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by several ardent young men in London, great body of those who are now endea. foremost of whom was Sterling, had re vouring to guide and help onward their solved to land, for revolutionary purposes, fellow-men. And in what is this alienain the south of Spain. Sterling's cousin, tion grounded ? It is, as I believe, simply a Lieutenant Robert Boyd, was to go with in the difference on that point-viz., the the adventurers. He furnished £5000, clear, deep, habitual recognition of a one 'as the grand nucleus of finance;' a ship Living Personal God, essentially good, was bought; it was filled with arms and wise, true, and holy —the Author of all stores; and, on a certain day, was 'to drop that exists; and a re-union with whom is quietly down the Thames. Sterling went the end of all rational beings. . . . What to take leave of a Miss Barton, a friend, we find everywhere [in Sartor Resartus), and the sister of a college friend: this with an abundant use of the name of God young lady looked so piteously that Ster is the conception of a formless Infinite, ling offered his hand, and resolved not to whether in time or space; of a high, ingo to Spain. The ship was arrested on scrutable Necessity, which it is the chief the evening it was to drop down the wisdom and virtue to submit to, which is Thames. Torrijos, Boyd, and fifty picked the mysterious impersonal base of all Spaniards, reached Gibraltar by boats existence-shows itself in the laws of every
safe, though without arms. Sterling was separate being's nature; and for man in married in November of the same year the shape of duty. (1830). A week or two after he fell into Indeed, the present volume goes far to dangerous pulmonary illness, and long his make the belief inevitable, that the only life was despaired of. On his recovery, settled point with Mr Carlyle is that there he set off with his wife to the West Indies, is no personal God where he had been left with the third A great portion of the following two or share of a very large property in the three years was, on account of delicate Island of St Vincent. Towards the close health, spent abroad. Literature was now of 1831, Torrijos, Boyd, and their follow- his main occupation. ers were apprehended; and orders were 'Sterling's communications,' says Mr forth with sent from Madrid—'Military exe-Carlyle, 'with Blackwood's Magazine had cution on the instant: fusilade them all.' now issued in some open sanction of him
The fatal news reached Sterling in the by Professor Wilson, the distinguished beginning of the next year, and was the presiding spirit of that periodical; a fact worst blow of his life. He wrote: “I hear naturally of high importance to him under the sound of that musketry; it is as if the literary point of view. For Wilson, the bullets were tearing my own brain.' with his clear flashing eye, and great Henceforth he lost all interest in politics. genial heart, had at once recognised SterThe tragedy made his isolation from his ling, and lavished stormily, in his wild friends intolerable, and he returned to generous way, torrents of praise on him London. Coleridge's talk and Torrijos's in the editorial comments, which unfate, Carlyle thinks, led him to think of doubtedly was one of the gratefulest litereligion; and in 1833 he published a rary baptisms, by fire or by water, that novel, Arthur Coningsby, full of Cole- could befall a soul like Sterling's. He ridgean moonshine,' as the biographer bore it very gently, being indeed past the calls it. The same year he met with his age to have his head turned by anybody's old tutor, Mr Hare, then appointed Rector praise; nor do I think the exaggeration of Herstmonceux in Sussex. In 1834 he that was in these eulogies did him any ill took orders, and became Mr Hare's curate, | whatever; while, surely, their generous a step which Carlyle brands as 'rash, false, encouragement did him much good, in bis unwise, and unpermitted,'- a wedding solitary struggle towards new activity God's truth to the devil's untruth.' Eight under such impediments as his. Laudari months afterwards, Mr Hare says, 'ill a laudato; to be called noble by one whom health, but Mr Carlyle calls it dissatis- you and the world recognise as noble; this faction with the clerical profession and great satisfaction, never, perhaps, in such a with Christianity, induced him to give up degree, before or after, had now been his curacy. 'Priesthood,' according to Mr vouchsafed to Sterling; and was, as I comCarlyle, had been found to be as great pute, an important fact for him. He proan 'illusion' as “Radicalism.' It was at ceeded on his pilgrimage with new energy, this time that Sterling met with Carlyle. and felt more and more as if authentically They soon became warm friends. From consecrated to the same.' a letter which Carlyle received from him After many voyages abroad, alternating in reference to Sartor Resartus, we ex. | with a shifting of residences at home, he tract the following criticism, which is true settled in Falmouth. In 1843, just after of that book, and of all Mr Carlyle's he had begun to recover from the bursting writings:
of a bloodvessel, both his mother and wife, "There is a want of sympathy with the the latter unexpectedly, died within a few
hours from each other. He bore this By thy human frame, that often double bereavement manfully; and, per Hungered, thirsted, wearied, slept; haps, all the more so that his own life was By thy soul, that woe could softenprecarious. His literary attempts were By thy pitying eyes that wept : henceforth in rhyme. In the spring of
Mercy, Jesus ! 1844 the breaking of a bloodvessel oc
By thy hour of deepest anguish, curred again, and from this he was never
Think on dark Gethsemane ; more to rally. The Bible was now 'his
By the time when thou didst languish, chief favourite ;' but this fact the bio
Sick and wounded on the tree : grapher does not try to reconcile with Sterling's Carlyleism. On the 18th of
Mercy, Jesus ! September he died, at the age of 38.
Mercy, Jesus ! in my blindness The leading impression which we have See me sitting by the way; got from this Biography is one of wonder, 'Tis to feel thy loving-kindnessthat Sterling, as a sceptic, should ever "Tis to see thee that I pray: have been mentioned in connexion with
Mercy, Jesus! Mercy, Jesus ! the present crisis of Christianity. His I will follow thee alway. was not the case of some gifted youth,
1. C. educated thoroughly in Christian doctrine, being compelled by his own growing consciousness to quarrel with dogmatic Chris
BIBLICAL STUDIES. tianity as standing in the way of a genuine interpretation of humanity. Sterling was
PSALM CIV.-INTRODUCTION. not only helpless against, but he was ready It is impossible to look abroad on the for, the temptations of such a companion world without perceiving that our modern as Mr Carlyle. The Devil could not have science exerts a powerful influence on the found an easier victim.
Christianity of the present day. This We may mention, in conclusion, that in was naturally to be expected, for Christithis Biography of a clergyman and a anity has in no age escaped the influence thinker, Mr Carlyle does not once mention of external circumstances. The religion of the name of Jesus Christ! He seems to Jesus changes not in its doctrines or prehave said to himself and to his acquaint cepts; yet the opinions and lives of Chrisances, what Voltaire once said, “ Prythee, tians have been largely affected by accident let me never hear that man's name again, of time and place like the fruits of the as if Christ were a bore!
earth, substantially the same, yet varying from year to year, according to the nature
of the season in which they have been proORIGINAL POETRY.
The present age is remarkable for the ENDURANCE.
| number and variety of those influences
which are brought to bear upon the ChrisBEND to receive the cross, and lift it up, And bear it on, and plant it on a hill,
tianity of the day. Our science, our art, Take from thy Father's hand the bitter cup
our literature, our philosophy, our comWhate'er its mixture, meekly say, 'I will :'
merce, are all making themselves felt in Art thou despised and wretched, poor and mean?
connexion with the interests of our religion. For gentle deeds, repaid with wrath and wrong?
All of these are either the huni ble hand
maids of Christianity, or else they are its Endure in faith, as seeing things unseenEndure in love, for love alone is strong:
powerful foes. In one aspect Christianity
has nothing to lose, but much to gain, from Sufferings sublime, and sanctify our lives;
their advancement; in another, it has much Sorrows refine our souls, and leave them pure Since all must suffer, he is wise who strives
From the cultivation of science in parTo suffer best. "Tis Christ-like to endure;
ticular, our most holy faith has in one reA rest remains, endurance is the road :
spect nothing to dread. There is no danWhose sorest thorns were bound about
ger of any of its discoveries coming into The brow of God.
collision with the doctrines of the Word. THE SINNER'S CRY.
The book of nature and the book of grace
have both the same author, even the God MERCY, Jesus! from thy throne
of truth, and there cannot therefore be any Hear a wretched sinner groan :
contradiction between them. The one is Mercy, Jesus!
illustrative of the other. There is no danBy thy birth in Bethlehem's manger,
ger either that the discoveries of science Mary's meek and sinless child;
shall render valueless the revelations of the By thy life, on earth a stranger
Scriptures, for the latter make known to By thiy prayers upon the wild:
us truths which nature could never teach. Mercy, Jesus!
The light which we gather from the stars of heaven can never dim that which shines sisted eye cannot discern it. When we from the pages of the Word, but only add have contemplated all this, with what unto its radiance; the treasures which we dig speakable emotion do we read these amazfrom the bowels of the earth can never | ing words: ‘God so loved the WORLD, that diminish, but only increase in worth, those | he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoriches which are more to be desired than | ever believeth in him should not perish, gold, yea, than much fine gold.
but have everlasting life! The discoveries of modern science are It is astonishing how frequently good well fitted to enlarge our ideas of the great- men look askance on the study of science, ness of God. Everywhere throughout this seeing that the Bible so often refers to navisible creation we see the proofs of his in- tural phenomena. Our Lord sends us to finite power and of his matchless wisdom. the lilies of the field, that we may learn Of old the Psalınist could say, the heavens from them. The address of God to Job is declare the glory of God, and the firma- | founded entirely upon his works of nature; ment showeth his handiwork;' but what and many of the Psalms are hymns of new significance have his words received praise to God, as the God of creation, and after the discoveries of modern times in of providence. The 19th, the 29th, and the starry universe? What new force and the 65th Psalıns are wholly, or in part, of beauty has geology enabled us to perceive this character, and the 1014th; is, from bein these words of Moses, the man of God: ginning to end, a nature Psalm. In this ' Before the mountains were brought forth, last, the Psalmist takes a rapid survey of or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the whole field of nature; the earth and the world, even from everlasting to ever the sky, things animate and inanimate, lasting, thou art God.' The good man in pass successively under review, and are ancient times was emboldened to trust in made the basis of a song of praise to the God for the fullment of all his promises, great Creator of all. In all this we have when he said that, “ according to his word an example, showing us how every Chrisseed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, tian may turn the whole field of nature and summer and winter, and day and night, into one of religious enjoyment and inhad not ceased;' surely then we, with our struction. Altogether apart from the admore extended knowledge of the undeviat- vantages of science, in an economic point ing regularity of nature's laws, which are of view, and from the benefits resulting but the expressions of God's will, should from the study of it, as a branch of intelbe able to say with a more perfect under- | lectual culture, it should be the source of standing and a more assured faith, 'For peculiar enjoyment to the Christian. His ever, O Lord, thy word is settled in heaven. contemplation of God's works, should not Thy faithfulness is unto all generations : only instruct his mind but also delight his Thou hast established the earth, and it heart. Jonathan Edwards says, in speaking abideth. They continue this day according of his experience after his conversion, 'The to thine ordinances : for all are thy ser appearance of everything was alteredvants.
there seemed to be a calm sweet cast, or A knowledge of the works of creation appearance of divine'glory in almost everywill often be useful in stirring up and thing. God's excellency, his wisdom, his nourishing proper sentiment in the bosom purity, and love seemed to appear in everyof the Christian. It is indeed enough for thing, -in the sun, moon, and stars—in the a Christian to glance at the visible heavens clouds and blue sky-in the grass, flowers, in order to be ready to say-'What is man, and trees-in the water and all nature, that thou art mindful of him? and the son which used greatly to fix my mind. Í of man, that thou visitest him?' but surely a often used to sit and view the moon for a deeper impression of the condescension of long time, and in the day spent much time God will be produced after we have learned in viewing the clouds and sky, to behold what science has to teach us respecting the the sweet glory of God in these things; in immensity of the material universe. When the meantime singing forth with a low astronomy has shown us the worlds that voice my contemplations of the Creator circle with us around the sun; when it has and Redeemer.' The Christain poet too sounded the depths of the firmament, and has beautifully expressed the same thing discovered to us millions of before unseen in the following lines :-stars, themselves suns and centres of systems; when it has led us beyond this fir- |
• He looks abroad into the varied field mament into the abysses of space, and has
Of nature, and though poor, perhaps, compare disclosed to our astonished gaze other fir With those whose mansions glitter in his sight, maments and clusters of stars more glo Calls the delightful scenery all his own. rious than our own, and so inconceivably His are the mountains, and the valleys his , remote, that the blended light of ten thou And the resplendent rivers, his to enjoy sand times ten thousand suns falls on the With a propriety that none can feel carth, with so feeble a ray that the unas- But who, with filial confidence inspired,
Can lift to heaven an unpresumptuous eye,
inculcated in his angels or ministering And smiling say, My Father made them all.
| spirits; in his prophets; in the resur. Are they not his by a peculiar right,
rection of the body : in the last judgment And by an emphasis of interest his,
and a future state of rewards and prinishWhose eye they fill with tears of holy joy,
ments, and in predestination. Much of Whose heart with praise, and whose exalted mind the Koran may be traced to the Bible, the With worthy thoughts of that unwearied love, Mishnu, and the Talmud of the Jews, espeTbat planned, and built, and still upholds a world So clothed with beauty, for rebellious man?' ditions concerning the angels, the patri.
archs, the prophets, and the good and evil While thus recommending the study of genii. He had at an early age imbibed a nature, we must beware of exalting it above reverence for the Jewish faith, his mother, its proper level. It can never be a sub- it is suggested, having been of that relistitute for the study of the Word. It
gion. brings to us no message of salvation. It | The system laid down in the Koran, cannot beget those feelings which we ought however, was essentially founded on the to cherish towards a holy and an offended Christian doctrines inculcated in the New God. For this we must turn to the Cross. Testament; as they had been expounded The most precious of all knowledge is 'the I to him by the Christian sectarians of knowledge of Christ and of him crucified;'
Arabia. Our Saviour was to be held in the true wisdom is the 'fear of the Lord;' |
the highest reverence as an inspired proand the right understanding, 'to depart phet, the greatest that had been sent before from evil."
A. H., C. the time of Mahomet, to reform the law;
but all idea of his divinity was rejected as
impious, and the doctrine of the Trinity OUTLINES OF THE MAHOMETAN was denounced as an outrage on the unity FAITH.
of God. Both were pronounced errors and
interpolations of the expounders; and this The Koran, was delivered in portions it will be observed, was the opinion of some from time to time, according to the excite- of the Arabian sects of Christians. ment of Mahomet's feelings, or the exi. The worship of saints, and the introducgency of circumstances. It was not given tion of images and paintings representing as his own work, but as a divine revela- | them, were condemned as idolatrous lapses tion; as the very words of God. The from the pure faith of Christ, and such, we Deity iş supposed to speak in every in. have already observed, were the tenets of stance. We have sent thee down the the Nestorians with whom. Mahomet is book of truth, confirming the Scripture known to have had much communication. which was revealed before it, and preserv- All pictures representing living things ing the same in its purity.
were prohibited. Mahomet used to say, The law of Moses, it was said, had for that the angels would not enter a house a time been the guide and rule of human in which there were such pictures, and conduct. At the coming of Jesus Christ that those who made them would be senit was superseded by the Gospel; both tenced, in the next world, to find souls for were now to give place to the Koran, which them or be punished. was more full and explicit than the pre- Most of the benignant precepts of our ceding codes, and intended to reform the Saviour were incorporated in the Koran. abuses which had crept into them through Frequent almsgiving was enjoined as an the negligence or the corruptions of their imperative duty, and the immutable law professors. It was the completion of the of right and wrong. 'Do unto another, as law; after it, there would be no more di- thou wouldst he should do unto thee,' was vine revelations. Mahomet was the last, given for the moral conduct of the faithful. as he was the greatest, of the line of pro Deal not unjustly with others,' says phets sent to make known the will of the Koran, "and ye shall not be dealt with God.
unjustly. If there be any debtor under a The unity of God was the corner stone difficulty of paying his debt, let his creof this reformed religion. There is no ditor wait until it be easy for him to do God but God,' was its leading dogma. it; but if he remit it in alms, it will be Hence, it received the name of the religion better for him.' of Islam, an Arabian word, implying sub Mahomet inculcated a noble fairness mission to God. To this leading dogma, and sincerity in dealing. 'Oh, merchants !' was added, “Mahomet is the prophet of would he say, 'falsehood and deception are God;' an addition authorized, as it was apt to prevail in traffic, purify it therefore maintained, by the divine annunciation, with alms; give something in charity as and important to procure a ready accepta | an atonement; for God is incensed by detion of his revelations.
ceit in dealing, but charity appeases his Beside the unity of God, a belief was | anger. He who sells a defective thing,
concealing its defect, will provoke the anger in some respects similar to those of the of God and the curses of the angels. Christian religion, but were mixed up with
Take not advantage of the necessities wild notions derived from other sources ; of another to buy things at a sacrifice; while the joys of the Moslem heaven, rather relieve his indigence.
though partly spiritual, were clogged and Feed the hungry, visit the sick, and debased by the sensualities of earth, and free the captive if confined unjustly. infinitely below the ineffable purity and
"Look not scornfully upon thy fellow spiritual blessedness of the heaven proman; neither walk the earth with insolence, mised by our Saviour. for God loveth not the arrogant and vain- / Nevertheless, the description of the last glorious. Be moderate in thy pace, and day, as contained in the eighty-first chapspeak with a moderate tone; for the most ter of the Koran, and which must have ungrateful of all voices, is the voice of been given by Mahomet at the outset of asses.'
his mission at Mecca, as one of the first of Idolatry of all kinds was strictly for- of his revelations, partakes of sublimity. bidden; indeed it was what Mahomet held 'In the name of the all-merciful God! in most abhorrence. Many of the religious a day shall come when the sun will be usages, however, prevalent since time im- shrouded, and the stars will fall from the memorial among the Arabs, to which he heavens. had been accustomed from infancy, and 'When the camels about to foal will be which were not incompatible with the doc- neglected, and wild beasts will herd totrine of the unity of God, were still retain gether through fear. ed. Such was the pilgrimage to Mecca, When the waves of the ocean will boil, including all the rites connected with the and the souls of the dead again be united Caaba, the well of Zem Zem, and other to the bodies. sacred places in the vicinity ; apart from When the female infant that has been any worship of the idols by which they had | buried alive will demand, for what crime been profaned.
was I sacrificed ? and the eternal books The old Arabian rite of prayer, accom- will be laid open. panied, or rather preceded by ablution, When the heavens will pass away like was still continued. Prayers indeed were a scroll, and hell will burn fiercely, and enjoined at certain hours of the day and the joys of paradise will be made maninight; they were simple in form and fest. phrase, addressed directly to the Deity with 'On that day shall every soul make certain inflexions, or at times a total pro known that which it hath performed. stration of the body, and with the face Verily, I swear to you by the stars turned towards the Kelba, or the point of which move swiftly and are lost in the adoration.
| brightness of the sun, and by the darkness At the end of each prayer, the following of the night, and by the dawning of the verse from the second chapter of the Koran day, these are not the words of an evil was recited. It is said to have great beauty spirit, but of an angel of dignity and power, in the original Arabic, and is engraved on who possesses the confidence of Allah, and gold and silver ornaments, and on precious is revered by the angels under his comstones worn as amulets. God! There is mand. Neither is your companion, Mano God but He, the living, the ever living; homet, distracted. He beheld the celestial he sleepeth not, neither doth he slumber messenger in the light of the clear horizon, To him belongeth the heavens, and the and the words revealed to him are intended earth, and all that they contain. Who as an admonition unto all creatures.'shall intercede with him unless by his per Washington Irving's Lives of Mahomet and mission ? He knoweth the past and the his Successors. future, but no one can comprehend any. thing of his knowledge but that which he revealeth. His sway extendeth over the POPERY THE POLICE OF heavens and the earth, and to sustain
DESPOTISM. them both is no burthen to him. He is the High, the Mighty!'
As I was one day viewing with a friend Mahomet was strenuous in enforcing the the city of Turin, admiring the beauty of importance and efficacy of prayer. ‘Angels the surrounding scenery--the Superga, the said he, come among you both by night snowy Alps, the winding Po, and the beauand day; after which those of the night tiful Colline, sparkling with villas from ascend to heaven, and God asks them how bottom to top, Where,' said I, “is the they left his creatures. We found them, new Protestant church' to be erected ?' say they, at their prayers, and we left them We were moving along at the moment a at their prayers.
beautiful promenade, wide, and planted The doctrines in the Koran respecting with trees, and destined at no distant day the resurrection and final judgment, were to be the finest street in that rapidly in