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True there is nothing for remorse or Hebrew Sanctuary. Nay more, there despair, because these are beyond the range of piety, and for them there is no these also of both sexes, which fact gives song; but is any merry ? let him sing conclusive proof that instrumental music is psalms,' or is any sad ? let him sing his not, in itself, incompatible with spiritual sorrows as the godly sang, who were sad worship; for it is the true God who is a before him.

spirit, and not an idol of the nations, in It is of importance to form a just whose service it was then employed. No estimate of what is said in the Old Testa- doubt it would be rash to affirm from this, ment on such a subject as this, because it that instruments should be employed in is there we find the earliest examples of Christian worship, but it would be equally the connexion between godliness and song; rash to affirm the contrary. The use of and if there be danger, on the one hand, them is not commanded, and neither is it of attempting to draw from that example forbidden, but left, like many minor things, more than it can give, there is danger, on to enlightened Christian discretion, which the other, of deferring to it less than it in our country, at least, and in our times, deserves. From hints there given, it is generally found to be against their use. seems very evident that music was at first But it were not easy to show that these introduced into the service of God, more instances of song-of educated song, be it as a dictate of our moral nature, than as a remembered--of song in regularly adjusted formal divine appointment; and that this concert—which, as all must know, are was pleasing in the sight of God, few will but a sample-are to be viewed as a pecuventure to deny. The godly feltmand | liarity either of patriarchal or Mosaic who can doubt that the feeling sprang from times. There is no evidence that they emotions of piety ?—that if the fleeting were limited, or ever intended to be incidents of secular life were an appro limited, to that shadowy economy which priate theme for ordinary song, much was ordained to wax old, and to vanish more were the doings of their God in crea away. Nay, in their principle, as already tion or providence, but above all, in the hinted, they are prior to every economy, specialties of his grace, an appropriate whether for the innocent or for the fallen theme for sacred song. So, at the deli- —whether of type or of anti-type-whether verance from Pharaoh and his host, when Jewish or Christian. For that principle every heart was full of joy, “Miriam the has its root, first, in the nature-moral prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a | and physical conjoined—which God has timbrel in her hand; and all the women given to man, and then, in the relation went out after her, with timbrels and with which he has established between himself dances. And Miriam answered them, and his creature man. If he has given us Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed the power of speech, it is that from the gloriously; the horse and his rider bath | heart we may speak his praise; and if he he thrown into the sea.'* Again, we find has given us the power of song, it is that

brought up from the place of its sojourn, Does it not follow, then, by obvious conto its fixed habitation at Jerusalem, the sequence, both from what we see in the tribes were there by representation, and nature of man, viewed simply as God the procession was arranged as follows:- | made him, and also from what we read in • The singers went before the ark, causing the Book which God has written for him, the swell of their vocal melody to be heard as it bears upon this subject, that vocal afar as it moved along; 'the players on music in Christian worship is not a thing instruments followed after' it; and among to be trifled with, much less to be stigmathem were the damsels,' or young Hebrew tized as all but an unholy thing, but that females, 'playing with timbrels. t Here it ought to be cultivated, and assiduously we have a scene, not only of joy and cultivated, as holding not a passing but a triumph, but of devotional joy and permanent place among the accessories of triumph; and there were singers taking | Christian worship. God is pleased with the lead in it—a choir, or a band if we the sweet sounds which come from the choose so to call it-persons to whom God human voice; he is pleased with them on had given voice for song—persons who were not only taught to sing, but taught for they are the result of his own creative. to sing in concert-persons of both sexes, handiwork; and since all have not the who, with their eyes on the service of God, power of einitting these sounds to the same had made music a part of their previous extent, while a few have scarcely any at training—persons, in short, whose diver- all, it is surely the more necessary, that sities of voice were so combined as to con- | they who have it should educate and stitute harmony, and whose province it devote it to the highest and the best of all was to take the lead in the song of the the ends, for which it was bestowed on

* Exodus xv. 20, 21. † Psalm lxviii. 25. them. If this was exemplified in Mosaic times, sombre and shadowy as they were, it is acknowledged, as a general principle, how much more should it be so now-yes that the abuse of a good thing is no arnow that the Sun of righteousness has gument against the use of it, and why risen up, to thin away the shadows of the should so good a thing as music be exmorning, and to shine so cheeringly over cluded from the sweep of this principle? our heads with healing in his wings. That which is holy may be given unto

In not a few of our Scottish congrega dogs, but it is holy still; or pearls may be tions there is a deficiency of sacred music, cast before swine, but they are pearls still ; and an aversion to progress in it which and however far the taste for melody, or are not easily overcome. Among the power of making it, may be made the provictims of this aversion, the impression is stitute of depravity, that is no reason why more or less prevalent, that, at least in Christian men should cease to rescue it the general, music and frivolity are little from the impious degradation, or be slack else than two names for the same thing, in restoring it to the elevation which he and, of course, that while a few of its who gave it has assigned to it. But there varieties may be admitted into the house is more here. Men have perverted the of God, to conciliate the young and the gift of understanding, as well as the gift inconsiderate, yet anything like particular of music, and, indeed, it is the prior perattention to it is beneath the gravity of version of the former which has led them riper years. This unfortunate state of to pervert the latter; and how do wę Chrismind may, in some degree, be traced to a tians reason from this perversion? Do salutary dread of that tendency to put song we say we should avoid thinking, or think in the place of sermon, and ceremony in but very sparingly? No, but we take the the place of substance, which prevailed so fact of such perversion, so extensive and much in the days of our Popery; but there so ruinous, as a very cogent subsidiary can be no doubt that it has been deepened argument, for the assiduous cultivation of and perpetuated, in no small degree, by the our understanding, in the light and by the open and unblushing desecration of music, rules which He who gave it has prescribed in the midst of which they have been to it. Thus we deal with the higher gift, brought up. They have seen the very in order to secure the use of it; and why best of it Aung away upon chivalry, or should not the lower, which comes from romance, or war, or political partizanship, the hand of the same Divinity, be dealt or the casualties of courtship, or the freaks with in the same way? and oddities of eccentricity, or even upon But some may be disposed to say it is drunken carousal, or the foulest and most not to music that we object, nor yet to loathsome of human sensualties. These music well sustained, but to those extravathings they have seen, and continue to see, gances connected with it, which, in our in almost every direction to which they opinion, are not suited to the worship of turn their eyes; and looking at them, they God, with the incessant introduction of have been led, by a process of which they such novelties, as put it beyond the power are scarcely conscious, to slide into the of any ordinary congregation to join in the opinion that music is in itself a carnal song. Now, as to the first part of this thing—that to be fond of it is to be, at objection, it is at once admitted, that there least, a fool, if not something worse than are pieces of music now and then, but not a fool, and, of course, that no more than a often, brought into the house of God which tame, aye, and a timorous, approximation | are not suited to his service, and that all to it should ever be associated with the such pieces should be carefully excluded. services of religion. But these persons But, on the other hand, it ought to be reare mistaken they are greatly mistaken, membered that this is a question of taste and by a little candid consideration, some, -aye, and of sanctified taste-about which although not all of them, might be cured men who are equally devout, and equally of their mistake; for although mere concerned about the decorum of public wranglers may be found among them, worship, may be expected to differ. They who think it backsliding to be convinced, who have skill in music, and a rather yet, to a great extent, they are sincere, lively relish for it, are sure to form a difright-hearted, and devout. Yes, they are ferent opinion from those who have but mistaken, but their mistake is, in many little of either; and the question, who are cases, the result of position, rather than of likeliest to be right ? admits of but one obtuseness, and all they require is to be answer; for, other things being equal, it is reasoned with, not by those who sneer out knowledge which rectifies judgment, here their logic, but by those who have heart as in every thing else. The best informed as well as head, and whose respect for the are the most convinced, that a far greater sacredness of Christian worship they feel variety of song ought to be found in the to be on a par with their own. It is true service of God, than others are apt to that music has been shamefully misused; suppose ; and to form our estimate from about this they are in no mistake; but the meagre specimen of either variety or

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execution, which is fixed and stereotyped the means of improvement in it are grain not a few of our Scottish congregations, tuitously provided for them, and pressed were to come very far short of the mark. / on their acceptance. They think it above, Still it is in this way that—not to speak of or beneath, or beyond them, to take up the captious, whose point of honour is their heads with such a thing; and the never to be pleased--well conditioned little they know of it has been picked up, godly persons, the dupes of a limited use not in a school or a class, where its rules and wont, are frequently misled. They are explained and exemplified- not, in not only conclude, from the little that they short, by separate training of any kind know or have seen, but hold tenaciously | whatever—but in the social worship of the by the conclusion, as if there were nothing family, or in the house of God. This is beyond it; whereas, had their range of the true account of the matter; it has been vision been wider, their conclusion would so for ages; and with what grace can they have widened along with it, bringing no to whom it applies blame the introduction detriment, but positive aid, to the fervour of tunes which they cannot sing? Do they of their piety. No doubt, there is such a not owe to the thing they complain of, thing as the music of rant and frivolity- much of their own attainment, slender as if music it may be called—which ever it is? and have they not necessiated, by ought to be sternly excluded from the pre- their culpable remissness, the very evil cincts of the sanctuary; but beyond this, which with their lips they condemn? and far above it, there are congenial va The few tunes which they can sing rieties, of which, by judicious selection, were once new to them; and where, in Christians may avail themselves, as their nine cases perhaps out of every ten, did ; appropriate auxiliaries, in singing the joys they learn to sing them? In the worship or sorrows of their hearts, or more directly of the family or in that of the church. the praises of their God.

This they know full well; or if they think Then, as to the remaining part of the they do not, memory will very easily bring objection, which relates more immediately it up to their minds; and they needed its to what are called new tunes, there may aid to rectify or to moderate the excess of be errors here, as well as in the former their present opinions. It is far from case. New tunes may be introduced, with being intended, by these remarks, to pala taste so bad, or a frequency so reckless, | liate the recklessness already referred to; as to deserve the severest l'eprehension. but they ought to be taken into account, But here also there is an exclusiveness, I and impartially pondered, by those who and a readiness to take offence, which the are sometimes the readiest to raise their best judges in matters of melody, being at outcry against an evil which they them. the same time the most devout, are con- | selves have, in part, created. The person strained to condemn. There is room for who obstinately refuses to prepare himself the introduction of new tunes into many for a due extension of the Church's meluof our congregations, as well as for giving dies should, in all conscience, be the last more effect to those already introduced to complain of a progress which leaves him there is large room for both; for why behind. should we drawl the praises of our God, After all, the introduction into Christian and enter with spirit into the feats of a worship, of now and then a piece of music, warrior ?-and to plead more novelty, as a which but a few can sing is, although a bar in our way, were to sanction the prin- real, yet not so great an evil, as it is someciple which puts an extinguisher upon all times taken to be. It were easy to fret in improvement whatsoever. Wherever there silence, or to talk loudly about desecrais improvement, there is change; and tion; but it is better to bind our judgment' wherever there is change, there is some- down to the exact amount of merit or de thing new, whether in the affairs of earth | merit. If a tune has been judiciously or of heaven.

selected, and is suited to its theme, and is But still the question recurs, 'is it right, well sung by but a few, the worshipper or can it be right, to introduce tunes, how- who cannot sing it—if he has an ear for ever eligible in themselves, which none music -may even at the first derive devobut a small minority of a worshipping tional aid from it in no small degree, by people are qualified to sing ??— And the simply giving his mind up to the sentianswer is, that in the abstract it is not right, ment, as the melody brings it along; till but should be carefully avoided, so far as by and by his voice, without an effort, falls circumstances will permit; while yet, with in with the other voices, and so the evil is a very few exceptions, these same tunes at an end. Again, if the worshipper has must either be introduced in this way, or little ear for music, or perhaps none at all, never introduced at all; for this plain it is not easy to see how his devotions can l'eason, that a large majority of professing | be either aided or disturbed, by any one Christians are not only deficient in sacred piece of it, more than by another. How inusic, but choose to remain so, even where often does it happen in ordinary life, that

| a person sitting dumb and listening to a Scottish Presbyterian song; yet it were

song whose music is new to him, derives too much to say that we are altogether froin that music, new though it be, a much free from it. There are among us who are deeper feeling of the sentiment of the song verging towards it, although happily but than he could have had without it? So is few, who prefer the melody to the matter it with the songs of Zion ; for the action of our song—who would shun to sing of music on our springs of emotion is the Messiah's eulogy,' were it not · for Hansame in its principle, whether we apply it del's sake'—and whose zeal for music is a to things which are common, or to things thing so exclusive—so little seasoned with which are sacred. There can be no doubt sense or grace—as to furnish the oppothat, in the songs of Zion, all should join nents of temperate progress with the most 1 who can join, and all learn who can learn; formidable of all their weapons. Yes, | but it does not follow that the benefit is there are such persons, more or less con

limited to those who actually take up the nected even with Scottish Christian consong. This was never intended, and per- | gregations-persons whose lives give but haps is seldom realized. The song of a scanty evidence of their power of apprelarge Christian assembly is far more effec- ciating spiritual song and when these find tive in lifting up the heart to God than their way, as they sometimes may do, to

that of a more contracted circle; and why? be leaders of our music, in the desk or in | because there, there are a greater number the pew, the incongruity would be posi

of the godly, who, by means of vocal sym- tively less, whatever custom may say to phony, are found to act and re-act upon the contrary, did we see them displaced | one another. But still there may be some by the harp or the timbrel. In the one of them who muse and praise in silence, case, we should at least know what we aided not a little by the voices of their have—it would stand before us undisguised;

brethren; because, while they can enjoy but in the other, we are haunted by the | music, and feel its moving influence, they painful suspicion, it not stung by the posi

are in providence denied the power of puttive conviction, that the hearts of those í ting it in practice. The whole question who lead us on give the lie to their lips. It

about new tunes, then, in the present state is not to the mere devotee of song, but to of many a congregation, just comes to this; those whose godliness leads them to song, they must be occasionally introduced where that we are to look for the thing we desibut a few can sing them, unless an arrest derate-to the men who know what music is to be put upon progress, in one of the is, and who, while they like it well, for the finest accessaries to the exercise of Chris-pleasure which it ministers, yet like it far tian piety; and the annoyance given, when more because of its most felicitous tenthey are introduced, is not by any means dency to elevate thought, and to animate ! so great as they who most need them would devotion. Let them take up the subject have others to believe.

at the impulse of their godliness; but let There is, however, a radical point, which them move on slowly and patiently, ac| is of course assumed, in all that has been cording to the circumstances in which they | said, and which must ever have precedence are placed; not doubting that, in due time,

in all our attempts at improvement in the God will give them success, in rescuing song of our worshipping assemblies. In his gift from neglect and desecration, and order to be accepted, it must take its rise, raising it up by progressive advances to · not merely from the heart, but from a the highest and holiest of all the uses for sanctified heart—from a heart which is which it was at first bestowed. right with God, and sound in his statutes.

D. Y. | He is a spirit, they that worship him,' in

song or in sentiment, in word or in deed, ! 'must worship him in spirit and in truth.

BIBLICAL STUDIES. Music, however pure, or decorously executed, or however sound or scriptural, in the

PSALM CIV., VERSES 5-9.—THE PAST thoughts it expresses, is at the best but a

CHANGES OF THE EARTH. secondary matter. It has its place-a high place-a place much higher than is

No. III. often assigned to it in the exercises of de- ! In these verses we have a reference to votion-but let it be kept in that place, changes that have formerly taken place on and on no account raised above it. It is the surface of the globe. That reference may not worship, but the instrument of wor- either be to the deluge of Noah, or to the ship; it is not piety, but the handmaid of separation of the dry land from the sea, piety; and to raise the handmaid to the which took place on the third day of creachair of her mistress were to bring an tion. Modern science informs us that idol in between us and the God we profess these are but specimens of many similar

to adore. Be it so, and it is so that this changes which occurred in the past history | idolatry is not the reigning error of our of the world which we inhabit. More than

True there is nothing for remorse or Hebrew Sanctuary. Nay more, there despair, because these are beyond the were players on instruments there, and range of piety, and for them there is no these also of both sexes, which fact gives song; but is any merry ? let him sing conclusive proof that instrumental music is psalms,' or is any sad ? let him sing his not, in itself, incompatible with spiritual sorrows as the godly sang, who were sad worship; for it is the true God who is a before him.

spirit, and not an idol of the nations, in It is of importance to form a just whose service it was then employed. No estimate of what is said in the Old Testa doubt it would be rash to affirm from this, ment on such a subject as this, because it that instruments should be employed in is there we find the earliest examples of Christian worship, but it would be equally the connexion between godliness and song; rash to affirm the contrary. The use of and if there be danger, on the one hand, them is not commanded, and neither is it of attempting to draw from that example forbidden, but left, like many minor things, more than it can give, there is danger, on to enlightened Christian discretion, which the other, of deferring to it less than it in our country, at least, and in our times, deserves. From hints there given, it is generally found to be against their use. seems very evident that music was at first | But it were not easy to show that these introduced into the service of God, more | instances of song-of educated song, be it as a dictate of our moral nature, than as a | remembered-of song in regularly adjusted formal divine appointment; and that this concert--which, as all must know, are was pleasing in the sight of God, few will but a sample-are to be viewed as a pecuventure to deny. The godly felt—and liarity either of patriarchal or Mosaic who can doubt that the feeling sprang from times. There is no evidence that they emotions of piety ?—that if the fleeting | were limited, or ever intended to be incidents of secular life were an appro- | limited, to that shadowy economy which priate theme for ordinary song, much was ordained to wax old, and to vanish more were the doings of their God in crea | away. Nay, in their principle, as already tion or providence, but above all, in the | hinted, they are prior to every economy, specialties of his grace, an appropriate | whether for the innocent or for the fallen theme for sacred song. So, at the deli 1 —whether of type or of anti-type-whether verance from Pharaoh and his host, when Jewish or Christian. For that principle every heart was full of joy, “Miriam the has its root, first, in the nature-moral prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a and physical conjoined—which God has timbrel in her hand; and all the women given to man, and then, in the relation went out after her, with timbrels and with which he has established between himself dances. And Miriam answered them, and his creature man. If he has given us Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed the power of speech, it is that from the gloriously; the horse and his rider bath heart we may speak his praise; and if he he thrown into the sea.'* Again, we find has given us the power of song, it is that that, at a later date, when the Ark was from the heart we may sing his praise. brought up from the place of its sojourn, Does it not follow, then, by obvious conto its fixed habitation at Jerusalem, the sequence, both from what we see in the tribes were there by representation, and nature of man, viewed simply as God the procession was arranged as follows:- made him, and also from what we read in “The singers went before the ark, causing the Book which God has written for him, the swell of their vocal melody to be heard as it bears upon this subject, that vocal afar as it moved along; "the players on music in Christian worship is not a thing instruments followed after' it; and among to be trifled with, much less to be stigmathem were the damsels,' or young Hebrew tized as all but an unholy thing, but that females, 'playing with timbrels. † Here it ought to be cultivated, and assiduously we have a scene, not only of joy and cultivated, as holding not a passing but a triumph, but of devotional joy and permanent place among the accessories of triumph; and there were singers taking Christian worship. God is pleased with the lead in it—a choir, or a band if we the sweet sounds which come from the choose so to call it- persons to whom God human voice; he is pleased with them on had given voice for song-persons who their own account; we are sure that he is, were not only taught to sing, but taught for they are the result of his own creative. to sing in concert-persons of both sexes, handiwork; and since all have not the who, with their eyes on the service of God, | power of einitting these sounds to the same had' made music a part of their previous extent, while a few have scarcely any at training-persons, in short, whose diver- | all, it is surely the more necessary, that sities of voice were so combined as to con. they who have it should educate and stitute harmony, and whose province it devote it to the highest and the best of all was to take the lead in the song of the the ends, for which it was bestowed on

* Exodus xv. 20, 21. Psalm lxviii. 25. them. If this was exemplified in Mosaic

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