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tions that people retained. At the bottom of the Gulf, says Strabo, there is a remarkable temple of Diomed, which has seven copious springs of water falling immediately into the sea, in a broad and deep stream, and the natives call the place the fountain, and mother of the sea'; and he refers to some fables that were current among them concerning the Daunii and Hippian Argos. To understand this, it must be observed, that there is a well near the mountains of Namole, which the Hindoos worship, and when the Tith of Amavus happens upon a Friday, the water, they say, flows over at sunrise." Some emigrants from Hindostan, struck, perhaps, by a resemblance to their native well at the period of its overflow, gave this the name of Timavus. A Hindoo etymology may perhaps be thought too far-fetched, though that objection has been already refuted; but let those who think so explain, if they can, why Diomed should have a temple there, and especially a temple of this sort.

1 Ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ μυχῷ τοῦ ̓Αδρίου καὶ ἱερὸν τοῦ Διομήδους ἐστὶν ἄξιον μνήμης, τὸ Τίμαυνον. Λιμένα γὰρ ἔχει καὶ ἄλσος εὐπρεπὲς, καὶ πηγὰς που ταμίου ὕδατος εὐθὺς εἰς τὴν θάλασσην ἐκπίπτοντος, πλατεῖ καὶ βαθεῖ πο ταμῷ. - πηγὴν καὶ μητέρα θαλάττης ὀνομάζειν τὸν τόπον. v. 214.

Xylander thinking moraμov udatos a useless pleonasm, proposes to read Toriou, and Casaubon approves of it, absurdly enough: for so far from being potable, Strabo expressly states, that six out of the seven springs were salt. It refers to the Potan, or Patan, who presided over it; for, according to Col. Wilford, the word #otaμos itself is derived from Padma, pronounced Patam; and in Cornish Celtic, Tam being river, every potamos may be considered as a river Po.

2 Ayeen Akbery, ii. 39. It will be recollected that the final consonant is often quiescent, so that Tit Amavus would easily suffer that contraction.

Again we must have recourse to India; and if the language and the customs of that country can be traced still farther westward, it can be no matter of surprise to find relics of them in Italy. It is obvious that Diarmut might easily be mistaken for Diomed by a quick pronunciation. Now, that is a name to which many an altar is consecrated in Ireland, under the name of Leaba Diarmut: he is called Ruad ro fios, the most wise Governor; he is the Diarmutu of the Brahmans, a most wise and upright judge: they now adore him as the Irish did, and show a large flat stone for his bed, as the Irish do.' Ruad was certainly the deity presiding over the waters, and consequently a most proper person to own the temple with seven springs. But to return to Danu: the lake of Sincara, considered as the lake of the Gods, from which all rivers flow, is called Danau; here is the source of Indragiri, which obviously takes its name from the mountain itself, the hill of heaven. It lies amongst the Barisan, or mountains of the Baris; on one of which a steep and three-peaked hill, the city of the hill of Po, i. e. Pageruyong, is built; and another, equally three-peaked, is called Berapi, the Baris of Po, and one of its summits is Gunung Bempo, the sacred mountain." I have the less

1 Vallancey on the Ancient Irish, p. 67. Dile ruad, the diluvian king; in Chaldee Radah. Nomen Angeli pluviis et irrigationi terræ præfecti.-Buxtorf.

2 Address to the Batavian Society, 1815, by Sir Stamford Raffles. There are some other indications here of Brahminical arkite traditions. Somawung, the City of the Moon, is built above the source

hesitation in insisting upon these derivations, because there is a kindred propensity among the natives to revert to the æra of the flood. The Malays, says Sir S. Raffles, in their literary compositions, seldom go further back than the introduction of Mahommedanism, except to give an account of Noah's ark. And at Oodeenuggur, a city now in ruins, near the Hydaspes, the traditions of the people are said, by Lieutenant Burnes, to be vague and unsatisfactory; "for they referred us to the deluge and the time of the prophet Noah." In Europe, again, the Danube is called by the Germans Danaw, and it passes by the city of Buda (Pest); there is reason, therefore, to suspect, that in the Malayan Budo, the origin of the Grecian Danaus may be traced. Among the innumerable other localities which have retained his name, it may suffice to mention a few of the most obvious. The Nerbudda, or river of Buddha, flows from a mountain lake.2 The Ganges is called by the natives Puddah; a cavern in a hill upon its banks is Puttur Gotta; Puttur having on that account acquired the meaning of a rock; whence also the Greek Petra. Pokur is the name

of the Indragiri, and the country is called Pasumah Lebar, and Pasumah ulu Manna. Suruasa, from Surya, the Sun, is built on the Selo (Sol), which falls into Indragiri. The natives believe that a superior order of men inhabits the sky, whom they call Barucki, the navigators of the Baris.

1 Vol. i. 58.

2 The Saône, which flows from the same lake in a contrary direction, is also called Budda. Rennell's Memoirs of Hindostan, p. 225. 3 Heber's Journal.

of a celebrated temple near Ajmere, on the river Puddar', in the country of the Rajpoots; and since Curocurr and Currach are ancient expressions of a ship', it signifies the ship or temple of Po. The same meaning may be assigned to Powaghur in the same district of Guzerat, which Rennell writes Poggurrah: the ancient capital of this district was Puttan, where Edrisi expressly mentions that the idol Bodda, or Bud, was worshipped. There was another Puttan on the shore of the ocean in the districts of the harbour of Deo, distinguished by the addition of Sumnaut, from a very ancient Paghoda, which stood there, before it was destroyed by Mahmoud3; for Sommono in Palee, which Captain Mahony calls the language of Boudha, means Saint; whence also the Latin deity Summanus, whose history was buried so deep in antiquity, that Ovid could make no guess what he was1, undoubtedly derived his name. Sommonakodom, or Poatisat as he is called in Siam, is acknowledged by the Cingalese to be the same holy character as their Sommona Gautemeh, or Gau

1 The other name of the Puddar, Butlass, is only another form of the same etymology.

2 In ancient Irish; in Arabic Kurcur; in Spanish Carraca: at Ajmere also is Taraghur on a lofty hill. be rendered the temple of the Prince. navis, alias Carrucha, nostris Carache.

Tor being a Prince, it may Du Fresne explains Curuca Kerig, in Celtic, is a rock.

Mr. Bryant says, that Gur is a house both in Persic and in the

Gypsey or Zingari language.

3 Rennell's Memoirs of Hindostan, p. 226.

4 Reddita, quisquis is est, Summano templa feruntur.

Fast. vi. 731.

His honours were restored in the time of Pyrrhus; therefore they must have been more ancient.

temeh Boudha1; the paghoda therefore was the temple of Summona Nat; for the Nat of India is a demigod. The word has been adopted, or preserved, in the Latin Natta2, and it is easy to account for the filthiness charged upon him by Horace, and of dissoluteness by Persius", when it is recollected, that it is also written Nacca, and that the Nachs are the dancing girls in the impure rites grafted on the worship of Boudha. Paghoda itself means the temple of Po", or Pow, the deity to whom sacrifice is still offered before a journey is undertaken by the Puharrees, inhabitants of the hills in the north of, India; of whom Heber says, at the same time, that "they offer frequent prayers to one Supreme Being, called Budo Gosaee ;" and since it has been shown, that other forms of his name have been applied to islands in various parts of the world, we are prepared to find this too employed in the same way: in point of fact, in the Western Ocean we recognise it

1 As. Res. vii. 39. and he is thus connected with the deluge by a small anachronism of tradition. It is said, that the guardian angel of the earth used her utmost endeavours to prevail on the enemies of Sommonakodom to adore him as a God, but at last finding them inattentive to her repeated remonstrances, she squeezed her watery locks, and poured forth such a deluge as totally destroyed them. (Picart's Religious Ceremonies, iv. 55.) The diluvian divinity is here confounded with the true God.

2 Immundus Natta, Sat. vi. 1. i. v. 124.

3 Non pudet in morem discincti vivere Natta? Persius. Sat. iii. 31.

4 Heber's Journal.

5 Paghoda is from the Persian Pout, idol, and Ghoda, temple. Maurice's Ind. Ant. ii. 141.

6 Vol. i. 279. Heber's Journal.

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