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be secured and kept as may be provided by law. Monthly state ments shall be published showing the amount of such money, where the same are deposited, and how secured.

Sec. 14. The making profit out of the public moneys or using the same for any purpose not authorized by law by any officer of the State, or member or officer of the General Assembly, shall be a misdemeanor and shall be punished as may be provided by law, but part of such punishment shall be disqualification to hold office for a period of not less than five years.

ARTICLE X.

Education.

Section 1. The General Assembly shall provide for the mainte nance and support of a thorough and efficient system of public schools, wherein all the children of this Commonwealth above the the age of six years may be educated, and shall appropriate at least one million dollars each year for that purpose.

Sec. 2. No money raised for the support of the public schools of the Commonwealth shall be appropriated to or used for the support of any sectarian school.

Sec. 3. Women twenty-one years of age and upwards shall be eligible to any office of control or management under the school laws of this State.

ARTICLE XI.

Militia,

Section 1. The freemen of this Commonwealth shall be armed, organized and disciplined for its defense when and in such man. ner as may be directed by law. The General Assembly shall pro vide for maintaining theh militia by appropriations from the treasury of the Commonwealth, and may exempt from military service persons having conscientious scruples against bearing arms.

ARTICLE XII.

Public Officers. Section 1. All officers whose selection is not provided for in this Constitution, shall be elected or appointed as may be directed by law.

Sec. 2. No member of Congress from this State, nor any person holding or exercising any office or appointment of trust or profit under the United States, shall at the same time hold or exercise any office in this State to which a salary, fee or perquisites shall be attached. The General Assembly may by law declare what offices are incompatible.

Sec. 3. Any person who shall fight a duel or send a challenge for that purpose, or be aider or abettor in fighting a duel, shall be deprived of the right of holding any office of honor or profit in this State, and may be otherwise punished as shall be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE XIII.

New Counties.

Section 1. No new county shall be established which shall reduce any county to less than four hundred square miles, or to less than twenty thousand in habitants; nor shall any county be formed of less area, or containing a less population; nor shall any line thereof pass within ten miles of the county seat of any county proposed to be divided.

ARTICLE XIV.

County Officers. Section 1. County officers shall consist of sheriffs, coroners, prothonotaries, registers of wills, recorders of deeds, commissioners, treasurers, surveyors, auditors or controllers, clerks of the courts, district attorneys and such others as may from time to time be established by law; and no sheriff or treasurer shall be eligible for the term next succeeding the one for which he may be elected.

Sec. 2. County officers shall be elected at the general elections and shall hold their offices for the term of three years, begin. ning on the first Monday of January next after their election, and until their successors shall be duly qualified; all vacancies not otherwise provided for shall be filled in such manner as may be prorided by law.

Sec. 3. No person shall be appointed to any office within any county who shall not have been a citizen and an inhabitant therein one year next before his appointment, if the county shall have been so long erected, but if it shall not have been so long erected, then within the limits of the county or counties out of which it shall have been taken.

Sec. 4. Prothonotaries, clerks of the courts, recorders of deeds, registers of wills, county surveyors and sheriffs, shall keep their offices in the county town of the county in which they respectively shall be officers.

Sec. 5. The compensation of county officers shall be regulated by law, and all county officers who are or may be salaried shall pay all fees which they may be authorized to receive, into the treasury of the county or State, as may be directed by law. In counties containing over one hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants all county officers shall be paid by salary, and the salary of any such officer and his clerks, heretofore paid by fees, shall not exceed the aggregate amount of fees earned during his term and collected by him or for him.

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall provide by law for the strict accountability of all county, township and borough officers, as well for the fees which may be collected by them as for all public or municipal moneys which may be paid to them.

Sec. 7. The county commissioners and three county auditors shall be elected in each county where such officers are chosen, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five and every third year thereafter; and in the election of said officers, each qualified elector shall vote for no more than two persons, and the three persons having the highest number of votes shall be elected; any casual vacancy in the office of county commissioner or county auditor shall be filled by the Court of Common Pleas of the county in which such vacancy shall occur, by the appointment of an elector of the proper county who shall have voted for the commissioner or auditor whose place is to be fllled.

ARTICLE XV.

Cities and City Charters. Section 1. Cities may be chartered whenever a majority of the electors of any town or borough having a population of at least ten thousand shall vote at any general election in favor of the same.

Sec. 2. No debt shall be contracted or liability incurred by any municipal commission, except in pursuance of an appropriation previously made therefor by the municipal government.

Sec. 3. Every city shall create a sinking fund, which shall be inviolably pledged for the payment of its funded debt.

ARTICLE XVI.

Private Corporations. Section 1. All existing charters, or grants of special or exclusive privileges, under which a bona fide organizition shall not have taken place and business been commenced in good faith, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall thereafter have no validity.

Sec. 2. The General Assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the charter of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend the same, or pass any other general or special law for the benefit of such corporation except upon the condition that such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter subject to the provisions of this Constitution.

Sec. 3. The exercise of the right of eminent domain shall never be abridged or so construed as to prevent the General Assembly from taking the property and franchises of incorporated companies, and subjecting them to public use, the same as the property of individuals; and the exercise of the police power of the State shall never be abridged or so construed as to permit corporations to conduct their business in such manner as to infringe the equal rights of individuals or the general well being of the State.

Sec. 4. In all elections for directors or managers of a corporation each member or shareholder may cast the whole number of his votes for one candidate, or distribute them upon two or more candidates, as he may prefer.

Sec. 5. No foreign corporation shall do any business in this State without having one or more known places of business and an authorized agent or agents in the same upon whom process may be served.

Sec. 6. No corporation shall engage in any business other than that expressly authorized in its charter, nor shall it take or hold any real estate except such as may be necessary and proper for its legitimate business.

Sec. 7. No corporation shall issue stocks or bonds except for money, labor done, or money or property actually received; and all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void. The

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stock and indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased except in pursuance of general law, nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value of the stock, first obtained at a meeting to be held after sixty days' notice given in pursuance of law.

Sec. 8. Municipal and other corporations and individuals invested with the privilege of taking private property for public use shall make just compensation for property taken, injured or destroyed by the construction or enlargement of their works, highways or improvements, which compensation shall be paid or secured before such taking, injury or destruction. The General Assembly is hereby prohibited from depriving any person of an appeal from any preliminary assessment of damages against any such corporation or individuals made by viewers or otherwise; and the amount of such damages in all cases of appeal shall on the demand of either party be determined by a jury according to the course of the common law.

Sec. 9. Every banking law shall provide for the registry and countersigning, by an officer of the State, of all notes or bills designed for circulation, and that ample security to the full amount thereof shall be deposited with the Auditor-General for the redemption of such notes or bills. Sec. 10. The General Assembly shall have the power to alter,

. revoke or annul any charter of incorporation now existing and revocable at the adoption of this Constitution, or any that may hereafter be created, whenever in their opinion it may be inju. rious to the citizens of this Commonwealth, in such manner, how. ever, that no injustice shall be done to the corporators. No law hereafter enacted shall create, renew or extend the charter of more than one corporation.

Sec. 11. No corporate body to possess banking and discounting privileges shall be created or organized in pursuance of any law without three months' previous public notice, at the place of the intended location, of the intention to apply for such privileges, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, nor shall a charter for such privilege be granted for a longer period than twenty years.

Sec. 12. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose, or any individual, shall have the right to construct and maintain lines of telegraph within this State, and to connect the

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