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ing wisdom, cannot be dissected and examined without painful emotions.
The vegetable world offers a boundless field of inquiry, which
may be explored with the most pure and delightful emotions. Here the Almighty seems to manifest himself to us with less of that dazzling sublimity which it is almost painful to behold in 'His more magnificent creations ; and it might almost appear, that accommodating the vegetable world to our capa. cities, He had especially designed it for our investigation and amusement.
The study of Botany naturally leads to greater love and reverence for the Deity. We would not affirm that it does in reality always produce this effect; for, unhappily, there are some minds which, though quick to perceive the beauties of na. ture, seem, blindly, to overlook Him who spread them forth. They can admire the gifts, while they forget the Giver. But those who feel in their hearts a love to God, and who see in the natural world the workings of His power, can look abroad, and adopting the language of a christian poet, exclaim,
“My Father made them all."
DIVISION OF THE SUBJECT.
Having endeavoured to convince you that the study you are about to commence, is recommended by its own intrinsic utility, and especially by its tendency to strengthen the understanding and improve the heart, we will now proceed to lay before you the arrangement which we propose to follow in our course of instruction.
We will divide our course of study into Four Parts, viz. : Part I. Will be chiefly devoted to the Analysis of Plants, or
lessons in Practical Botany. Part II. We shall here consider the various organs of the
plant, beginning with the root and ascending to the flower; this part will include what is usually termed Elementary Botany; it will also contain remarks upon the uses of the various organs of plants, the nature of vegetable substan. ces, and other circumstances connected with Vegetable
Physiology. PART III. In this part we shall consider the different systems
of Botany. We shall examine some of the most impor
Study of the vegetable world—The study of Botany tends to piety-Division of the subject into four parts-I, Practical Botany—II, Vegetable Physiology-III. Systematic Botany.
tant Natural Families ; and then proceed to give a detailed view of the Linnaan System ; remarking some of the most interesting genera, and natural families found under
each class, and order. Part IV. In this part we shall consider the Progressive ap
pearance of Flowers during the season of blossoming ; their various phenomena produced by the different states of the atmosphere, light, &c. ; their distribution over the face of the earth, and the effect of elevation as similar to that of distance from the equator. After giving a History of Botany, we shall take a general view of Nature ; the distinction between organized and inorganized matter; the classification of Animals, with the analogies, and differ. ences presented by a view of the animal and vegetable kingdoms.
IV. Various phenomena of Plants, History of Botany, and General Views of Nature.
General division of the sciences which relate to mind and matter--Different departments of Botanical Science-Parts of a flower.
THE Universe, as composed of mind and matter, gives rise to various sciences. The SUPREME BEING we believe to be immaterial, or pure
mind. The knowledge of mind may be considered under two general heads.
1. THEOLOGY,* or that science which comprehends our views of the Deity, and our duties to Him.
2. PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN MIND, or, metaphysics,t which is the science that investigates the mind of man, and analyzes and arranges its faculties.
The knowledge of matter, which is included under the gene. ral term, Physics, may be considered under three general heads.
1. NATURAL Philosophy, which considers the effects of bodies acting upon each other by their mechanical powers; as their weight and motion.
2. CHEMISTRY, in which the properties, and mutual action of the elementary atoms of bodies are investigated.
3. NATURAL HISTORY, which considers the external forms and characters of objects, and arranges them in classes.
NATURAL HISTORY is divided into three branches.
3. MINERALOGY, which treats of the inorganized masses of the globe ; as stones, earths, &c. GEOLOGY, which treats of minerals as they exist in masses, forming rocks, is a branch of mineralogy
Having thus presented you with this general view of the natural sciences, we will now proceed to that department which is to be the object of your present study.
Departments in Botany. BOTANYS treats of the vegetable kingdom, including every * From the Greek Theos, God, and logos, a discourse.
+ From meta, beyond, and phusis, nature. This term originated with Aristotle, who, considering the study of the intellectual world as beyond that of the material world, or physics, called it meta ta phusis. | From zoe, life, and logos, a discourse.
From the Greek, botane, an herb. Divisions of the sciences which relate to mind-Those which relate to matter---Branches of Natural history.
thing which grows, having root, stem, leaf, or flower. This science comprehends the knowledge of the methodical arrangement of plants, of their structure, and whatever has relation to the vegetable kingdom. The study of plants may be consi. dered under two general heads.
1st. The classification of plants by means of comparing their different organs, is termed Systematic Botany.
2d. The knowledge of the relations and uses of the various parts of plants with respect to each other, is termed Physiologi. cal Botany. This department includes Vegetable Anatomy.
Systematic Botany is divided into the artificial and natural methods. The artificial method is founded upon different cir. cumstances of two organs of the plant, called the pistils and stamens. Linnæus of Sweden was the first who discovered that these organs are common to all plants, and essential to their existence. Taking advantage of this fact, he founded his classes and orders upon their number, situation, and proportion. By this artificial system, plants which are unlike in their general appearance, are brought together, as in a dictionary, words of different signification are placed together from the mere circumstance of agreement in their initial letters. Fig. 1.
Parts of the
you can learn the principles on which the classifica. tion of plants depends, it is necessary that you should become acquainted with the parts of a flower; for
you have here the repre. sentation of a Lily. (See fig. 1.) You know that at first this flower is folded
up in a little green bud, and that by degrees, it expands and changes its colour; being in some kinds of lilies,
white, in others, yel. low, orange, &c. This is the picture of a white lily.
The part which you would call the blossom, is the corolla ; this is composed of six pieces, each of which is a petal, as seen at a.
By examining the lily you
will observe within the corolla
are called Stamens. Each b
stamen is composed of two
and throws out a colour.
The central organ is called the Pistil (c); this consists of three parts, the top, which is called the Stigma (d), the slender filament which bears the stigma is called the Style (e), and the base is called the
Germ (f) In many flowers the corolla is surrounded by a kind of cup called the Calyx, this is wanting in the Lily, but exists in the Pink.
The Receptacle (g), is the end of the stem, where all the other parts of the flower are inserted. Fig. 3.
The Peric carp (Figure
the germ in a mature state ; the name is deria
ved from the
carp is called
Corolla--Petals--Stamens, and parts of--Pistil, and parts of--Calyx--Receptacle