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improbable that we should be able to say of any given step: "Here self-consciousness appears. This animal is self-conscious, its immediate ancestor was not."

When we add to this probability of complete continuity in development the consideration that a very large part of the reactions and behaviour of men are quite clearly based on a type of mechanism (reflexes, instincts) which he possesses in common with all other organisms, the need for some coordinating conception, which shall express the 'mainspring,' as it were, of the activities of all organisms begins to be felt. To a psychologist it is perhaps natural that such a conception should be psychological.

But at this point we are brought up against the hard fact that we cannot get away from our own psychology, which is essentially self-conscious, and consequently we read our own self-conscious psychology into the activities of organisms at large. We cannot possibly compass psychological thinking without using ideas derived from the phenomena of self-consciousness. Thus Professor Bleuler, with his conception of the psychoid, has to admit that it is constructed on the model of the self-conscious psyche. What right has he to say for instance (p. 8) that "every cell knows what part the others take in the new orientation, and what task is assigned to it itself"? It is true that in another place (p. 31) he expresses the behaviour of the cells in the regeneration of the lens of a young Triton when the original lens is removed in terms of physics and chemistry, and in 'biological' terms, as well as in psychological. But he claims that the psychological expression is not only legitimate but necessary, and in this he is offending against the cardinal scientific principle, which is simply an expression of universal experience, that you cannot 'explain' the 'lower' in terms of the 'higher,' the general in terms of the special. This is true and applies to the case in point even if we admit to the full that the human psyche shows a completely continuous development from the organisation of the lower organisms.

In practice we must, in the field of human psychology, use a distinct set of concepts which have no application in biology. Because we cannot bridge the gulf between mind and body this procedure is forced upon us, and it seems improbable that we shall ever be able to escape from it, however fully we may in the future come to understand the mechanism of the brain and its interactions with the rest of the nervous system and the rest of the body. That understanding, which will of course be part of the understanding of the mechanisms of protoplasm and its products, of life in general, can only be sought along the well-tried paths of biological research, which ultimately means expression of the phenomena in terms of biochemistry and biophysics. So far as we can ever attain a synthesis we must begin from the undifferentiated, from the general, and express the differentiated, the special, in terms of it. Such a synthesis may well greatly illuminate the psychology of the selfconscious mind, but will scarcely abolish or render it unnecessary, because the phenomena of the self-conscious mind are given as something sui generis, with concepts and laws of their own.



Pleasure and Pain. A Theory of the Energic Foundation of Feeling. By PAUL BousFIELD, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co. Ltd. 1926. Pp. x+114. 48. 6d. net.

Instincts, even those of self-preservation and reproduction, are less important as springs of conduct than has usually been taught. Rather is there a state of ‘tension,' whose increase produces pain and whose decrease, pleasure. The ultimate source of behaviour is the effort to avoid painful tension, and the other so-called instinctive acts arise secondarily from this. To some extent there is a normal tension during individual life. This is increased by any stimulation and we suffer pain, in a broad sense of the word, in direct proportion to the amount of our tension. When tension is relieved we experience pleasure, whose amount depends on the rate of diminution of tension.

Such is the argument of this book of 113 small pages which provide interest, if not conviction. No clear definition of 'tension' is to be found, yet the author expresses his ideas with the help of pseudo-graphs and pseudo-mathematical formulae; e.g. tan 6. sc, where # represents the amount of pleasure...' etc.


As all this is innocent of any foundation in measurement, experiment or real value, it must be classed as pseudo-scientific and quite unsatisfactory.

The working out of the action of Imagination in Hope and Fear, whereby pain and pleasure are prolonged and increased by fore-pleasure and fore-pain, is distinctly interesting and leads to some suggestions on the foundation of masochism.

N. H. M. Burke.

Personality. By R. G. GORDON, M.D., B.Sc., M.R.C.P. (Edin.). London: Kegan Paul and Co. Ltd. 1926. Pp. xiv +302. 10s. 6d. net.

Amongst the host of books on psychological topics, the present volume is distinguished by having been written by a practising physician. This endows it with a special value. Provided that such an author is competent to treat his subject, as Dr Gordon unquestionably is, the practising physician has to deal with many types of abnormal personality, and is less likely than is the purely academic writer to overlook the necessity of considering the personality as a whole.

It has long been clear that all work on this subject will be quite futile unless it commences with a definite attitude upon the fundamental question of the relation between mind and body. Dr Gordon takes up this problem at the outset. Having given a summary, necessarily brief, but accurate, of the various theories which have been held on the psycho-physical relation, he declares himself a follower of Spinoza. We may remark, in passing, that it is striking how deeply the work of Spinoza is influencing modern thought. But the illustration given by Dr Gordon of the twoaspect' hypothesis, that of the visual and the auditory phenomena presented by a clock, does not strike us as altogether happy. A better and a more usual example is that body and mind may be regarded as two faces of one clock. Later, Dr Gordon states that the central nervous system "organizes both physical and psychical activity.” Spinoza would not have subscribed to this doctrine. He never allows that the psychical is dependent upon the physical, although he constantly warns us that psychological and physiological studies must proceed concurrently.

Dr Gordon accepts the principle of 'emergent evolution,' as it has been enunciated by Lloyd Morgan and Alexander. New emergents are characterized by a 'special relatedness.' And every personality is to be regarded as a new emergent. To adopt the term 'Deity,' in Alexander's sense, as describing the 'goal of the world's progress,' seems somewhat unfortunate, raising as many possible misunderstandings as does Spinoza's famous 'Deus.' But Dr Gordon's aim is essentially practical, and from that point of view it can be argued that metaphysical questions may be left aside.

Having dealt with the "temperamental factor in personality," and with the "further organization of mental function," Dr Gordon passes to a discussion of variations in personality. In this chapter, the influence of that part of Spinoza's Ethics which deals with the power of the emotions is very evident. We then come to a consideration of the recent contributions to the study of personality, and the majority of readers will regard this as the most important part of the work.

The book is announced as intended to serve as a text-book of modern psychology for doctors. This is a high claim, and is, probably, not meant to be taken too literally. But the author has given an adequate, and a fair description of the views held by the great protagonists of modern psychology. Naturally, he starts with Freud. He is not a Freudian. But he gives full credit to the discoverer of psycho-analysis. He points out that the conceptions of mental conflict, repression, sublimation, and the like, are now commonplaces amongst psychologists. And due attention is called to the value of the psycho-analytic study of dreams in the rectification of the abnormal personality. Some of the Freudian terminology is criticized as being loose, particular exception being taken to the 'censorship.' It must be admitted that there is some danger that this conception may be personified. The author thinks that caution must be adopted in attributing a sexual character to dream symbols. He gives the example of a soldier who had been much alarmed by a large snake, and whose dreams contained this feature; and he urges that it is not necessary, in such a case, to look for a sexual meaning. It might, however, be replied by Freudians that we must consider why it is that intense alarm is so constantly associated with snakes. But, on the whole, the followers of Freud have little to complain of in Dr Gordon's presentation of their


Jung's contribution is then taken up. As the early part of the book led us to expect, the author is disposed to accept the view of the Zürich school. The teleological character of Jung's theory is obviously attractive to Dr Gordon, as contrasted with the determinism of Freud; although the treatment accorded to the general question of determinism is perfectly fair. The conflict between the two views is fundamental and irreconcilable. Jung's famous 'psychological types' are well described and illustrated, and the reader will have no difficulty in recognizing at least some of these types amongst his friends or patients.

The importance of universal human bisexuality was hinted at in the discussion of Jung's contribution. And this subject is continued when Adler's view comes under consideration. It is not necessary to indicate the importance of this bisexuality in elucidating the riddle of certain sex perversions. The resemblance of Adler's view to that of Nietzsche is pointed out, as is also the fact that Adler holds that in almost every case of inferiority of bodily organs there is an inferiority of the sexual apparatus. It has not yet been sufficiently worked out whether the difference between Adler and Freud is really fundamental, as that between Jung and Freud undoubtedly is.

Too little attention has been given, in this country, to the work of Kempf. Dr Gordon shows how this writer attempts to find a physiological basis for all his conclusions. It is quite likely that we shall come to regard these theories as complementary, and not as antagonistic, to psychological explanations.

The final portion of the book is of a practical character. A very good account is given of the neurotic personality. The symptoms of the physical malady, in a neurosis, constitute, for the patient, a compromise; but this compromise is never lasting, for a new conflict is initiated by the inconvenience of the malady. The neurotic is unstable, but he is not necessarily useless, and many neurotics have been honoured members of society. Hysterical symptoms, together with much of the behaviour of normal persons, is analysed under six heads, inferiority feelings, sequelae of physical trauma,

stress of great emotion, hetero-suggestion, imitation, and habit continuations of temporary organic disabilities. The classification is new to us, and seems to be useful. Dr Gordon deals with the delinquent personality. Such a type is definitely a new emergent, and requires individual study. But this is constantly overlooked by our law administrators, who are always anxious to devise 'systems' for the treatment of the delinquent. The author stresses the influence of inferiority feelings in the production of crime, and he follows most modern authorities in holding that the deliberate choice of a criminal career is very rare. But he is too subservient to judges and magistrates when he says that we must not presume to criticize the methods which their experience has shown to work well. It is just because experience has shown the present methods to work badly that students of this subject plead for a change, in the direction of intensive individual study, prior to the initiation of treatment.

The discussion of the 'dissociated personality' is unduly brief, having regard to the importance and the complexity of the subject. And when he takes up the 'retarded personality,' the author is too inclined to do homage to the popular idol of 'mental age.' He states that it is impossible for a person with a mental age of under 12 years to maintain himself in the world at a reasonable standard.' There are many persons with a mental age considerably below that limit who are very useful citizens. Much of the world's work can be done by those of a low order of intelligence. Dr Gordon recognizes the discontent which is produced by doing work which is below the worker's standard of intelligence. If by eugenic breeding, or other means, the average standard of intelligence were raised, the amount of unrest in the world would be much increased.

The book is much to be commended. It should induce practitioners to pay greater attention to the psychology of their patients, and to seek the aid of psychological experts more frequently. Whether this aid is sought from a follower of Jung or of Freud does not so greatly matter. The end of the present controversies will be peace. Much of the dust is raised over terminology. The antagonists would do well to remember what Hobbes said about words. Some of the differences are fundamental. But a method which is suitable for one case may not necessarily be so for another patient. Ultimately, what is found to be practically useful will persist, and the stubble will be burned.

The one adverse comment which we have to make upon the get-up of the book is that the plan of collecting the references to authorities at the end of the volume is inconvenient. It seems preferable to give them currently.


Der Ursprung der Tragödie, ein psychoanalytischer Beitrag zur Geschichte des griechischen Theaters. Von ALFRED WINTERSTEIN. Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag. 1925.

Scholars who have tried to account for the origin of Greek drama have been faced with the question whether there is any historical link between the formal hieratic art of Aeschylean tragedy and a series of primitive rituals-vegetation magic, puberty initiations, folk plays and dances, etc.-known to us partly from the customs of savage peoples, partly from survivals of paganism in Europe. If such a connection existed, it was not necessary to suppose that the development took a long time, for Greek culture, in all its manifestations, grew with extraordinary, perhaps unparalleled, rapidity. But the Greeks also had a way of forgetting completely even their recent past, and there was very little documentary evidence to bridge the gap. The argument rested chiefly on particular features in the traditional form of the Greek plays; and it proved convincing only to minds of a certain type, who found that the supposed ritual background enriched the tragic art with a significance that they felt to be profound, but could not explain. When a one-eyed student set out to prove that tragedy had no connection with vegetation spirits or puberty rites or even with Dionysus himself, but arose solely from the worship of ancestors, it was not difficult

to give the scanty evidence the necessary twist. Here, in default of fresh facts, the question seemed likely to remain at a deadlock.

Recently the genius of Freud has opened out a new avenue. The evidence denied to us by the documents may be sought in our own minds. Baron Winterstein, among others, is following the clue of psychological interpretation indicated in Totem und Tabu. He is well acquainted with nearly all the relevant literature on the classical side, and his conclusions are in general harmony with those of Dieterich, Jane Harrison, Gilbert Murray, and other scholars who have sought illumination in anthropology. As one who accepts these conclusions and has tried to carry them further in the explanation of the origin of Attic Comedy, I welcome the support of Psychology, and I believe that, in a generation or two, nearly all classical scholars will admit that the case is proved. Baron Winterstein makes some interesting contributions; but the reader who is not deeply versed in the new psychological literature will doubt whether the interpretation of particular psychic phenomena is as yet certain enough to build upon. Can he be sure, for instance, that the 'killing' of candidates in puberty initiations is a punishment for their unconscious wish to murder their fathers (Reik)? This may be so; but the practice can be explained without this hypothesis. For Tragedy the significance of New Birth and of the Scapegoat are of central importance, and here the last word certainly lies with the psychologist, when he is ready to pronounce it. Meanwhile hypotheses that cannot yet be verified are not to be ruled out as useless. From the welter of seemingly wild suggestions and guesses, probabilities will some day be sifted out by criticism. Both psychologists and classical scholars will profit by reading this book with an open mind-all the more, if they can keep their minds open after reading it.


Les Nevroses dans l'Alcoolisme et l'Alcoolisme comme Maladie "sui generis." By Dr SERGE MIKHAELOFF. Librairie Félix Alcan. 1926. Pp. 170. Price 10 fr.

By Alcoholism the author does not mean a tendency to excessive drinking; he means the group of maladies induced by alcohol. Respecting mental disorders caused thereby, our modern tendency is to regard alcohol as a toxic agent which weakens the repressing forces and thus allows the make-up of the patient's unconscious to express itself as a sort of mania, melancholia, dementia praecox or some other psychosis or neurosis, and not to consider Alcoholic insanity as a clinical entity. On this point the two parts of this book mentioned in the title are mutually contradictory. În the one the author claims that Alcoholism, in the above sense, is a disease "sui generis" and in the other he describes epilepsy, hysteria and neurasthenia of alcoholic origin. Why he does not go on to include other psychoses or why he describes delirium tremens in the first part and not in the second as an alcoholic confusional psychosis is a puzzle which remains unexplained.

The description of Alcoholism as a disease is very much secundum artem; but the disquisition has the flavour of a teetotal propaganda. This impression is enhanced by the report that alcohol has been found in the brain of a person who died 78 hours after drinking alcohol, the suggestion that a person who has a glass of wine every day is permanently under the influence of alcohol, and the repetition of the ancient myth that conception during drunkenness produces an idiot and that alcoholism generally causes azoospermia and atrophy of the ovules.

There appears to be some evidence that the book was written years before it was published. For example, the author expresses much gratification at the results of prohibition in Russia but makes no reference to prohibition in the United States of America. Moreover, the blue cover of our copy has a yellow discoloration at the back and top as if it had been exposed for a considerable time to the influence of light.


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