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Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall provide for raising reve. nue sufficient to defray the expenses of the State for each year, and also a sufficient sum to pay the interest on the State debt.
Sec. 5. No tax shall be levied except in pursuance of law; and every law imposing a tax shall state distinctly the object of the same, to which only it shall be applied.
Sec. 6. The State shall never contract any debt for purposes of internal improvement.
Corporations. Section 1. The General Assembly shall pass no special act conferring corporate powers.
Sec. 2. Corporations may be formed under general laws; but all such laws may, from time to time, be altered or repealed.
Sec. 3. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual liability of the stockholders and other means, as may be prescribed by law; but in all cases each stockholder shall be liable, over and above the stock by him or her owned, and any amount unpaid thereon, to a further sum at least equal in amount to such stock.
Sec. 4. The property of corporations now existing or here. after created shall forever be subject to taxation, the same as the property of individuals.
Sec. 5. No right of way shall be appropriated to the use of any corporation until full compensation therefor be first made in money, or first secured by a deposit of money to the owner, irrespective of any benefit from any improvement proposed by such corporation, which compensation shall be ascertained by a jury of twelve men, in a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law. Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall provide for the organiza.
6 tion of cities and incorporated villages, by general laws, and restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts and loaning their credit, so as to prevent the abuse of such power.
Sec. 7. No act of the General Assembly authorizing associa. tions with banking powers shall take effect until it shall be submitted to the people, at the general election next succeeding the passage thereof, and be approved by a majority of all the electors voting at such election.
Jurisprudence. Section 1. The General Assembly, at its first session after the adoption of this Constitution, shall provide for the appointment of three commissioners, and prescribe their tenure of office, compensation and the mode of filling vacancies in said commission.
Sec. 2. The said commissioners shall revise, reform, simplify and abridge the practice, pleadings, forms and proceedings of the courts of record of this State; and, as far as practicable and expedient, shall provide for the abolition of the distinct forms of actions at law, now in use, and for the administration of jus. tice by a uniform mode of proceeding without reference to any distinction between law and equity.
Sec. 3. The proceedings of the commissioners shall, from time to time, be reported to the General Assembly, and be subject to the action of that body.
Miscellaneous. Section 1. Columbus shall be the seat of government until otherwise directed by law.
Sec. 2. The printing of the laws, journals, bills, legislative documents and papers for each branch of the General Assembly, with the printing required for the executive and other departments of state, shall be let on contract to the lowest bidder, by such executive officers and in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.
Sec. 3. An accurate and detailed statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public money, the several amounts paid, to whom, and on what account, shall, from time to time, be published, as shall be prescribed by law.
Sec. 4. No person shall be elected or appointed to any office in this State unless he possesses the qualification of an elector.
Sec. 5. No person shall hereafter fight a duel, assist in the same as second, or send, accept or knowingly carry, a challenge therefor, shall hold any office in this State.
Sec. 6. Lotteries and the sale of lottery tickets, for any pur pose whatever, shall forever be prohibited in this State.
Sec. 7. Every person chosen or appointed to any office under this State, before entering upon the discharge of its duties, shall take an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of the United States, and of this State, and also an oath of office.
Sec. 8. There may be established in the Secretary of State's office, a bureau of statistics, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law.
Sec. 9. No license to traffic in intoxicating liquors shall here. after be granted in this State; but the General Assembly may, by law, provide against evils resulting therefrom.
Section 1. Either branch of the General Assembly may propose amendments to this Constitution; and, if the same shall be agreed to by three-fifths of the members elected to each house, such proposed amendments shall be entered on the journals, with the yeas and nays, and shall be published in at least one newspaper in each county of the State, where a newspaper is published, for six months preceding the next election for Senators and Representatives, at which time the same shall be submitted to the electors for their approval or rejection; and if a majority of the electors voting at such election shall adopt such amendments, the same shall become a part of the Constitution. When more than one amendment shall be submitted at the same time, they shall be so submitted as to enable the electors to vote on each amendment separately.
Sec. 2. Whenever two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly shall think it necessary to call a convention to revise, amend or change this Constitution, they shall recommend to the electors to vote, at the next election for members to the General Assembly, for or against a convention; and if a majority of all the electors voting at said election shall have voted for a convention, the General Assembly shall, at their next session, provide, by law, for calling the same. The convention shall consist of as many members as the House of Representatives, who shall be chosen in the same manner, and shall meet within three months after their election, for the purpose aforesaid.
Sec. 3. At the general election to be held in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one, and each twentieth year thereafter, the question, “Shall there be a convention to revise, alter or amend the Constitution ? ” shall be submitted to the electors of the State; and in case a majority of all the electors voting at such election shall decide in favor of a convention, the General Assembly at its next session shall provide by law for the election of delegates and the assembling of such convention, as is provided in the preceding section; but no amendment of this Constitution, agreed upon by any convention assembled in pursuance of this article, shall take effect until the same shall have been submitted to the electors of the State, and adopted by a majority of those voting thereon.
Section 1. All laws of this State in force on the first day of September, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, not incon. sistent with this Constitution, shall continue in force until amended or repealed.
Sec. 2. The first election for members of the General Assem. bly, under this Constitution, shall be held on the second Tuesday of October, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.
Sec. 3. The first election for Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Auditor, Treasurer and Secretary of State and Attorney-General shall be held on the second Tuesday of October, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one. The persons holding said offices on the first day of September, one thousand eight hundred and fiftyone, shall continue therein, until the second Monday of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.
Sec. 4. The first election for judges for the Supreme Court, Courts of Common Pleas and Probate Courts, and clerks of the Courts of Common Pleas, shall be held on the second Tuesday of October, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, and the official term of said judges and clerks, so elected, shall commence on the second. Monday of February, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two. Judges and clerks of the Courts of Com. mon Pleas and Supreme Court in office on the first day of September, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one shall continue in office with their present powers and duties until the second Monday of February, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two. No suits or proceeding pending in any of the courts of this State shall be affected by the adoption of this Constitution.
Sec. 6. The Superior and Commercial Courts of Cincinnati, and the Superior Court of Cleveland, shall remain, until otherwise provided by law, with their present powers and jurisdiction; and the judges and clerks of said courts, in office on the first day of September, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one shall continue in office until the expiration of their terms of office, respectively, or until otherwise provided by law, but neither of said courts shall continue after the second Monday of February, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three; and no suits shall be commenced in said two first mentioned courts, after the second Monday in February, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two; nor in said last-mentioned court, after the second Mon. day in August, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two; and all business in either of said courts, not disposed of within the time limited for their continuance as aforesaid, shall be transferred to the Court of Common Pleas.
Sec. 7. All county and township officers and justices of the peace, in office on the first day of September, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, shall continue in office until their terms expire, respectively.
Sec. 8. Vacancies in office, occurring after the first day of September, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, shall be filled, as is now prescribed by law, and until officers are elected or appointed, and qualified under this Constitution.
Sec. 9. This Constitution shall take effect on the first day of September, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.
Sec. 10. All officers shall continue in office until their suocessors shall be chosen and qualified.
Sec. 11. Suits pending in the Supreme Court in bank shall be transferred to the Supreme Court provided for in this Constitution, and be proceeded in according to law.
Sec. 12. The District Courts shall, in their respective coun. ties, be the successors of the present Supreme Court; and all suits, prosecutions, judgments, records and proceedings pending and remaining in said Supreme Court in the several counties of