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their organs. To find the place of plants in the artificial classes and orders, it is only necessary to observe the distinctions of the stainens and pistils.

You will therefore recollect that Natural Methods depend on many considerations ; the Artificial System is founded on a few simple principles.

But without attempting to explain to you the peculiarities of Natural Methods, we will now place before you those of Linnæus and of Jussieu. These you are to refer_to, in your analysis of flowers, rather than to study in regular order. The physician is chiefly conversant with the natural characters of plants, especially with such as are connected by medicinal qualities; he would say of one group, they are narcotics; of another, these are tonics ; of another that they are refrigerants,* &c.

Although the natural method is of the greatest utility, its chief use depends on a knowledge of the artificial system, which enables us to find, in an expeditious manner, the name of a plant, and then its place among the natural families or orders.

Linnæus did not suppose his natural method could be used without the assistance of the artificial system ; but he considered the former as ingrafted upon the latter.

NATURAL ORDERS OF LINNÆUS. 1. PALMÆ. Palms and their relatives; as Cocoanut, Frog's bit. Farinace

2. PIPERITÆ. Pepper and its relatives. In crowded spikes; as Indian. turnip, sweet flag. Tonics and stomachics.

3. CALAMARIÆ. Reed-like grasses, with culms without joints; as cat-tail, sedge. Coarse cattle fodder.

4. GRAMINA. The proper grasses with jointed culms; as Wheat, Rye, Oats, Timothy-grass, Indian-corn. Farinaceous diet, and cattle fodder.

5. TRIPETALOIDEÆ. Corol* 3-petalled, or calyx 3-leaved; as Water-plantain, Rush-grass, Arrow-head. Tonics and rough cattle fodder.

6. EnsaTÆ. Liliaceous plants, with sword-form leaves ; as Iris, Blue-eyed grass, Virginian spiderwort. Antiscorbutics and tonics.

7. ORCHIDEÆ. With fleshy roots, stamens on the pistils, pollen glutinous, flowers of singular structure, with the germ inferior; as Ladies' slipper, Arethusa. Farinaceous diet and stomachics.

8. SCITAMINEÆ. Liliaceous corols, stems herbaceous, leaves broad, germ blunt-angular; as Ginger, Turmeric. Warming stomachics.

9. SPATHACEÆ. Liliaceous plants with spathes ;£ as Daffodil, Onion, Snow-drop. Secernant stimulants.

10. CORONARIÆ. Liliaceous plants without spathes ; as Lily, Tulip, Stargrass. The nauseous scented and bitter are antiscorbutic and cathartic, the others Emollient.

11. SARMENTACEÆ. Liliaceous corols with very weak stems; as Asparagus, Bell-wort. Tonics and Secernant stimulants. * 12. OLERACEÆ or HOLERACEÆ. Having flowers destitute of beauty, at least of gay colouring; as Beet, Blight, Pig-weed, Dock, Pepperage. If nauseous, Cathartic; others, mild stimulants and nutrientics.

13. SUOCULENTÆ. Plants with very thick succulent leaves; as Pricklypear, House-leek, Purslane. Antiscorbutic and Emollient.

14. GRUINALES. Corols with five petals, capsules beaked ; as Flax, Woodsorrel, Cranes-bill. Tonics and Refrigerants.

15. INUNDATAE. Growing under water, and having flowers destitute of beauty; as Hippuris, Pondweed. Astringents.

16. CALYCIFLORAE. Plants without corols, with the stamens on the c&. lyx; as Poet's cassia, Seed buckthorn. Astringents and Refrigerants.

* In explanation of these terms, see vocabulary. + Or corolla.

| Or spathas.

Difference between natural methods and the artificial system-The physician chiefly conversant with natural methods—The artificial system an index to natural methods-Natural orders of Linnæus.

17. CALYCANTHEMÆ. Calyx on the germ or growing to it, flowers beautiful; as Willow-herb, Ludwigia, Enothera. Astringents.

18. Bicornes. Anthers with two straight horns; as Whortleberry, spicy and bitter Wintergreen, Laurel. Astringents.

19. HESPERIDES. Sweet-scented, leaves evergreen; as Myrtle, Cloves, Mock-orange. Astringent and stomachic.

20. ROTACEE. Corols wheel-form; as Gentian, St. John's wort. Tonics.

21. PRECIÆ. Plants with early spring flowers, of an elegant, shewy appearance; as Primrose. Astringents.

22. CARYOPHYLLEÆ. Plants with caryophyllous corols; as Pink, Cockle. Astringent and Secernant stimulants.

23. 'l'RIHILATÆ. Flowers with 3 stigmas, capsules inflated and winged, and generally three-seeded with distinct hilums; as Nasturtion, Horse-chesnut. Tonics and Nutrientics.

24. CORYDALES. Corols spurred or anomalous; as Fumitory, Touch-menot. Narcoticand Antiscorbutic.

25. PUTAMINEAE. Plants which bear shell-fruit; as Caperbush. Detergent and Antiscorbutic.

26. MULTISILIQUÆ. Having several pod-form capsules to each flower ; as Columbine, Larkspur, Rue, American cowslip. Cathartic and Caustic.

27. RHEADEAE. Plants with caducous calyxes, and capsules or siliques; as Poppy, Blood-root, Celandine. Anodyne and Antiscorbutic.

28. LURIDAE. Corols lurid, mostly monopetalous ; flowers Pentandrous, or Didynamous with capsules ; as Tobacco, Thorn-apple, Night-shade, Fox-glove. Narcotic and Antiscorbutic.

29. CAMPANACEAE. Having bell-form corols, or those whose general aspect is somewhat bell-form; as Morning-glory, Bell flower, Violet, Cardinal flower. Cathartics and Secernant stimulants.

30. CONTORTÆ. Corols twisted or contorted; as Milk-woed, Periwinkle, Choak-dog. Cathartics and Antiscorbutics.

31. VEPRECULÆ. Having monophyllous calyxes, coloured like corols; as Leatherwood, Thesium. Antiscorbutic and Emetic.

32. PAPILONACEÆ Having papilionaceous flowers; as Peas, Beans, Locusttree, Clover. Emollient, Nutrientic.

33. LOMENTACEÆ. Having legumes or loments, but not perfect papilionaceous flowers; as Cassia, Sensitive plant. Emollient, Astringent, Cathartic.

34. CUCURBITACEÆ. Fruit pompion-like, anthers mostly united; as Melons, Cucumbers, Passion-flower. Cathartic and Refrigerant.

35. SenticosĘ.. Prickly or hairy, with Polypetalous corols and a number of seeds either naked or slightly covered; as Rose, Raspberry, Strawberry. Astringent and Refrigerant.

36. POMACEÆ. Having many stamens on the calyx, and drupaceous or pomaceous fruit; as Pear, Currant, Cherry, Peach. Refrigerants.

37. COLUMNIFERÆ. Stamens united in the form of a column; as Hollyhock, Mallows, Cotton. Emollient.

38. TRICOCCÆ. Having 3-celled capsules ; as Castor-oil plant, Spurge, Box. Cathartic.

39. SILIQUOSÆ. Having silique pods; as Cabbage, Mustard, Shepherdpurse. Antiscorbutic, Nutrientic.

40. PersonaTÆ. Having personate corols; as Snapdragon, Monkeyflower. Deobstruents and Cathartics.

41. AsPERIFOLIÆ. Corols monopetalous, with 5 stamens, seeds 4, naked, leaves rough ; as Comfrey, Stone-seed, (lithospermum.) Astringents and Deobstruents.

42. VERTICILLATÆ. Having Labiate flowers; as Sage, Thyme, Catmint, Motherwort. Stomachics and Astringents.

43. DUMOSÆ. Bushy pithy plants with small flowers, petals in 4 or 5 divisions ; as Sumach, Elder, Holly. Tonic and Cathartic.

44. SEPIARIÆ. Having mostly tubular divided corols with few stamens ; being ornamental shrubs; as Lilac, Jasmine. Astringent.

45. UMBELLATÆ. Flowers in umbels with 5-petalled corols, stamens 5, styles 2, and 2 naked seeds ; as Fennel, Dill, Carrot, Poison-hemlock. Stoa machic and Narcotic,

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46. HEDERACE Æ. Corols 5-cleft, stamens 5 to 10, fruit berry-like on a compound raceme; as Grape, Ginseng, Spikenard. Tonics and Refrigerants.

47. STELLATÆ. Corols 4-cleft, stamens 4, seeds 2, naked, leaves mostly whorled; as Bedstraw, Dogwood, Venus' pride. Tonics and Deobstruents,

48. AGGREGATÆ. Having aggregate flowers; as Button-bush, Marsh-rosemary. Tonics and Secernant stimulants.

49. COMPOSITE. All the compound flowers; as Sun-flower, Boneset, Tansey, Thistle. Tonics and Secernant stimulants.

50. AMENTACEÆ. Bearing pendant aments; as Hazle, Oak, Chesnut, Willow. Astringents.

51. CONIFERÆ. Bearing strobiles ; as Pine, Juniper, Cedar. Ponics and Stomachics.

52. COADUNATÆ. Several berry-like pericarps, which are adnate; as Tulip-tree, Magnolia. Tonics.

53. SCABRIDÆ. Leaves rough, flowers destitute of beauty ; as Nettle, Hemp, Hop, Elm. Astringents.

54. MISCELLANEÆ. Plants not arranged by any particular character; as Pond-lily, Poke-weed, Amaranth. Their qualities are various.

55. FILICES. All ferns ; as Brakes, Maiden-hair. Secernant stimulants.

56. Musch. All mosses; as Polytrichum. Cathartics and Secernant stimulants.

57. AlgÆ. All Liverworts, Lichens and Sea-weeds ; as Jungermannia, Fucus, Usnea. Tonics.

58. Fungi.. All funguses ; as Mushroom, Toad-stool, Puff-ball, Touchwood, Mould. Tonics and Cathartics.''*

General Divisions of Jussieu. The natural orders of Jussieu are arranged under the three following general divisions, according to distinctions observed in the seed; viz. into Xcotyledonous,t Monocotyledonous,t and Dicotyledonoust plants.

First Division. The Acotyledonous plants correspond to the class Cryptogamia, of the artificial system.

Second Division. The Monocotyledonous plants are divided into three classes characterised by the insertion of the stamens ; the 1st has the stamens hypogynous, or under the pistil ; as the grasses, &c.; the 2d has the stamens perigynous, or around the pistil; as the palms, &c.; the 3d has the stamens epigynous, or upon the pistil; as the orchis, &c.

Third Division. The Dicotyledonous plants are ten times more numerous than the two preceding divisions ; the different classes are here arranged as in the other cases with reference to the absence of the corolla, its presence, and the number of petals. These plants are divided into four sections, as follows.

The first section Apetalous (wanting petals) is divided into three classes. 1st. Comprehends all dicotyledonous plants destitute of a corolla, which have

the stamens epigynous ; as wild ginger. 2d, Comprehends all dicotyledonous plants destitute of a corolla, which have

the stamens perigynous ; as dock, &c. 3d, Comprehends all dicotyledonous plants destitute of a corolla, which have

the stamens hypogynous; as plantain, &c. The second section, Monopetalous, is divided into four classes. 1st, Comprehends all dicotyledonous, monopetalous plants, which have the

stamens hypogynous; as milkweed, &c.

* The preceding synopsis of artificial classes and orders, together with the natural orders of Linnæus, are quoted from Eaton, by permission.

+ See these terms in the vocabulary.

Three general divisions of plants by Jussieu-Acotyledonous, Monocotyledonous, how divided—Dicotyledonous, how divided—First section, into how many classes divided-Second section, how divided.

2d, Differs from the first only in having the stamens perigynous ; as the win

tergreen, &c. 3d, Differs from the two preceding, in having stamens epigynous, and anthers

united ; as lettuce, &c. 4th; Differs from the third only in having the anthers separate ; as the elder, &c. The third section, Polypetalous, is divided into three classes. Ist, Stamens epigynous : as, umbellate flowers. 2d, Stamens hypogynous; as cruciform flowers. 3d, Stamens perigynous ; as the rose, &c. The fourth section anomalous, contains the 15th and last class of Jussieu.

This class contains the melon, hop, oak, &c.; it corresponds to the classes,
Monoecia and Dioecia, in the artificial system.
These fifteen classes are divided into 100 families or orders.


Class I.

Properties. 1. Fungi,

Mushroom, mould, Tonic if dry, narcotic if juicy. 2. Algae,

Lichen, conferva, Tonic some used in dyeing. 3. Hepaticae,

Brook liverwort, Tonic, refrigerant. 4. Musci, Proper mosses,

Tonic, rarely cathartic. 5. Filices, Brakes, polypod, Secernant stimulants. 6. Naiades, Duck meat,


Class II. Stamens below the pista. 7. Aroideae,' Wild turnip, Warming, stomachic & antispasmodic. 8. Typhae, Cat tail,

Weak tonic. 9. Cyperoideae, Sedge grass,

Tonic, coarse cattle fodder. 10. Gramineae, Timothy grass,

Tonic, farinaceous, cattle fodder. Class III. Stamens surrounding the pistil. 11. Palmae, Date, cocoanut, Weak tonic, farinaceous. 12. Asparagi, Solomon seal, Secernant stimulant, mild tonic. 13. Junci, Sweet flag,

Secernant stimulant, antiscorbutic. 14. Liliaceae, Tulip, addertongue, Emollient, weak secernant stimulant. 15. Bromeliae, Pine apple,

Refrigerant. 16. Asphodeli, Onion, hyacinth, Expectorant, tonic, cathartic. 17. Narcissi, Daffodil,

Weak tonic, emollient. 18. Irides, Iris, blue-eyed grass, Antiscorbutic, tonic.

Class IV. Stamens on the pistil. 19. Musae, Bread-tree, Tonic. 20. Cannae, Ginger,

Warming stomachic. 21. Orchidae, Ladies' slipper, Emollient, stomachic, farinaceous. 22. Hydrocharides, Tape grass,

Weak tonic.
Section first, flowers apetalous.
*Class V. Stamens on the

23. Aristolochiae, Wild ginger, Tonic, warming stomachic.

Class VI. Stamens surrounding the germ. 24. Aeleagni, Pepperage tree,

Weak tonic. 25. Thymeleae,

Leather-wood, Mild emetic, antiscorbutic. 26. Proteae, Silver tree,

Weak tonic. 27. Lauri, Sassafras, Secernant stimulant, stomachic. 28. Polygoneae, Dock, rhubarb, Mild cathartic, antiscorbutic. 29. Atriplices, Beet, pokeweed, Aperient, cathartic.

Third section=Fourth section-Jussieu's fifteen classes, into how many families or orders divided.

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Class VII. Stamens below the germ.
Names. Examples.

30. Amaranthi, Cock's comb, Weak tonic, secernant stimulant.
31. Plantaginea, Plantain,

Emollient. 32. Nyctagines,

Four o'clock, Cathartic, emetic. 33. Pļumbagines, Sea-lavender, Cathartic, tonic.

Section second. Flowers monopetalous.

Class VIII. Corollas below the germ. 34. Lysimachiae, Loosestrife, Weak tonic, secernant stimulant. 35. Pediculares, Snakeroot,

Tonic, cathartic. 36. Acanthi, Malabar nut,

Emollient, weak tonic. 37. Jasmineae, Ash, lilac,

Tonic, secernant stimulant. 38. Vitices, Vervain,

Deobstruent, secernant stimulant. 39. Labiatae, Sage, catnip, Secernant stimulant, stomachic, tonic. 40. Scrophulariae, Foxglove,

Narcotic, absorbent, deobstruent. 41. Solaneae, Red pepper, henbane, Narcotic, cathartic, warming ,stomachic. 42. Boragineae, Comfrey,

Astringent, vulnerary, emollient. 43. Convolvuli, Jalap, dodder, Cathartic. 44. Polemonia, Lichnidia,

Feeble tonic. 45. Bignoniae, Snake-head, Cathartic, narcotic. 46. Gentianae, Caroline Pink, Cathartic, tonic. 47. Apocyneae, Milkweed,

Cathartic, narcotic, deobstruent. 48. Sapotae,

Cathartic, antispasmodic. Class IX. Corollas surrounding the germ. 49. Guaiacanae, Lignum vitæ, Tonic, warming, stomachic. 50. Rhododendra, Laurel,

Tonic, narcotic. 51. Ericae, Wintergreen, Tonic, astringent, refrigerant. 52. Campanulaceae, Lobelia,

Cathartic, emetic, deobstruent. Class X. Corollas on the germ--anthers united, 53. Cichoraceae, Lettuce, endive, Aperient, mild anodyne. 54. Cinarocephalae, Th‘stle, burdock, Tonic, if nauseous, cathartic. 55. Corymbiferae, Boneset, fleabane, Tonic, secernant stimulant.

Class XI. Corollas on the germ-anthers separate. 56. Dipsaceae, Button bush, teasel, Weak tonic. 57. Rubiaceae, Bedstraw,venus pride, Weak tonic, aperient. 58. Caprifolia, Elder, dogwood, Tonic, cathartic if nauseous.

Section third. Flowers polypetalous.

Class XII. Stamens on the germ. 59. Araliae, Ginseng, spikenard, Tonic, expectorant. 60. Umbelliferae, Cicuta, fennel, Stomachic, narcotic, if nauseous.

Class XIII. Stamens below the germ. 61. Ranunculaceae, Crowfoot,goldthread, Narcotic, astringent. 62. Papaveraceae, Bloodroot, poppy, Narcotic, anodyne. 63. Cruciferas, Radish, cabbage, Emollient, stomachic. 64. Capp:ırides, Cleom, mignonette, Aperient, narcotic, if nauseous. 65. Sapindi, Soap-berry,

Emollient. 66. Acera, Maple tree,

Aperient. 67. Malpighiao, Barbadoes cherry, Aperient. 63. Hyperica, John's wort, sundew, Tonic, vulnerary. 69. Guttiferae, Misseltoe-rose, Expectorant, secernant stimulant. 70. Aurantia, Orange, lemon, Tonic, refrigerant. 71. Miliae, Tea,

Astringent, anodyne. 72. Vites, Grape, [um, Astringent, refrigerant. 73. Gerania, Wood-sorrel, gerani- Tonic, refrigerant, narcoticif nauseous 74. Malvaceae, Hollyhock, Emollient, aperient. 75. Magnoliae, White wood, Tonic, aperient. 76. Annonae, Custard apple,

Tonic, aperient. 77. Menisperma, Moonseed,

Feeble narcotic. 78. Berberides, Witch hazel, Astringent, refrigerant.

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