« 上一页继续 »
conveyed by the monks to the convent, and however, they have been brought forward deposited there; and thenceforward the again quite conspicuously to the notice of institution received the name of St Cathe- the world, by the accounts of travellers rine. In consequence of these occurrences, and explorers, who go now fron motives the number of pilgriins and visitors to the of curiosity, and from love of excitement convent of Mount Sinai was greatly in- and adventure, to visit the ground to creased, and many other monastic estab- which of old the steps of so many weary lishments were formed in various parts of pilgrims turned, under the impulse of a the peninsula. The Emperor Justinian, solemn and profound religious veneration. it was said, granted the whole peninsula, and all the monastic establishmeuts which were built within its boundaries, to the
THE STUDY OF SCIENCE. Convent of St Catherine. At one time the number of monks, in all the various It is not strange that the religious man convents, monasteries, and hermitages, should sometimes find his ardour damped amounted, as was supposed, to six or in the pursuit of some branches of knowseven thousand; and, whien duly organized ledge by the melancholy reflection that under the arrangements wbich the charter they can be of no use beyond this world, of the Emperor prescribed, they formed and will exist only as objects of memory in quite an extended community, with laws, eternity. He may have devoted many a usages, judicature, and government com- | toilsome year to the details and manipulaplete, like any independent state or king tions of the arts; and, so far as the world dom. The wants of this extraordinary is concerned, his labours have been emi. coinmonwealth were supplied, in some nently salutary and interesting. But all measure, from the products of such small his labours and researches can be of no tracts of garden ground as could be found avail on the other side of the grave, and he or made in the wilderness, but chiefly, cannot but feel sad that so much study perhaps, from the gifts and contributions and efforts should leave results no more of the pilgrims who came to visit them in permanent. Or he may have given his their seclusion. To complete the system. I best days to loading his memory with those a military order of knights was established, tongues which the Scriptures assure us to protect the monks, under the jurisdic shall cease; or to those details of material tion of the Convent of St Catherine, and organization which can have no place or the pilgrims on their journeys to and from antitype in the future world. Interesting, the inoantain. These knights were called therefore, as such pursuits have been on the Cavaliers of St Catherine. They wore earth, nay, indispensable as they are to the a prescribed costume and armour. The well-being and progress of human society, armour bore devices and emblems repre- | it is melancholy to realize that they form senting the martyrdom of their patron part of that knowledge which will vanish saint. The principal of these devices con away. sisted of a broken wheel, with points upon The mind delights in the prospect the circumference of it, and a sword or | of again turning its attention to those dagger passing through it. This device branches of knowledge which have enwas figured on the breastplate, and also grossed and interested it on earth, and of embossed upon the shield.
doing this under circumstances far more Thus the Convent of St Catherine was favourable to their investigation. Aud established in the possession of a consi- such an anticipation he may reasonably inderable degree of power and glory, and it dulge who devotes himself on earth to any continued to occupy this high position for branch of knowledge not dependent on armany years—as long, in fact, as the Chris- | rangements and organizations peculiar to tian powers of Europe retained possession this world. He may be confident that he of those countries. At length, however, is investigating those principles which when, at the Mahommedan conquest, these will from a part of the science of heaven. countries passed into the hands of the ene Should he ever reach that pure world, he mies of Christianity, the various smaller knows that the cloys which now weigh convents that were scattered about the down his mind will drop off, and the clouds peninsula were gradually suppressed or that obscure his vision will clear away, and abandoned by the monks, and many of that a brighter sun will pour its radiance them were destroyed. Pilgrims could no upon his path. He is filling his mind with longer visit Mount Sinai in safety. The principles that are immortal. He is enknights of St Catherine were disbanded, gaged in pursuits to which glorified and and the monks shut themselves up within angelic minds are devoting their lofty the walls of the convent, where they're powers. Other branches of knowledge, mained for many centuries in silence and highly esteemed among men, shall pass seclusion, and were well-nigh forgotten by away with the destruction of this world. mankind. Within the last fifty years, | The baseless hypothesis of science, falsely
so called, whether moral, intellectual, or unite into higher and higher principles, and physical, and the airy phantoms of a light become one in that centre of centres, the and fictitious literature, shall all pass into Divine Mind. That is the Ocean from the limbo of forgetfulness. But the prin- which all truth originally sprang, and to ciples of true,science, constituting, as they which it ultimately returns. To trace out do, the pillars of the universe, shall bear up the shores of that shoreless Sea, to measure that universe for ever. How many ques. its measureless extent, and to fathom its tions of deep interest, respecting his unfathomable depths, will be the noble and favourite science, must the philosopher in the joyous work of eternal ages. And yet this world leave unanswered, how many | eternal ages may pass by and see the work points unsettled! But when he stands only begun. upon the vantage-ground of another world all these points shall be seen in the bright transparencies of heaven. In this world,
THE BEAUTIFUL GATE. the votaries of science may be compared with the aborigines who dwell around soine THERE were many gates to the temple. one of the principal sources of the river Those in the extent of the outer wall were Amazon. They have been able, perhaps, | surrounded by gate-houses thirty cubits to trace one or two, or it may be a dozen, | high, and therefore rising five cubits beof its tributaries, from their commencement youd the wall itself, which was twenty-five in some mountain spring, and to follow cubits high. The breadth of these gatethem onwards as they enlarge by uniting, houses was half the height; and the enso as to bear along the trail canoes in trance itself was twenty cubits high, and which, perhaps, they pass a few hundred ten broad. These outer gates were of timmiles towards the ocean. On the right ber, plated with brass, and led into the and on the left, a multitude of other tribu- | spacious court, called the Court of the taries swell the stream which carries them Gentiles. No particular sanctity was atonward, until it seems to them a mighty tached to this court, and hence Gentiles river. But they are ignorant of the hun were freely admitted, mendicants were al. dred other tributaries which drain the vast lowed to beg, and dealers to buy and sell. eastern slope of the Andes, and sweep over A person was not considered properly to the wide plains, till their united waters enter the Temple,' in the more definite have formed the majestic Amazon. Of that sense, until he had passed this court, and river, in its full glory, and especially of the entered into the interior enclosure. This immense ocean that lies beyond, the natives also had a wall, with gate-houses and gates, have no conception; unless, perhaps, some covered, not with brass, but with gold and individual, more daring than the rest, has silver, and leading into the Court of the floated onward till his astonished eveWomen, which (notwithstanding its name) could scarcely discern the shore on either was the common place for worshippers, hand, and before him he saw the illimit- both men and women. Beyond this, and able Atlantic, whitened by the mariner's above it--for it was over an ascending sail and the crested waves; and he may site, crowned by Holy House-lay the have gone back to tell his unbelieving Court of the Priests, wherein the sacred countrymen the marvellous story. Just services were celebrated. This bad the so is it with men of science. They are same wail of general enclosure with the able to trace with clearness a few rills of Court of the Gentiles, but was separated truth from the fountain-head, and to follow | from it by a cross wall, which was pierced them onward till they unite in a great prin- by one large and ponderous gate, exactly ciple, which at first men fancy is the chief fronting that of the Holy House. This law of the universe. But as they venture is the general description. It remains to still further onward they find new tributary state, that the Holy House itself fronted truths coming in on either side, to form a the east, and that consequently the prinprinciple or law still more broad and com-cipal entrance, in each of the successive prehensive. Yet it is only a few gifted and walls, was on the same side. On that adventurous minds that are able, from some side there was but one gate to either of advanced mountain-top, to catch a glimpse the courts; and these, standing directly of the entire stream of truth, formed by the opposite the Holy House, were deemed harmonious union of all principles, and flow. entitled to particular distinction froin the ing on majestically into the boundless ocean others, in their materials, proportions, of all knowledge, the Infinite Mind. But and ornaments. The gate on this side, in when the Christian philosophershall be per- the outer enclosure, had, however, the mitted to resume the study of science in a singular distinction of having the least future world, with powers of investigation elevated gate-house, the upper part rising enlarged and clarified, and all obstacles not more than six cubits above the entry, removed, he will be able to trace onward whereas the others rose ten cubits; and, the various ramifications of truth, till tbey instead of being like the others, five cubits higher than the wall, this was no more into the court where the temple stood, was than one cubit. There was a reason for also of bronze, probably of a different this. The red heifer directed by the quality, and seemingly not Corinthian Law to be burned without the camp,' in bronze; and it seems to have further differed order that the water of purification' might from the other in that it was not wholly of be prepared from its ashes, was, after the bronze, but had its posts and lintel of, or foundation of the temple at Jerusalem, overlaid with, silver. This gate was, howburned without the city, upon the Mount ever, distinguished from all others by its of Olives; and as it was conceived that the large proportions, and the immense weight blood of the heifer was to be sprinkled of its valves. It is said that it required before, or in presence of, the temple, this the strength of twenty men to close it, and gate was kept low, becanse if it had been of it this wonder is recorded, that notwithas high as the others, the clear view of the standing the force thus required to shut it, temple by the officiating priest would have and being besides firmly bolted and barred, been intercepted. In another respect, it one night flew open of its own accord. however, this gate, though low, was not This is declared to have been forty years undistinguished. It was called “the Gate before the destruction of the city; and as of Shushan,' because the city or palace of that date coincides with the death of our Shushan (memorable in the history of the Lord, it is open to a suggestion that this captivity) was represented thereon; or, ac- incident (if correctly reported) took place cording to other accounts, was depicted in at the same time that the veil of the temple one of the side chambers of the gate-house. was rent, and an earthquake shook the city. This was, as some say, by order of the Now of these three gates, which was Persian government, to keep the Jews in the Beautiful Gate,' mentioned in Acts remembrance of their allegiance to the iii. 2, where we read that 'a certain man, power reigning in Shushan, or, as others lame from his mother's womb, was carried, state, as a voluntary memorial of the cap. whom they laid daily at the gate of the tivity. The nature of the representation temple, to ask alms of them that entered may be guessed, from the mode in which into the temple ?' towns and palaces are represented in the We have no doubt that, judging from Assyrian sculptures, of which some speci- the descriptious which we have given, any mens were given in the second volume of one would declare for the second or Corinthe Evening Series.
thian gate, which certainly was regarded The gate opposite this, across the Court by those who lived while the temple was of the Gentiles, and leading into the Court standing, as the most magnificent of them. of the Women, being the front and there We are ourselves of this opinion. There fore the most distinguished of the entrances is, however, probably from imperfect ininto what was properly regarded as the formation respecting these gates, a genetemple, was considered the most splendidiral impression that the outer gate was of all the gates. In comparison with the meant; founded perhaps on the notion that gate Shushan, this gate was goodly and beggars were not likely to be admitted into Tofty (as Lightfoot observes), and stood | the temple court, and that it is expressly bravely mounted upon the far higher said that this beggar was placed there to ground; but was mainly distinguished by ask alms of those that entered in at the its materials. The other gates in this temple. But we have shown that no parenclosure were of wood, plated with gold ticular sanctity was attached to the other and silver-the posts and lintels, as we ap- court, and that the second gate was proprehend, of silver, and the valves of gold; perly the entrance into the temple. There but this gate was wholly of Corinthian was nothing to prevent a beggar from brass, more precious than gold. So says being stationed there; and if he could be Josephus; and as it was doubtless of placed there, he was more likely to go the best kind of Corinthian brass, other there than to remain at the outer gate. ancient writers support his testimony to | These grounds of doubt cannot therefore its extreme costliness. This Corinthian | stand; and we are at liberty to suppose brass' was of several varieties of different that the gate really most beautiful was the values: one which took a golden hue from one distinguished as the Beautiful Gate. the quantity of gold; one of paler hue from The object of stationing beggars, espethe predominance of silver; one wherein cially maimed beggars, at the gate of the the component metals, gold, silver, copper, temple, was evidently in the calculation and tin, were combined in equal propor that the feelings of those who were protions. The use of this metal was probably ceeding to, or had been engaged in, an act rare in a country which did not tolerate of solemn worship, would be more strongly statuary, and hence this gate would attract, inclined to charity and benevolence than at from the unusualness, special attention ordinary times. It is in the same caland admiration.
culation that at the present day the gates The gate opposite to this, leading directly of the great continental churches, as well
as the approaches to Mohammedan countenance, and thus reveal in sume mosqnes, are thronged with beggars at the degree the struggles that are working hours of prayer. We know also that the within ! Pharisees and others in those days be. That little world is fearfully and wonderstowed much alins in the most public fully made. It is made for immortality. places, that their ostentatious charity Its curious machinery, its powers and might be seen of men;' and the percep capacities, will never wear out. It will tion of this weakness in a class of people endure when this physical world has so wealthy, had doubtless considerable perished. It will be a happy or a miserinfluence in causing the beggars of able world for ever-happy if God be its Jerusalem to resort in large numbers to king, and sit enthroned in its affection -a places so public, and through which the miserable and wretched world if a usurper Pharisees were so continually passing as holds sway over its dominions. Each the gates of the temple—these people inhabitant of this little world inust choose being more constant than others in their who shall be its ruler and king, and upon attendance at the sacred courts.
that choice depends its condition of joy or sorrow for ever.
A LITTLE WORLD.
THE EDITOR'S LIBRARY. There are more worlds than this, which is the home of the human race. There DAILY Bible ILLUSTRATIONS. By J. KITTO, D.D. are worlds which are visible, and there are worlds which are seen only by the eye of
Edinburgh: W. Oliphant & Sons. the mind. Every man lives in two worlds This volume completes a remarkable and at the same time. He is a tenant of this very valuable series of Scripture exposigreat world in common with his fellow- tions. The labours of Dr Kitto, in this men. He walks by the light of the same particularly interesting field, have been sun. He breathes an atmosphere pro- arduous, long-continued, and highly sucvided for all alike. But he likewise lives cessful. No writer, living or dead, has in a little world of his own. He carries done so much to render the habits and it about with him in his own bosom. He customs of Bible places and Bible times keeps its door of entrance. He alone of fainiliar to the nations of the west; and all his fellow-men knows what are the thus enabled them to understand more daily events of that little world. That clearly the sacred narratives. The series little inner world has its own history-its of Daily Bible Illustrations just finished, own storms and calms-its sunny days and will carry the name of the author down to dark and cloudy nights—its seasons of joy posterity, and continue for many ages, and sorrow-its troubles and conflicts — perhaps for all time, to be at once a stu. its cares and anxieties—its pleasures and dent's guide to the Bible, and a tourist's pains—its joys and its griefis-its loves guide to Palestine. That land, always dear and its hates—its friendships and its alien to the heart of Christendom, is, we appreations. It is sometimes a happy world, hend, about to become the object of still full of peace and joy. It is sometimes a greater interest and attention. General world of sorrow, anguish, and distress. expectation and the course of events point The outer world inay be lighted up with to the near completion of the times of the sunny skies and genial atmosphere, while Gentiles;' and we have every reason to bethe little world within is darkened with lieve that, when that period has been ful. clouds and shaken with terrific tempests. filled, the holy land will undergo a change, Into this little world no stranger finds ad the greatness of which we probably little mittance, unless invited to enter by a most anticipate. · Whatever it may become, its sacred confidence. What a bistory would past history will never fail to awaken inthis little world present, if its sole owner terest, and thus those publications of Dr and inhabitant should record all its trans Kitto, which depict that past history so actions, feelings, joys, sorrows, pleasures, vividly, will be always valued. Their litereflections, storms, and calms!' How often rary talent and historical correctness, no is that little world affected and disturbed, one doubts; while their popular style, and all its bright skies overcast, by an | smooth diction, and judicious division, unkind word-a harsh expressiona cold render them entertaining and easily com. and chilly look of displeasure, where plea-prehended. The last volume-which relates sant words and kind treatment were ex- | to the Apostles and early Church-is ex. pected ? What days and nights of an- | tremely interesting. We need scarcely guish are felt iu that little world, unknown recommend it to the perasal of our readers. to all besides, unless its sorrows are so • The Beautiful Gate,' ir this Number, is deep as to change the expression of the an extract from it.
God's BOTTLE for Believers’TEARS. Edinburgh:
Psalms, not only spreading before God his
sufferings at the hands of friends and foes, Thomas Grant.
and also his wanderings in a literal and spiriThis is a little volume, but it contains a tual sense, but saying for such reasons, Put great amount of matter, and evidently thou my tears into thy bottle.' (Ps. lvi. 8.) comes from the pen of one who has a feel
The work contains remarks on believers' ing heart. The title may be nisunder
tears for the sins, backslidings, ini perfecstood hy many, and by others may, when
| tions, afflictions, aud bereavements of themlooked at in connection with the internal
selves aud others. Pity it is that so many matter, be considered an unhappy, if not
tears were needed; but, alas ! so long as an unappropriate one; but we think no
this world continues a place of sin, it must objection can be taken to the sentiments
remain a' vale of tears.' contained in the work itself. The followmug extract from the introduction will show the author's meaning :
THE PRIEST AND THE HUGI'ENOT; or, Persecution This world, even at the best, may well be
in the Age of Louis XV. By LOUIS FELIX styled a ‘Baca,' or a 'Bochim ;' a valley of BUNGENER. Edinburgh : T. Nelson & Sons. tears, or a place of weeping. So it was not The public at large are greatly indebted originally, but so it has become through sin;
to the enterprising publishers of M. Bunso it has been in all ages in the experience of
gener's works. They have made known the people of God, as well as of the men of
to the British public a French author, the world, and so it will continue till the consummation of all things. Even now, in
who, perhaps, but for them, would scarcely deed, God, in the exercise of his Almighty have been heard of on this side the Chanpower, could easily so arrange everything nel; and in these days of increased strife connected with his people as completely to with Rome, it is cheering to know that in dry up their tears, or to exempt them from the enemy's very camp is stationed a most every occasion of weeping. But for the best determined and stanch defender of Proof reasons he is pleased, in his sovereignty, testanism. As a writer, M. Bungener is often to order it altogether otherwise. For
bold, witty, imaginative, and powerful; as a it frequently happens, in his all-wise provi
historian, he is learned and faithful; and, dence, that their troubles are not less, but more numerous than those of others; and
as a religious controversialist, acute and inthat their tears are not fewer, but more abun
vincible. "The Priest and the Huguenot' dant. However, while all true believers view
much resembles “The Preacher and the their troubles in the light of Scripture, and
King,' lately published by the same firm ; trace them to sin as their source; while they and, though rather tedious and minute in also "call upon God in a day of trouble,' in detail, it contains a fearful revelation of the confiderice that ‘he will answer them'in the corruptions, profligacy, and wickedhis own time and way, and ‘make all things | ness connected with Papacy. In “ The work together for their good,' with unbe
Preacher and the King” we are presented lievers it is, in each of these respects, entirely
with Versailles only; in “ The Priest and different. Between the tears of believers and
the Huguenot,” the circle has widened to unbelievers, there may likewise be said to exist the greatest difference. For while the
embrace Paris and the Desert; but the tears of believers spring from a sight and
centre idea remains, the confrontation of sense of sin as their cause, the tears of unbe Popery and Protestavism in their most lievers flow chiefly, if not solely, from a view distinguished religionists, and in their reand feeling of sin in its consequences. While spective influence on men and manners. the tears, therefore, of believers are in the Rabaut and Bridaine inherit the interest estimation of God precious, the tears of un inspired by Claude and Bourdaloue. The believers are utterly worthless; while the
change which has come over the face of tears, also, of believers in bright exhalement
the nation, since the mighty hand of Louis reach the skies,' the tears of unbelievers 'fall
XIV. has ceased to stem the torrent of dark to earth,' or are as water spilt upon the
corruption with decorous Church-convenground; consequently, while the tears of believers may be said to be preserved by God
tionalities, is well shown in the Philosoas a treasure, infinitely more valuable than | phers' soloons of D'Alembert and his the richest wine or the purest water is re motely crew, that have succeeded to the garded in a warm country, the tears of unbe Philosophers' walk of Bossuet and his lievers are altogether undeserving of preser-dignitaries. Here M. Bungener has vation. Thus, while of believers it may be amply proved his French extraction, and said that theirs is not 'the tear forgot as soon
lighted up his pages with that brilliant wit, as shed,' of unbelievers it may be added, that
which cannot be denied his countrymen. lost are the tears they shed. In short, while
But, however, he may seem to linger when in the one case there may be said to be a beauty' and 'a bliss in tears'-a beauty in
he culls an anecdote or records a discusthe sight of God, and a bliss in the expe
sion, we feel that he is pressing forward to rience of man--in the other it is, in each of the mark; that his aim is not to make a these senses, the very reverse. In the spirit book, but to prove from history the intiof these remarks, we find David, in one of the mate connection between Popery, infi