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away; but long ere the allotted time stick by the stilts, and be content wi' beelapsed, the necromantic order was duly ing your ploughman.' 'Hout, lad,' said obeyed. Two cannonading knocks came the other, returning the friendly grasp, to the door, of a kind not to be mistaken. 'you've ten times mair gumption than The women shrank together from mere me about a farm. Nae fears of you.' habit, while John only laughed heartily. From the time alluded to in our story,
Now,' said he, 'see that the parlour-door no one at Windyknowe ever troubled himis shut; for I am going to make the real self or herself more with the solution of and genuine ghost come to the back of such a question as that long afterwards it, and play oid Scratch in good earnest.' introduced by the Pseudo-Ethiops, 'Who's Here again he was not disappointed. The dat knocking at de door ?' scratching came as predicted; and John, rising and opening the door, re-introduced CHINESE APHORISMS. to the parlour the household cat of the The following curious aphorisms throw Windyknowe family.
some light on the controverted question 'Here is the identical ghost,' he began, of Chinese civilisation. They are ex'good folks all, which has bothered us so tracted from a book called "The Book of long. This four-footed gentleman hav- the Way and the Truth,' by Lao-tseu, a ing a taste for wandering abroad at e’en, philosopher who lived 600 years before has fonnd the doors closed on him since Christ. It is translated by M. Stanislaus the nights grew langer and chilly; and Julien, Professor of the Chinese Language has accordingly found out for himsel a at Paris. As yet, we are far from having pass of entrance of the most ingenious reached even the moral height of the kind. By one spring he reaches the Chinese philosopher; and while waiting knocker; that is knock the first of the for the diffusion of his morality among ghost. By a second clever and instan- his own countrymen, we may as well exataneous jump, he lands in the shot-hole mine whether we have nothing to learn above the door; and, in leaving the from him; and whether the vices of amknocker, he performs knock the second bition, vanity, presumption, arrogance, of the ghost. From the shot-hole he covetousness, and inhumanity, which he leaps with ease into the passage on the denounces, have entirely disappeared from middle storey. I was in the garden among us: watching, and saw the whole proceed- Men of superior virtue are ignorant of ing; but I honestly own to you, that it their virtue; men of inferior virtue do wasna till I cam into this room, and not forget their virtue. Men of superior heard you tell of the cat's scratching and virtue practise it without thinking of it; entrance just before--and till I found men of inferior virtue practise it with inhis back quite wet besides—that the truth tention. : broke in on me like a flash o' lightning. I possess three precious things; I hold The cat had been out in the very shower and possess them as a treasure:—the first that damped mysel! He had come in- is called affection (love of mankind); the I wasna lang in conceiving how. I took second, economy; the third, humility. I him to the kitchen; and after first con- have affection, therefore I can be couravincing mysel more fully by a visit to geous. I have economy, therefore I can the knocker, I put him out o doors, and expend largely. I dare not be the first, confident of what would happen, I con- and therefore I may become (I am fitted jured him in again, as you saw. Now, to become) the chief of all men. But now good people all, what do I deserve for men leave affection to abandon themselves unmasking the fearfu ghost of Windy- to courage; they leave economy to give knowe?'
themselves up to profusion; they leave The well-pleased father called him a the lowest place to seek the highest. sharp and spunky chield;' the equally These things lead to death. delighted mother said 'he was a guid lad, When heaven desires to save a man, it and a credit to a connected wi' him;' gives him affection to protect him. while the now smiling sisters gave him a Great passions necessarily expose their reward that many a dashing bachelor possessor to great sacrifices. would have envied. The younger brother, He who knows how to suffice to hima manly fellow, shook his senior by the self, is safe from dishonour. He who hand, and said, Jock, I'll never be your knows when to stop, never stumbles or match at onything. I think I'll e'en falls.
GRAINS AND GRASSES.
There is no greater misfortune than not to be able to suffice to one's-self.
NATURE IN MOTION. There is no greater calamity than the desire of acquiring.
Most important for the life of man, The sage relishes what is without sa- and therefore his most faithful companions vour. He avenges the injuries he receives in his own great journeys, are the grasses
. by benefits. He begins by easy things It is these which mainly feed him and when he meditates difficult things; by domestic animals. Tropical regions cersmall things when he meditates great. tainly produce the bread-fruit, cocoa-nut
The saint seeks not to do great things; and date, which support man spontanefor that reason he can accomplish great pusly all the year round; but they are things. He who thinks many things easy, bound to and confined within small disis sure to encounter numerous ditficulties. tricts, and cannot be transplanted. ProHence it happens that the saint who vidence, therefore, has endowed some esteems everything difficult, encounters grasses—and these the most essential to no difficulty to the end of his life. man-with greater flexibility of structure,
A tree of large circumference sprang so that he may carry them with him from a root as delicate as a hair; a tower wherever he wanders. He is, after all, of nine storeys arose out of a handful of not the master of creation; he cannot at earth; a journey of a thousand lis began will alter the natural distribution of veby a step.
getables, to suit his pleasure or to satisfy Be attentive to the end as well as to his wants. Hence he has been compelled the beginning, and then you will not to choose, all over the world, among the
4000 varieties of grasses which adorn our To know, and to think that we know generous earth, some twenty kinds only, not, is the highest pitch of merit. Not which will in one summer, in a few to know, and to think that we know, is months, produce rich food, independent the common malady of men. If you are of the dry heat of the tropics and the afflicted at this malady, you will not be rigid cold of the north. It is they which infected with it.
mark the periods in man's history; with The saint clothes himself in coarse rai- them came everywhere civilisation in the ment, and hides precious gems in his change from a wandering, pastoral life, to breast.
the higher grade of permanent agriculture. Beware of thinking your dwelling too Thus, the great phases of man's history small for you; beware of becoming dis- are written also on the green pages of the gusted with your lot.
vegetable world. The net of heaven is immense; its At a very early period, already these meshes are wide, yet nobody escapes.
cerealia must have come from the Eden The sage fears glory as much as igno- of God into the fields of man. Their miny. Glory is something low. When a subsequent path may be distinctly traced man has it, he is filled with fear; when he from nation to nation; but the unfathomhas lost it, he is filled with fear.
able antiquity of their first culture is You may trust the government of the clearly seen in the fact that, in spite of empire to the man who fears to under- the most careful researches, the genuine take to govern the empire.
natural home of the more important vaThe most excellent arms are instru- rieties has never been discovered. Their ments of the sage. He uses then only original source is wrapped in the same when he cannot dispense with them, and mystery which hides the first history of places above all things calm and repose.
those domestic animals that have acIf he triumphs, he does not rejoice. To companied man all over the globe since rejoice at victory, is to love to kill men. bis earliest migrations. They are, in He who has killed a multitude of men truth, homeless. After tracing themi ought to lament over them with tears up through a few centuries, we reach and sobs.--Athenæum.
traditions and myths only, which inva
riably point to the gods themselves as Extinguish vanity in the mind, and you the first givers of these rich blessings. naturally retrench the little superfluities In India Brahma descended from heaven of garniture and equipage. The blossoms for that purpose, in Egypt Isis; Greece will fall of themselves when the root that owned the gift to her Demeter, Rome to nourishes them is destroyed.— Steele. Ceres. The ancient Peruvians even had
similar legends about the origin of maize, helped to diffuse cotton—which the anwhich the bold Spaniards, who invaded cients already knew in India, and later their ancient kingdom, found cultivated in Egypt_coffee, sugar, and the dateon sacred ground around the Incas' Tem- palm; the Chinese have imported cotton ple of the Sun, at an elevation of 12,000 from Hindostan, and the Japanese tea feet above thy sca. The ripened grain from China. was solemnly sacrificed to their god, or The earliest grains known in Europe distributed among the people, who_as- were undoubtedly wheat and barley, alcribed to it miraculous powers. But, though even the oldest authors are at setting these fables aside, both tradition variance as to their first home. Charred and history point invariably to the East grains of both are found in Pompeii, as the land from which these grasses first and pictures on the walls of the silent came. Myths even lose them on the city show quails picking grains out of a high table-lands of Asia, where, it has spike of barley. The Bible, Homer, and been conjectured, a late and last rise of Herodotus, already mention them as the land in distant ages, and a sudden widely diffused, and Diodorus Siculus elevation of mountains, may have scat- even speaks of the belief entertained by tered them, so that they can no longer many, that wheat grew wild in the be found even in their original father- Leontine fields and several other places land. Now they are met with only cul- in Sicily. So certain it is that antiquity tivated or run wild, and even ancient itself was at a loss where to fix the oriSanscrit has no proper word for them, ginal abode of these grasses; all refebut calls wheat already food of barba- rences, however, point to India; and yet rians, thus indicating its north-western Humboldt tells us, that the varieties there origin.
found in our day bear unmistakeable Not all nations, however, can lay evidence that they were once cultivated, equal claim to the distribution of these and have but recently become outcasts. noble gifts of nature. It is the Caucasian The Spaniards carried wheat to North races alone who have caused the migra- | America; a negro slave of the great tions of the most important plants from Cortes was the first who cultivated it in their original home, wherever that may New Spain, beginning with three grains be, to the fou quarters of the globe. which he had accidentally found among Europeans have, by degrees, transplanted the rice brought out as provisions for to their own land all the characteristic the army. At Quito, they show to this plants of other races. They have fetched day, in a Franciscan convent, the earthen the finer fruits, the almond, apricot, and vessel which had contained the first peach, from Persia and Asia Minor; they wheat sown there. by a monk, a native have brought the orange from China, of Flanders, in front of his convent, transplanted rice and cotton to the after cutting down the original forest. shores of the Mediterranean, and carried The great Humboldt says justly, in conmaize and potatoes from America to Eu- nection with this fact, would that the rope. But the influence of these races, names had been preserved, not of those in changing the natural distribution of who made the earth desolate by bloody plants, is even more evident in the colo- conquests, but of those who intrusted to it nies which they have established abroad. first these its fruits, so early associated These they have endowed not only with with the civilisation of mankind. Bartheir own vegetables, but also with those ley, which Homer mentions as the food of which would not flourish in Europe, but his heroes' horses, has at least this merit, might thrive in more favoured regions. that it is the most widely-spread of all Thus we find all European corn-plants in the nutritious grasses. It is known every part of America; the vine has from the utmost boundary of culture in been carried to Madeira and the Cana- Lapland, down to the elevated plains near ries, to the southern parts of Africa and the equator. America; rice and cotton are raised in At a much later period, rye was vast quantities in the United States and brought to Europe; at the time of in Brazil; nutmeg and clove have found Galenus it found its way through Thracia their way to Mauritius, Bourbon, and the into Greece, and Pliny speaks of it as West India Islands, and tea is now cul- having been brought from Tauria by tivated in Brazil
, India, and Java. Other Massilian merchants; in his day it was races have done but little: the Arabs occasionally met with in the neighbour
hood of Turin. Serbian Wendes brought also point with their 'Arabic wheat' to it in the seventh century to Germany, an oriental home. where Charlemagne at once distinguished The American continent has long had its great importance, and wisely encou- the merit of being, at least, the original raged its culture, so that it soon spread home of the potato. It was said to over the Continent, and now sustains at grow wild in Peru, Chili, and Mexico, but least one-third of its inhabitants. This learned botanists and careful observers grass also was apparently found growing have since ascertained that the tuber wild in the Caucasus; but more careful ob- there found is not the common parent, servations have since shown that the pre- but only a different species of the numesumed originals were a different species: rous genus to which the potato belongs. their stems were so brittle, that they could Another curious evidence is, that in not be thrashed. More recently still, Mexico itself, only quite recently, atoats were brought to Europe from the tempts have been made along the coast East, and whilst in Greece they were only to raise potatoes, mainly for the purpose used as green fodder, Pliny already re- of giving to Europeans, in the so-called presents the Germans as living upon oat home of that most useful plant, the fagroats, a dainty which they have by no vourite vegetable of their own mother means abandoned since.
country. But alas! they have stoutly Rice seems at a very early period of refused to grow any longer in the presumed European history to have acquired no land of their fathers, and every effort has small importance among the more widely- so far signally failed. diffused grasses. Hence we can more As every great good has its necessary easily follow its gradual migrations from evil, and as every army of brave soldiers its home in India, to which even the is almost inevitably followed by crowds of Sanscrit name Vri points, and where stragglers and robbers, so man also has been the Danish missionary, Klein, believes compelled to take along with these emithat he found it growing wild, to vari- nently useful grasses their inseparable ous parts of the world. In the East, companions, a whole rabble of weeds, we know, it was from the times of an- thorns, and thistles. Most of these, as tiquity the principal article of food; at now found in our fields, came, without the time of Alexander the Great, it was doubt, with the cerealia. In still larger cultivated as far as the lower Euph- numbers, however, and without the agency rates, and from thence it was carried to of man, certain other plants attach thenEgypt. The Romans do not seem to selves to the lord of creation, and follow have known it. The Arabs, however, him wherever he goes, and builds himself brought it, after their great conquests in huts. These seem not to be bound to Africa, Sicily, and Spain, to southern their kinsfolk, the grains and grasses, but Europe. North America knows it only to man's own iminediate home; they since the beginning of the last cen- settle with never - failing punctuality tury, but produces now a large propor- around his house, near to his stable, or tion of all the rice consumed in the old luxuriate on his dunghill. Travellers World.
can thus trace, as the celebrated AugusThe New World claims maize alone tin St Hilaire did in Brazil, by the mere as its own indigenous product among presence of weeds, even in the midst of the nutritious grasses. But even this à desert, the place of abandoned and is not allowed without some opposition. v.tterly destroyed settlements. Stranger Theophrastus speaks of a certain pecu- still is it, that the different races of men liar wheat, with grains of the size of an have different kinds of weeds following olive kernel, which came from India; in their wake, so that a careful observer and many believe that this cannot have can in travelling see at once, by merely been anything else but maize. They noticing the prevailing weeds, whether try to strengthen their position by the Europeans or Asiatics, Germans or slaves, fact, that not one of the many carefully- Negroes or Indians, have dwelt at cersearching travellers in America has ever tain places. It was not without good yet found maiza growing otherwise than reason, then, that some of our Indian cultivated, or evidently run wild. Its tribes called the common plantain in their names in European languages certainly language 'the white rian's footsteps;' a refer to the East. Germany and Italy simple but distinct vetch marks in like call it 'Turkish wheat,' and the Greeks manner even now, long after the entire abandonment of the land, the former it made its way into southern Germany; dwelling-places of Norwegian colonists in from thence it is even now gradually Greenland. Historians, also, may thus wandering towards the moister regions learn yet many a lesson, even from weeds, of the north. No Pythagoras need foras to the direction and length of the bid his disciples now the use of the bean, great migrations of the human race. One for Egypt is no longer able to produce it. of the most remarkable instances of the The wine of Mareotis also, that inspired kind is perhaps the almost universal dis- the girests of Cleopatra, and whose praises persion of the so-called Jamestown weed. Horace has sung in such graceful verses, It came at first from India, whence gip- grows no more. The conscience-stricken sies carried it over the wide world, murderer would find no shelter, in our making constant use of its medicinal day, in the pine forest of Poseidon, virtues and vices. They always kept it where to lie in wait for the guests that on hand, and even raised it around their wandered joyfully to the great festivals encampments, and thus it followed their of Greece; the pines have long since trace from the far East to the far West. left the plain, with its hot, dry climate,
One peculiar effect of this migration and moved up to the cooler mountains. in masses is, that certain plants, first in- It need hardly be added, that all the troduced by man, have subsequently be- finer fruits also have come to us from the come so generally diffused, independent East. The precious grape, the oling of his agency, as to displace in some in- cherry, the pomegranate and the peach, in stances the whole original flora of a fine, all the luscious gifts of autumn, we country. The rich pampas of South owe to the Orient. Italy is not originally America have thus been overrun with 'The land where the lemon-tree blows, the artichoke and peach-tree of another In darker leaves bower'd the gold orange continent; immense tracts are now co- glows,' vered with these intruders from abroad. for Seville oranges and lemons came to and rendered useless as pastures. Even Europe only through the Arabs. The latislands have not escaped this fate. In ter are not even found on the walls of PomSt Helena, original plants have almost peii, and the common orange, which is a entirely disappeared, and made room for Chinese by birth, was brought to Europe those which have been brought there first by bold Portuguese sailors. from Europe and Asia. In eastern China In Europe, these fruits lingered for a the population is so dense, and the cul- time, were remodelled from their first ture of the soil so high, that, with the rough shape, developed and refined, and exception of a few water-plants in skil- then sent, ennobled in shape and quality, fully-flooded rice fields, all the plants across the broad Atlantic. There they which originally grew wild there have have rapidly spread from state to state, been driven out. The whole land is now and are even now on their way, through exclusively covered with grains raised by California, back to their original home. the hand of man, and the botanist finds, in Strange it is, that as Europe has never the low lands at least, not a single plant returned any similar gifts for the many which is not artificially cultivated. presents it has received from the East,
Some plants thus literally conquer a so America also has given to Europe country, and banish the native inhabi- nothing in return for her many kindtants; others disappear, not before ene
For even tobacco is not accepted mies of their own race, but emigrate as a western gift by all botanists. “Albecause of climatic changes. Palestine, though it is said that the Spaniards which was once a land flowing with found it used in Mexico medicinally, esmilk and honey, where the grape and pecially in the treatment of wounds, and the date abounded, is now utterly sterile. saw it smoked there, as the English did The spoiler is fallen upon her summer- in Virginia, still it was certainly known fruit and her vintage; joy and gladness as early as 1601 in Java and China, and are taken from the plentiful field, and her there is good reason to believe at an even plants are gone over the sea. Our com- earlier date in China. Now, as tobacco mon clover has distinctly marked its did not reach Europe before 1559, when travelling-stations; requiring much mois- it was first used in Portugal--and, conture, it left Greece when her plains were sequently, in Europe as medicine, it scorched and withered; Italy could not may at least have been known in eastern hold it, after repeated devastations, when Asia long before the discovery of Ame