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composition from Rama, an Indian deity, though: unremembered in Egypt, except in this form, and Isis, or Ess, a ship. But amidst all this wantonness of polytheism some very intelligible hints remain, that the real objects of their multiform idolatry were only few, and those their earliest ancestors. Champollion finds them usually distributed into triads; a male, a female, and their son. The principal triad was Ammon-ra, Mouth, and Khous; for Ham, with whose undutiful character we are acquainted in Scripture, seems to have extinguished as much as possible the memory of his father, in order that all the veneration, with which the head of the new world was regarded, might be heaped upon his own ashes. The addition of Ra shows that Ammon is not compounded of Ham, and On (the sun, for then it would have been needless), but of Mana, or Menes, who is acknowledged by the Egyptians to have been their first king, and that is an honour, which surely in "the land of Ham" would have been assigned to none but himself.

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In confirmation of this statement it may be observed, that in the composition of royal names the original form of the word is retained. The Amenophis of Eusebius is written by Africanus and Philo Ammenephte, which is obviously a composition from Ammon and Nephthe: in Manetho, however, it is written Menuphti, which leads to

1 Champollion's Twelfth Letter.

the conclusion that the Nebwa of Champollion is in truth the same as Cneph or Cnuph, i. e. Canopus. The secondary triad worshipped at Thebes, which, it will be recollected, derives its appellation from Thebah, the ark, consists-1st, of Ammon, the generator, called mystically the husband of his mother, which is the constant relation in mythology between the patriarch and the ark from which he issued into a new world. 2. Thamoun, that is to say, the female Ammon, one of the forms of Neith: and 3. Harka', which is probably the same as Har Koh, the mountain deity, for both words signify a mountain2; and a similar combination is found in the third triad, consisting of Sevek Ra, which is synonymous with Ammon Ra. 2. Hathor, i.e. Mouth and 3. Khous Hor.3 Amenophis is represented at Thebes making rich offerings to the two first triads, or accompanying their Bari, or sacred arks, borne in procession by the priests. One of these sacerdotal processions has been minutely described by Champollion, though its features are somewhat distorted, because his astronomical theory led him astray. That part of the painting which is really astronomical may have been added at a later period, and bears strong marks of recency, if it is rightly interpreted: but the mythology delineated is of a very different character. Twenty-four hours," says he, "of the astro


1 Champ., Twelfth Letter, September 26.

2 Coh in Persian is a mountain; Hor in Hebrew.
3 Xous is Tumulus, and Hor, Mons.

nomical day are represented under a human form with a star upon their heads." It is hard to discover any probable reason why an hour should be designated by a star; but we know that their deities or deified ancestors, were often so distinguished. He describes them "marching towards the further part of the tomb, as if to indicate the direction of the god's course." Yet they are but indifferent direction-posts if that was their intention; for if he was to continue his journey in one direction through all the four and twenty hours, what would become of to-morrow's dawn? It is evident that half of these figures should have pointed the other way to show his return from the western goal. He proceeds to say that "in each of the twelve hours of the day is drawn the detailed image of the bark of the god navigating in the celestial river on the primordial fluid or ether, the principle of all natural things, according to the Egyptian philosophers, with the figures of the gods who successively assist him, and besides the representation of the celestial abodes through which he passes, and the mythological scenes proper to each hour of the day."

The primordial fluid was certainly, according to most of the ancient philosophers, the principle of all natural things; but that fluid was not ether, but water and so popular was this belief, that the great master of the Grecian lyre ascribes to it the highest excellence'; not doubtless from any un

1 ̓́Αριστον μὲν ὕδωρο Pind. Olymp. Od. 1st.

Anacreontic admiration of its pure and simple taste, but on account of its powerful agency, in regenerating the world. In the next place, if the course of the sun be the subject of these paintings, what is the meaning of the assistant deities? What propriety is there in such a device, either astronomically or mythologically? and lastly, it will soon be perceived, that the scenes are in no sense proper to each, or any of the hours of the day. "At the first hour his Bari, or Bark, begins to move, and receives the adoration of the Spirit of the East." Who this Spirit is, or what existence he was supposed to have, except in the imagination of M. Champollion, does not appear. Among the pictures of the second hour, we find the great serpent Apophis, the brother and enemy of the sun, watched by the God Atmou." This word, if it be true that Har Hat means divine wisdom, and if Hapimoou is the Nile, i. e. the Apis of the waters, may perhaps be rendered the wisdom of the waters.' "At the third hour, the god sun arrives in the celestial zone, where the fate of souls is decided with respect to the bodies which they are to inhabit in their new transmigrations. The God Atmou is seen seated upon his tribunal, weighing in his


1 From Hat, and Moi, or Moon. Thmoui is a town which, in Pliny, has the name of Mendes. Lacroze derives it from Moui, which, in Coptic, is a Lion. - Lex. Copt. p. 23. Jablonski from Moue, Light. Opusc. i. 89. In the Memphitic Vocabulary of Montpellier, and in a Saidic Lexicon in the Royal library at Paris, it is rendered in Arabic Al Mawrad, or Mawradah - c'est à dire le Port.-Mém. Géogr. sur l'Egypte, par Quatremère, p. 133.

balance the human souls, which successively come forward. One of them has just been condemned: it is seen carried back to the earth in a Bari, which advances towards the gate guarded by Anubis, and driven with rods by Cynocephali. The culprit is in the figure of an enormous sow, above which is engraved, in large characters, gluttony. At the fifth hour, the god visits the Elysian fields of the Egyptian mythology, inhabited by the souls of the blessed on their heads they wear an ostrich feather, the emblem of their virtuous conduct. They are seen presenting offerings to the gods, or gathering the fruits of the celestial trees. Further on, are others with sickles in their hands; these are the souls that cultivate the fields of truth. Their legend is as follows: they make libations of water, and offerings of the grain of the fields of glory; they hold a sickle to reap the fields, which are their portion. The god Sun says to them, Take the sickles; reap the grain; carry it to your abode ; enjoy it, and present it as a pure offering to the gods. Elsewhere they are seen bathing, leaping, swimming, and playing in a great basin filled with the primordial water, all under the inspection of the god, the heavenly Nile." The reason of all this may be discovered in the kindred superstitions of India. According to the laws of Menu, an offering of boiled rice, and the like, or water, obtains favour from departed progenitors; and the kinsmen of a man who has performed penance for certain crimes

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