried A patch of corn grew thriftily near the dead-friends whose graves her tears had

watered. These were forsaken; and with ness to endure whatsoever of suffering or fortitude, though not without sorrow, she of evil remained in store for them. And had left them all. But when, after weeks most assuredly far-off friends were not of journeying through scattered settle- then forgotten. Over the whole wide ments, she passed what seemed the bounds earth, and in all its temples 'made with of the civilised word, and entered still hands,' no devotion more heartfelt, farther into the wilderness, she remem- simple, or affecting, was ever offered. bered the frightful tales of savage life Quietly they slept that night; and if no which had been poured into her childish sweet dreams visited them in their slumear, and her heart shrunk within her; bers, it was because the weary labour of and she peered into the gloom around the day had overpowered them, and their way, as if expecting frightful forms banished from the brain all the 'thickto arise from every side. Still she fainted coming fancies' of an ideal world. not, nor faltered, nor complained. Her And thus the time wore on. The wincourse was taken, and she felt that her ter day saw the pioneer amid the show, destiny was fixed. She trusted much to felling the great trees around him, or purthe strong arm of her companion, but suing herds of deer, or some grizzly bear more to the stronger arm of Him who prowling among the thickets. Meanprotects alike the dweller of the forest while, her household labours over, the and of the crowded city.

mother was treasuring up in the infant As evening came on, their frugal re- minds of her children such lessons of inpast finished, the husband sat gazing struction as her store of knowledge alfrom the doorway, half dreaming, half lowed. At evening, how anxiously did watching the crackling fires; the wife mother and children watch the first apcame and seated herself by his side, and proach of husband and father! They laid her hand with a woman's gentleness were to each other friends, companions, in his outstretched palm, and looked into the world; and when the huge logs his face with such a look as only deep blazed up from the hearth through the feeling and affection can bestow. At the open-mouthed chimney, lighting up every twilight hour a sense of loneliness is most corner of the snug cottage, the winds burdensome; and she felt then how far, howling and roaring among the trees, how very far off they were from that busy and the drifting snow, were all unheeded. world of which they had once formed a There, around that fireside, old legends part. She spoke of home, and friends, and were rehearsed, old friends were talked bygone days, and old-remembered scenes, of, and all the events of their former days which they should see no more, until were brought up anew. Evening after even his rugged nature was moved, and he evening, too, their few books were brought felt it not unmanly to weep. Blinded out, and read over and over again, as if their with falling tears, not of grief, nor of contents were never heard before. A file penitence, nor of awakened guilt, but of of old newspapers, which had somehow sweet and melancholy remembrances, she been packed up with their little stock of reclined her head upon his shoulder, and geods, were re-perused, with as much her thoughts flitted alternately between avidity as if the sheets were damp from the past, the present, and the future, the press; the marriages and deaths reuntil the present and the future were corded years before were to them as lost in the visions of her home and her events of yesterday; old advertisements youth.

were faithfully pored over from time to When the stars were up, and the night time; and it must be confessed some of had closed in upon them; from that them rekindled in the goodwife a halfhumble abode arose a manly, deep-toned forgotten idea of caps, ribands, and laces; voice of praise and supplication; for the of shops, and their long shelves filled and pioneer was a prayerful man. A descend surrounded with many an article of feant of the Pilgrims, he had in him that male finery. faith which was once delivered to the Spring came again, and with it also the saints. It is needless to speak of the scourge of a new country-racking agues eloquence of that forest devotion; it was and burning fevers. The strong man a prayer for pardon of trangressions, a was bowed low; his frame drooped, his thanksgiving for life, and health, and eye rolled delirious, and his tongue spake many blessings; a supplication for peace strange things; the tender child, too, was and protection, and for strength and firm-confined to its couch of pain. Then cams

the trials of life upon that lone wife and to protect and defend their homes, the mother. No physician was near with heal- husband bade his wife adieu, and went ing medicine; no friend to keep with her forth against the foe. Peace came, and the long watches of the night; but the the settler and his wife revisited their 'Lord of the whole earth’ was there, and deserted home. Anon a new dwelling he inspired her breast with fortitude. arose; their household gods were gathered The simple remedies which she had once more; and amid various vicissitudes learned from some old prudent house- of fort the forest gradually fell around wife she prepared with an earnest care; them, and other sons and daughters grew she culled the wild herb, and made cool- up to bless them. ing drinks; and after long months of Years rolled swiftly by, and the adjapatient watching and nursing, she saw cent woods, which once bounded the view her husband slowly recover. But, mean- of our humble friends, were partially while, the summer solstice had come and cleared away. A settlement had been gone; and that they might not be left formed; adventurers like themselves had destitute of provisions, her own hands come in: need it be said how grateful had planted the earth with corn; had to them was the sight of man, and the pulled up the rank weeds which clogged pleasant sound of voices, near or remote ? its growth; and when the harvest was Roads were opened; a modest schoolripe, she had gathered it in. Thrice had house of hewn logs was erected, used on she travelled alone a long day's journey week-days to teach and train the budding through the woods to the nearest settle- intellect, and on Sundays for mutual ment for medicine and advice; and thrice communion of the few who, with mingled a longer distance to a rudely-constructed fear and faith, trusted and waited upon mill, and from it carried back sustenance their God. Now it has become like an to her sick household. It was a weary way old country; fine fair fields extend on for a woman who, in her girlhood, would either side, waving in summer with yelhave been scared by the sound of her own low grain; with pastures from which one light footstep. Saddest of all, came Death may hear the neighing of horses, and the into that lonely abode—and the youngest lowing of sleek-skinned kine. The deer and fairest child was no more! A rough and the panther have been driven farther box was all the coffin its feeble father west along with the savage, the aboriginal could make; a few shovels of loose mould lord of the land. was thrown up, and the pale child, borne The traveller who now passes the spot to its resting-place by the hands of its may think, as he looks upon all this, and mother, its father faintly following, was sees the husbandman gather his harvest covered with moist earth and matted in peace, and witnesses the evening's leaves. Not a word was spoken, but merry-meeting of brave youths and fairtears fell like rain. The scene was more haired maidens, that peace, security, and solemn thàn if loud-sounding requiems ease had always smiled upon the pioneer: had been sung, or a long procession drawn and while he sips his coffee in graceful out to bid the little sleeper farewell. indolence, should he perchance hear from

The cool breeze of autumn brought that grey-haired pair (for such have our healing on its wings; and the pioneer, friends become) a brief history of the strong once more, made the old woods perils and trials of a new settlement, he resound again with his thick-falling blows. may possibly turn away half-displeased, He carefully put seed into the ground for as if a nursery fable had been breathed in the ensuing year, and dreamed of pro- his ear. sperity. But another enemy was at hand. Dwellers in cities ! who rejoice in the The war-whoop of the Indians sounded security of streets,' think occasionally of fearfully in their ears one dark night, him who toils many and weary months, and they fled, lighted by the flames of their and makes one spot of this great earth own cottage, with their little one--for the greener by his exertions. While one of the remaining two whom sickness you enjoy your luxuries, think of the had spared was butchered almost in its brave band of men by whose labour mother's arms, and left unburied on the you thrive and fatten in at least comground. After a toilsome and dangerous parative ease. If you are in debt, march, they gained a shelter in the settle- and curse your stars for your fortune, or ments; and when from scattered neigh- the government for the too-much it probourhoods hardy men gathered together | mises, or the too-little which it performs; or if, being rich, you fear that in the fu- geneous myriads have darted influences ture your possessions may 'take to them- upon you, each one of them having some selves wings and fly away, contrast your definable tendency. A traveller round situation with that of the bardy pioneer; the globe would not meet a greater vaweigh your troubles in the balance with riety of seasons, prospects, and winds, the dangers which he braves, with the than you might have recorded of the cirlabour and suffering which he endures, and cumstances capable of affecting your chafor the honour of man repine no more ! racter during your journey of life. You

could not wish to have drawn to yourself

the agency of a vaster diversity of causes; FORMATION OF CHARACTER.

you could not wish, on the supposition Here a person of your age might pause, that you had gained advantage from all and look back with great interest on the these, to wear the spoik of a greater numworld of circumstances through which life ber of regions. The formation of the chahas been drawn. Consider what thou- racter from so many materials reminds sands of situations, appearances, incidents, one of that mighty appropriating attracpersons, you have been present with, each tion, which, on the fanciful hypothesis in its time. The review would carry you that the resurrection should re-assemble over something like a chaos, with all the the same particles which composed the moral, and all other elements, confounded body before, must draw them from dust together; and you may reflect, till you be- and trees, from animals, and ocean, and gin almost to wonder how an individual winds.John Foster. retains the same essence through all the diversities, vicissitudes, and counterac

THE TWO WIVES, tions of influence, that operate on it dur- The tea-things were removed, the chiling its progress through the confusion. dren had gone to bed, and Charles Lighte, While the essential being might, how- throwing down his newspaper, seated himever, defy the universe to extinguish, ab- self on the sofa beside his wife. sorb, or transmute it, you will find it has A hand slid into his own, thinner and come out with dispositions and habits less delicate than when, long ago, it had which will show where it has been, and first met his; but the same confiding, what it has undergone. You may descry loving hand. on it the marks and colours of many of And out of the fulness of her heart the the things by which it bas, in passing, goodwife spoke: 'I have been thinking, been touched or arrested.

Charles, as I watched this bright fireConsider the number of meetings with light flickering over our comfortable room, acquaintances, friends, or strangers; the how happily we live; how much we ought number of conversations you have held or to do for others, in return for the blessheard; the number of exhibitions of good ings that are daily heaped upon our or evil, virtue or vice; the number of oc- heads.' casions on which you have been disgusted 'Yes, Carrie, but these blessings are or pleased, moved to admiration or to ab- earned by daily work; you women sit at horrence; the number of times that you home by your comfortable fires, and little have contemplated the town, the rural think how your husbands and fathers are cottage, or verdant fields; the number of toiling, meantime, to procure the shelter, volumes you bave read; the times that and fuel, and food, for which you are só you have looked over the present state of grateful to Providence.' the world, or gone, by means of history, An arch smile lighted the still pretty into past ages; the number of comparisons face, as the wife answered, 'Ah, and you of yourself with other persons,alivcor dead, husbands and fathers enter the orderly and comparisons of them with one another; house, and eat the well-cooked, punctual the number of solitary musings, of solemn meals, and play with the neat, well-dressed, contemplations of night, of the successive and well-disciplined children, and enjoy the subjects of thought, and of animated sen- evening comfort and repose, without reatiments, that have been kindled and ex- lising how your wife, with head, and hand, tinguished. Add all the hours and causes and heart, must have toiled to bring about of sorrow which you have known. Through all these quiet results. I might easily this lengthened, and, if the number could give you practical proofs of what I have be told, stupendous multiplicity of things, asserted; but I delight in baving you you have advanced, while all their hetero- think of home as a place for enjoyment

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