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Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall have full power by statute to modify, change or abrogate any and all of the provisions of this article, and substitute others in their place, except sections seven, nine and thirteen.

ARTICLE VIII.

Corporations other than Municipal. Section 1. Corporations may be formed under general laws, but shall not be created by special act, except for municipal purposes, and in cases where, in the judgment of the Legisla ture, the object of the corporation cannot be attained under general laws. All general laws and special acts, passed pur. suant to this section, may be altered from time to time, or repealed.

Sec. 2. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual liabilities of the corporations and other means as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 3. The term corporation, as used in this article, shall be construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies, having any of the powers and privileges of corporations, not possessed by individuals or partnerships. And all corporations shall have the right to sue, and shall be subject to be sued in all courts, in like cases as natural persons.

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the Legislature to provide for the organization of cities, towns and incorporated villages, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts and loaning their credit, so as to prevent abuses in assessment and in contracting debts by such municipal corporations.

ARTICLE IX.

Education.

Section 1. Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.

Sec. 2. The General Assembly, at its first session under this Constitution, shall provide by taxation, and otherwise, for a gen. eral and uniform system of public schools, wherein, tuition shall be free of charge to all the children of the State between the ages of six and twenty-one years. And the children of the white race and the children of the colored race shall be taught in separate public schools; but there shall be no discrimination in favor of, or to the prejudice of either race.

Sec. 3. Each county of the State shall be divided into a convenient number of districts, in which one or more public schools shall be maintained at least four months in every year; and if the commissioners of any county shall fail to comply with the aforesaid requirements of this section they shall be liable to indictment.

Sec. 4. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to this state, and not otherwise appropriated by this State or the United States; also, all moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property, now belonging to any State fund for purposes of education; also the net proceeeds of all sales of the swamp lands belonging to the State, and all other grants, gifts or devises, that have been or hereafter may be made to the State, and not otherwise appropriated by the State, or by the term of the grant, gift or devise, shall be paid into the State treasury; and, together with so much of the ordinary reve nue of the State as may be by law set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated for establishing and maintain. ing in this State a system of free public schools, and for no other uses or purposes whatsoever.

Sec. 5. All moneys, stocks, bonds and other property, belong. ing to a county school fund; also the net proceeds from the sale of estrays; also the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures, and of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal or military laws of the State; and all moneys which shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, shall belong to and remain in the several counties, and shall be faithfully appropriated for establishing and maintaining free public schools in the several counties in this State. Provided, That the amount collected in each county shall be annually reported to the Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall have power to provide for the election of trustees of the University of North Carolina, in whom, when chosen, shall be vested all the privileges, rights, franchises and endowments thereof, in anywise granted to or conferred upon the trustees of said University; and the General Assembly may make such provisions, laws and regulations from time to time as may be necessary and expedient for the maintenance and management of said University.

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall provide that the benefits of the University, as far as practicable, be extended to the youth of the State free of expense for tuition; also, that all the property which has heretofore accrued to the State, or shall here. after accrue, from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares of the estates of deceased persons, shall be appropriated to the use of the University.

Sec. 8. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, Auditor, Superintendent of Public Instruction and Attorney-General, shall constitute a State board of education.

Sec. 9. The Governor shall be president, and the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be secretary of the board of education.

Sec. 10. The board of education shall succeed to all the powers and trusts of the president and directors of the literary fund of North Carolina and shall have full power to legislate and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to free public schools and the educational fund of the State; but all acts, rules and regulations of said board may be altered, amended or repealed by the General Assembly, and when so altered, amended or repealed, they shall not be re-enactd by the board.

Sec. 11. The first session of the board of education shall be held at the capital of the State, within fifteen days after the organization of the State government under this Constitution; the time of future meetings may be determined by the board.

Sec. 12. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.

Sec. 13. The contingent expenses of the board shall be provided by the General Assembly.

As soon as practicable after the adoption of this Constitution, the General Assembly shall establish and maintain, in connection with the University, a department of agriculture, of mechanics, of mining, and of Normal instruction.

Sec. 15. The General Assembly is hereby empowered to enact that every child of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend the public schools during the period between the ages of six and eighteen years, for a term of not less than sixteen months, unless educated by other means.

ARTICLE X.

Homesteads and Exemptions. Section 1. The personal property of any resident of this State, to the value of five hundred dollars, to be selected by such resident, shall be and is hereby exempted from sale under execution, or other final process of any court, issued for the collection of any debt.

Sec. 2. Every homestead, and the dwellings and buildings used therewith, not exceeding in value one thousand dollars, to be selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot in a city, town or village, with the dwelling and buildings used thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of this state, and not exceeding the value of one thousand dollars, shall be exempt from sale under execution, or other final process obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes, or for payment of obligations contracted for the purchase of said premises.

Sec. 3. The homestead, after the death of the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority of his children, or any one of them.

Sec. 4. The provisions of sections one and two of this article shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanic's lien for work done on the premises.

Sec. 5. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow, but no children, the same shall be exempt from the debts of her husband, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit during her widowhood, unless she be the owner of a home stead in her own right.

Sec. 6. The real and personal property of any female in this State, acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may, after marriage, become in any manner entitled, shall be and remain the sole and separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations or engagements of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed, and with the written assent of her husband, conveyed by her as if she were unmarried.

Sec. 7. The husband may insure his own life for the sole use and benefit of his wife and children, and in case of the death of the husband, the amount thus insured shall be paid over to the wife and children, or to the guardian, if under age, for her or their own use, free from all the claims of the representatives of her husband, or any of his creditors.

Sec. 8. Nothing contained in the foregoing sections of this article shall operate to prevent the owner of a homestead from disposing of the same by deed; but no deed made by the owner of a homestead shall be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of his wife, signified on her private examination according to law.

ARTICLE XI. Punishments, Penal Institutions and Public Charities. Section 1. The following punishments only shall be known to the laws of this State, viz.: Death, imprisonment, with or with: out hard labor; fines, removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under this State. The foregoing provision for imprisonment with hard labor shall be construed to authorize the employment of such convict labor on public works, or highways, or other labor for public benefit, and the farming out thereof, where and in such manner as may be provided by law; but no convict shall be farmed out who has been sentenced on a charge of murder, manslaughter, rape, attempt to commit rape or arson: Provided, That no con: vict whose labor may be farmed out shall be punished for any failure of duty as a laborer, except by a responsible officer of the State; but the convicts so farmed out shall be at all times under the supervision and control, as to their government and discipline, of the penitentiary board or some officer of the State.

Sec. 2. The object of punishments being not only to satisfy justice, but also to reform the offender, and thus prevent crime, murder, arson, burglary, and rape, and these only may be punishable with death, if the General Assembly shall so enact.

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall, at its first meeting, make provision for the erection and conduct of a State's prison or penitentiary, at some central and accessible point within the State.

Sec. 4. The General Assembly may provide for the erection of houses of correction, where vagrants and persons guilty of mis. demeanors shall be restrained and usefully employed.

Sec. 5. A house or houses of refuge may be established when. erer the public interests may require it, for the correction and instruction of other classe: of offenders.

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