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at Fernando Po', and among the Orcades, or Ark Islands, in Pomona; for no one can imagine that the Goddess of Orchards had any thing to do with that barren island, where scarcely a gooseberry ripens its fruit. Perhaps, too, the Menapii of Ptolemy in the eastern part of Ireland, were Po-monans in a reversed order- Mona Poin; for Mona, says Vallancey, in the heathen mythology of the Irish, is derived from Mana2 (death), who, they say, was saved from the flood, and worshipped as a deity, which corresponds with the Menu of the Brahmins, explained by Sir W. Jones to mean Noah. On the summit of the high mountain, Sliabh na Mann, in the county of Tipperary, are the ruins of a very large altar dedicated to Mana: hence he infers, that the libations poured out to Meni, and the table prepared for Meni, were the feasts of the dead, sacrifices to the manes, called by the Hindoos Prasita, and frequently mentioned in the laws of Menu. Abundant testimony will hereafter


1 The origin of Fernando, and its connection with Po, it is not easy to explain: it is probably a corruption, and perhaps from Pharan Duw, the glory of God.

2 On the Ancient Irish, p. 41.

Mana, in Chaldee, is to flow, which shows the nature of the death to which it alludes, by the flood which destroyed the earth; and in like manner his other name Po, has been transferred in the islands of the South Sea to the figurative death, which he underwent in the grave of the Ark; for it signifies the world of darkness, from which Taaroa, the principal God of the Tahitians, emerged at the beginning; concerning whom some of their wise men hold, that he was only a man deified after death. By some it is stated, that the existence of the land or universe was anterior to that of the Gods; which would be quite true of those who were not older than the deluge. Ellis's Polynesian Researches, ii. 191.

3 Sir W. Jones's Works.

be produced that the holy water in the rock bason's on the tops of hills, and the other branches of Celtic idolatry, looked back to the deluge for their origin; and accordingly, Man or Mon gives name to many places where druidical temples are always to be found; as for instance, in the Isle of Man, in Mona, or Anglesey, and in Menai Strait, and in Pomona. In particular, several mountains are sacred to him, and he is also called Mananan, i. e. Mann an Ann, the god of the waters. 1 The Irish mythologists give him the name of Mac Lir, the son of the sea, and say that he was the best pilot of the western world, and settled in the Isle of Man; that he is powerful in the heavens, and assists in the disposal of good and bad weather, conjointly with Bad, the god of the winds, and with Rè, the moon.2 From him, Armenia, the peculiar land of Meni, because it contains Ararat, derives its name, and Harmonia, otherwise called Hermione, a city on the Argolic gulf, famous for its temple, and the Hermiones, a German tribe inhabiting Pomerania, who worshipped a hero-god, called Mannus.3 And finally, to his tutelary name we may trace the origin of Mons, Monte, Mountain; and in the language of Owyhee Mouna.1 It may be observed, that in Ireland, where antiquity has left deeper footsteps than elsewhere, Mann is distinguished from Bad, or, in other words, Noah is distinguished from his grandson

1 Ann, or Onn, in Irish, is water.

2 Vallancey's Vindication, Collect, iv. 507.

3 Moreri, in voce Hermiones. 4 Ellis's Researches.

Boudh, or, as it is written in the Greek version, Phoud. But the Oriental doctrine of the transmigration of souls from one generation to another, and consequent re-appearance of the same person in several bodies, perpetually confounds the characters of those who were only known to them through the medium of tradition: to this cause we owe the seven or fourteen Menas, and no less than twentytwo incarnations of Buddha. Thus Brahma is sometimes the self-existent Swayambhuva; sometimes the son of the self-existent Swayambhuva: the first Menu is sometimes the Father of Menu, Vaivaswata'; sometimes his grandfather. It is no wonder, therefore, that the heads of families after the flood lose their individuality, and are bound together in a complex mass of diluvian tradition, which it is extremely difficult to unravel. We must be satisfied with the discovery of separate clues here and there, and with the certainty that we cannot be far wrong in attributing to the persons, of whom these scattered notices remain, a proximity to the deluge. Let us proceed then to investigate the character of Buddha, and his connection with Mana or Meni. Sir Stamford Raffles, in his address to the Batavian Society, 1815, giving an

1 Vaivaswata is the child of the sun. Institutes of Menu. This Swayambhuva, be it observed, is also called Adima; so is his wife Satarapa another of her names is Iva, and she is descended from I, which is the same as the Welsh Hu pronounced He: they are obviously Adam and Eve. Again, Swayambhuva is conjointly and individually Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahadeva; and yet the Puranas say, that these three gods sprung in a mortal shape from the body of Adima, or Swayambhuva.-Wilford's Essay, As. Res. vol. v. art. 18.

account of Boro Bodo in Java', a temple built so as to crown the upper part of a small hill, and terminated by a dome, says, 66 Bodo is either a term of contempt cast on it by Mahommedans, or erroneously so pronounced, instead of Budho, which in its general acceptation in the Javanese language is synonymous with ancient or heathen: and Franklin observes, that in the language commonly employed in Hindostan, Boodha signifies an old and venerable man; and a Jeyne3, being asked by the author of "The religion of the Hindoos,” why they honoured him as God, replied, “It was an act of homage to exalted merit."4 Now in Thibet he is worshipped as Mahamoonee, or Mahiman, the great Moonee, or Mûni, i. e. Saint. Mr. Eliot tells us, that in the language of the Garrows, who inhabit the mountainous country N.E. of Bengal, and worship Mahadeo, which is the name of a mountain, as well as the sun and moon, and believe that their God resides in the hills, Mun signifies a man: on the other hand it has been shown, that in Hiberno-Celtic Mann is a God;

1 Boro is evidently Baris; for so Ararat was called. markable that in Irish, too, a dishonourable meaning has tached to Bod, plainly derived from the eastern linga brum virile.

2 Memoirs of Sir Stamford Raffles, p. 159. 3 The Jeynes are a sect of Boudhists.

It is re

been at


4 Francklin on the doctrines of the Jeynes and Boudhists, 164. 5 The inhabitants of Boutan suppose him to reside on the summit of a square rock, above the region of the sun and moon, surrounded by the ocean, which is divided by seven stripes of dry land, and contains some islands, the residence of mankind. DAVIS, in Trans. As. Soc. ii. 493.

6 As. Res. iii. 36.


they both designate the same deified mortal. Moreover Mana, who, as we have seen, is the Neptune of Ireland, was worshipped by the idolatrous Arabians in the form of a large rude stone', and in the Indian Peninsula Boodh was represented by a stupendous stone idol, called Sommonacodom, and his followers took delight in erecting to his honour temples and high monuments, as if, says Mr. Knox, in his account of Ceylon, they had been born solely to hew rocks and huge stones, and lay them up in heaps. It is a remarkable instance of the permanence of superstitious rites, that the Arabs at this day not only venerate the black stone in the Caaba3, which was probably the idol Manah, but the pilgrims of Mecca are obliged to visit a mountain in the neighbourhood, called the Holy Monument, and to throw seven stones, (Pococke says seventy,) and at different times and places, in the valley of Mina": to this subject we shall have occasion to revert in a future chapter. The antiquity of the Caaba, and of the black stone which it contains, is strenuously maintained by the Arabians, who carry it back so far as Adam. Two of their other pagan idols were Wadd and Sawâ :

1 Sale's Preliminary Discourse, p. 24, and 27. 2 Maurice's Ind. Ant. vi. 81.

3 The Caaba was said to contain an image of the moon, and therefore, although Sir W. Jones thinks the derivation must excite a smile, it seems very probable, that Mecca is only an abbreviation of Mahcadah, the Temple of the Moon. See his Works, iii. 62.

4 Al Masher al harâm. Sale's Discourse, p. 160. Remember God near the holy Monument. Koran, c. ii. 34.

5 Ibid. 154.

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