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ARTICLE X. County and Township Organizations. Section 1. The General Assembly shall provide, by law, for the election of such county and township officers as may be necessary.
Sec. 2. County officers shall be elected on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, by the electors in each county, in such manner and for such term, not exceeding three years, as may be provided by law.
Sec. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of sheriff, or county treasurer, for more than four years, in any period of six Fears.
Sec. 4. Township officers shall be elected by the electors of each township at such time, in such manner, and for such term, not exceeding three years, as may be provided by law; but shall hold their offices until their successors are elected and qualified.
Sec. 5. No money shall be drawn from any county or town. ship treasury except by authority of law.
Sec. 6. Justices of the peace and county and township officers may be removed in such manner and for such cause as shall be prescribed by law.
Sec. 7. The commissioners of counties, the trustees of town. ships and similar boards shall have such power of local taxation for police purposes, as may be prescribed by law.
Apportionment. Section 1. The apportionment of this State for members of the General Assembly shall be made every ten years, after the Fear one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, in the following manner: The whole population of the State, as ascertained by the federal census, or in such other mode as the General Assembly may direct, shall be divided by the number one hundred," aud the quotient shall be the ratio of representation in the House of Representatives, for ten years next succeeding such apportionment.
Sec. 2. Every county having a population equal to one-half of said ratio shall be entitled to one Representative; every county containing said ratio and three-fourths over shall be entitled to two Representatives; every county containing three times said ratio shall be entitled to three Representatives, and so on, requiring after the first two an entire ratio for each additional Representative.
Sec. 3. When any county shall have a fraction above the ratio, so large that, being multiplied by five, the result will be equal to one or more ratios, additional Representatives shall be apportioned for such ratios, among the several sessions of the decennial period, in the following manner: If there be only one ratio, a Representative shall be allotted to the fifth session of the decennial period; if there are two ratios, a Representative shall be allotted to the fourth and third sessions, respectively; if three, to the third, second and first sessions, respectively; if four, to the fourth, third, second and first sessions, respectively.
Sec. 4. Any county forming with another county or counties a Representative district during one decennial period, if it have acquired sufficient population at the next decennial period, shall be entitled to a separate representation, if there shall be left, in the district from which it shall have been separated, a popu. lation sufficient for a Representative; but no such change shall be made, except at the regular decennial period for the apportion. ment of Representatives.
Sec. 5. If, in fixing any subsequent ratio, a county previously entitled to a separate representation shall have less than the number required by the new ratio for a Representative, such county shall be attached to the county adjoining it, having the least number of inhabitants; and the representation of the dis. trict so formed shall be determined as herein provided.
Sec. 6. The ratio for a Senator shall forever, hereafter, be ascertained, by dividing the whole population of the State by the number thirty-five.
Sec. 7. The State is hereby divided into thirty-three sena. torial districts, as follows: The county of Hamilton shall constitute the first senatorial district; the counties of Butler and Warren, the second; Montgomery and Preble, the third; Clermont and Brown, the fourth; Greene, Clinton and Fayette, the fifth; Ross and Highland, the sixth; Adam, Pike, Scioto and Jackson, the seventh; Lawrence, Gallia, Meigs and Vinton, the eighth; Athens, Hocking and Fairfield, the ninth; Franklin and Plck. away, the tenth; Clark, Champaign and Madison, the eleventh; Miami, Darke and Shelby, the twelfth; Logan, Union, Marion and Hardin, the thirteenth; Washington and Morgan, the fourteenth; Muskingum and Perry, the fifteenth; Delaware and Licking, the sixteenth; Knox and Morrow, the seventeenth; Coshocton and Tuscarawas, the eighteenth; Guernsey and Monroe, the nineteenth; Belmont and Harrison, the twentieth; Carroll and Stark, the twenty-first; Jefferson and Columbiana, the twenty-second; Trumbull and Mahoning, the twenty-third; Ashtabula, Lake and Geauga, the twenty-fourth; Cuyahoga, the twenty-fifth; Portage and Summit, the twenty-sixth; Medina and Lorain, the twenty-seventh; Wayne and Holmes, the twenty, eighth; Ashland and Richland, the twenty-ninth; Huron, Erie, Sandusky and Ottawa, the thirtieth; Seneca, Crawford and Wyandot, the thirty-first; Mercer, Auglaize, Allen, Van Wert, Paulding, Defiance and Williams, the thirty-second; and Hancock, Wood, Lucas, Fulton, Henry and Putnam, the thirty-third. For the first decennial period of the adoption of this Constitution each of said districts shall be entitled to one Senator, except the first district, which shall be entitled to three Senators.
Sec. 8. The same rules shall be applied in apportioning the fractions of senatorial districts, and in annexing districts, which may hereafter have less than three-fourths of a senatorial ratio, as are applied to Representative districts.
Sec. 9. Any county forming part of a senatorial district hav. ing acquired a population equal to a full senatorial ratio, shall be made a separate senatorial district, at any regular decennia apportionment, if a full senatorial ratio shall be left in the district from which it shall be taken.
Sec. 10. For the first ten years after the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, the apportionment of Representa: tives shall be as provided in the schedule, and no change shall ever be made in the principles of representation as herein estab. lished, or in the senatorial districts, except as above provided. All territory belonging to a county at the time of any apportion. ment, shall, as to the right of representation and suffrage, remain an integral part thereof during the decennial period.
Sec. 11. The Governor, Auditor and Secretary of State, or any two of them, shall, at least six months prior to the October elec
tion, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and at each decennial period thereafter, ascertain and determine the ratio of representation, according to the decennial census, the number of Representatives and Senators each county or district shall be entitled to elect and for what years, within the next ensuing ten years, and the Governor shall cause the same to be published, in such manner as shall be directed by law.
Judicial Apportionment. Sec. 12. For judicial purposes the State shall be apportioned as follows:
The county of Hamilton shall constitute the first district, which shall not be subdivided; and the judges therein may hold separate courts or separate sittings of the same court at the same time.
The counties of Butler, Preble and Darke shall constitute the first subdivision; Montgomery, Miami and Champaign, the second, and Warren, Clinton, Greene and Clark, the third subdivision of the second district, and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Shelby, Auglaize, Allen, Hardin, Logan, Union and Marion shall constitute the first subdivision; Mercer, Van Wert, Putnam, Paulding, Defiance, Williams, Henry and Fulton, the second, and Wood, Seneca, Hancock, Wyandot and Crawford, the third subdivision of the third district, and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Lucas, Ottawa, Sandusky, Erie and Huron shall constitute the first subdivision; Lorain, Medina and Summit, the second, and the county of Cuyahoga, the third subdivi. sion of the fourth district, and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Clermont, Brown and Adams shall constitute the first subdivision; Highland, Ross and Fayette, the second, and Pickaway, Franklin and Madison, the third subdivision of the fifth district, and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Licking, Knox and Delaware shall constitute the first subdivision; Morrow, Richland and Ashland, the second; and Wayne, Holmes and Coshocton, the third subdivision of the sixth district, and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Fairfield, Perry and Hocking shall constitute the first subdivision; Jackson, Vinton, Pike, Scioto and Law. rence, the second, and Gallia, Meigs, Athens and Washington, the third subdivision of the seventh distriot, and, together, shall form such distriot.
The counties of Muskingum and Morgan shall constitute the first subdivision; Guernsey, Belmont and Monroe, the second, and Jefferson, Harrison and Tuscarawas, the third subdivision of the eighth district, and, together, shall form such distriot.
The counties of Stark, Carroll and Columbiana shall constitute the first subdivision; Trumbull, Portage and Mahoning, the second, and Geauga, Lake and Ashtabula, the third subdivision of the ninth district, and, together, shall form such district.
Seo. 13. The General Assembly shall attach any new counties that may hereafter be erected to such districts or subdivisions thereof as shall be the most convenient.
Finance and Taxation. Section 1. The levying of taxes by the poll is grievous and oppressive; therefore, the General Assembly shall never levy a poll tax for county or State purposes.
Seo. 2. Laws shall be passed taxing by a uniform rule all moneys, oredits, investments in bonds, stocks, joint-stock com. panies or otherwise; and also all real and personal property according to its true value in money; but burying grounds, public school-houses, houses used exclusively for publio worship, insti. tutions of purely public charity, publio property used exclusively for any publio purpose, and personal property to an amount not exceeding in value two hundred dollars, for each individual may, by general laws, be exempted from taxation; but all such laws shall be subjected to alterations and repeal; and the value of all property so exempted, shall, from time to time, be ascer. tained and published, as may be directed by law.
Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall provide by law for tax. ing the notes and bills discounted or purchased-moneys loaned, and all other property, effects or dues, of every description, without deduotion, of all banks now existing, or hereafter created, and of all bankers, so that all property, employed in banking shall always bear a burden of taxation equal to that imposed on the property of individuals.