« 上一頁繼續 »
Dr J. H. van der Hoop (Amsterdam) writes on the subject of projection. This process has been described by Freud as follows: "An inner perception is suppressed and in its place its content, having undergone a certain distortion, enters consciousness as a perception from without1." Dr van der Hoop thinks that this definition does not cover all the phenomena of projection. For example, persons of a kindly disposition frequently impute to others their own benevolent attitude. Here, though the feelings in question may be largely unconscious, it is difficult to account for the projection as the result of repressed tendencies. The writer would extend the definition to include not only inner tendencies which have been suppressed but also perceptions which have not been consciously assimilated, owing to an imperfect differentiation between subjective and objective. Such a lack of differentiation is to be observed in young children and in primitive peoples, in whom we regularly and normally meet with extensive projection. Even in civilized adults the process of differentiation is gradual and partial. Thus we are projecting when we attribute moods or sentiments to Nature, or our own feelings and ideas to our fellow-men or to God.
Pathological projection arises when either the degree or the content of the projection is abnormal. It may be most clearly studied in (a) delusions of reference, and (b) schizophrenia. In (a) the content of the projection is plainly recognisable as repressed impulses. In (b) the confusion between subjective and objective may be carried to great lengths, as when the patient complains that his thoughts are put into his mind by outside agencies.
The principal factors in pathological projection would seem to be (1) an increase in repression and a corresponding inner tension seeking discharge in the outside world; (2) a marked tendency to introversion. It is obvious that, since the subjective is the side of which the introvert is most conscious, he will tend to regard the evidence of his inner perceptions as valid in his conception of the outer world and may fail to correct his inner impressions by his experience.
A consideration of these two factors in projection leads the writer to discuss the question of introversion, which he defines as a turning away from the outside world and a turning towards the subject's own being and the products of his inner life. Dr van der Hoop deprecates the conception of introversion as necessarily implying regression. He considers that the poet and the mathematician, both introverts, have not regressed but have adapted themselves to inner laws. At the same time the introverted attitude will determine the specific form of regression where that exists. The introvert regresses typically to narcissistic and autoerotic gratifications, whereas, in the extravert in whom regression occurs, either old objects (e.g. the parents) are invested with libido or old, infantile, gratifications are sought in connection with the present objects. (Both phenomena may be present.) Where introversion takes place in an extravert there will be a repression of infantile elements, which may lead to projection, but the manifestations of projection are likely to be transitory and they will not dominate the picture. On the other hand, introversion in the introverted type does not lead so directly to repression, for the subject's inner life holds more possibilities of sublimation and disguise. There is, however, a special proneness to projection, and this would seem to indicate that projection is primarily connected with introversion rather than (necessarily) with repression.
Turning now to the question of the content of projection, the writer distinguishes between normal and psychopathological contents. The former are due to the imperfect differentiation between subject and object (as in children) and the latter to regression and repression. The question arises whether in delusions of reference and in schizophrenia we have to assume a specific regression to a particular phase of development. Dr van der Hoop's experience inclines him to think that the projection arising in delusions of reference is due to an intensification of the degree of introversion. In schizophrenia, on the other hand, he believes that there is a specific regression, not only to the autoerotic phase of individual development but to psychic forms which would seem to be an inheritance from far-back times in the history of the race (cf.
1 Freud, Psychoanalytische Bemerkungen über einen Fall von Paranoia. Gesammelte Schriften, Bd. vIII, S. 417.
Jung's Collective Unconscious), from some stage of development when, as in the infancy of the individual, the personal organisation was but imperfectly developed and distinguished from the outside world. Thus in the introversion of schizophrenia we have regression to the infantile-archaic phase of non-differentiation, and with the weakening of the critical faculty of the personality the liability to project is enormously increased. In a short communication entitled "The Two Kinds of Narcissism," Dr F. P. Muller (Leyden) distinguishes the narcissism which invests with libido the subject's self (his person or his intellectual gifts, as they really are or as he imagines them) and in so far retains an object-cathexis and makes reference to those around him, and the narcissism which aims at complete freedom from libidinal cathexes. To this latter type he gives the name of ‘anerotism.' It is found in paraphrenics in whom the principal symptom is that of complete indifference. The gratification derived from this form of narcissism Dr Muller thinks proceeds from the mere discharge of affect undirected towards any object. He believes that we have an analogy to it in such activities as the making of purposeless movements or sounds, which may be observed both in the lower animals and in human beings. In children the anerotic pleasure in activity would seem to precede the true narcissistic admiration of their own actions.
Other short communications include remarks by Dr A. Endtz on the subject of the dreams of schizophrenics, showing that in some cases at least the content of the dream is the same as that of the delusion and that the patient has not insight into the unreal nature of the dream; an analysis of the dreams of a patient suffering from retentio urinae, by Dr Westerman Holstiju; and a discussion of delusions of persecution in women, by Dr W. J. J. de Sauvage-Nolting.
This number of the Zeitschrift contains also critical notices and reviews, notes on the psycho-analytical movement, and correspondence of the International PsychoAnalytical Association
PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY, MEDICAL SECTION
(Previous notices in Journal, Vol. I, p. 96, Vol. II, p. 99.)
November 29th The Importance of the Instinct of Self-Preservation, by E. N. SNOWDEN.
December 20th An Attempt to explain the 'Reality-feeling' Associated with the Phantasies of the Insane, by H. DEVINE.
The Affect in Dreams, by W. H. R. RIVERS.
The Evolution of the War-Neuroses, by GERALD H. FITZGERALD.
Homosexuality and Alcoholism, by ROBERT M. RIGALL.
The Constituents of the Unconscious, by LEONARD WILLIAMS.
Autosuggestion and Transference, by WM. BROWN.
Some Observations and Criticisms of Psychotherapeutic Methods, by J. A. HADFIELD.
The Nature of Autosuggestion, by ERNEST JONES.
Joint Meeting with Education Section. A Symposium on Delinquency and Mental Defect, by N. EAST, C. BURT, F. G. SHRUBSALL and W. H. B. STODDART.
Narcolepsy, by C. WORSTER-Drought.
The Psycho-Analysis of Hate and Sadism, by JAMES GLOVER.
The Classification of the Neuroses, by EMANUEL MILLER.
Primitive Mentality and the Unconscious, by H. GODWIN BAYNES. The Rôle of the Physician in the Aetiology of certain Symptoms of the Traumatic Neuroses, by A. C. WILSON.
'Meaning' and 'Setting' in relation to Pathological States—A
Theory of Phobias, by MORTON PRINCE.
The Significance of the Mouth in Psycho-Analysis, by EDW. GLOVER.
William Sharp and The Immortal Hour, by H. CRICHTON-MILLER.
Readings in General Psychology. By E. S. ROBINSON and FLORENCE RICHARDSON-ROBINSON. 675 pages, 8vo, cloth; 20s. net
Topical organization of some two-hundred selections from the writings of outstanding contributors to psychological thought. A solution of the reserve-shelf problem.
General Psychology. By WALTER S. HUNTER. (Revised Edition.)
352 pages, 12mo, cloth; 10s. net
A survey of psychological subject-matter from the behavioristic point of view. An introductory book with the emphasis upon the concrete experimental facts so far as they are available.
Psychological Tests in Business. By A. W. KORNHAUSER and F. A.
A History of European Thought in the Nineteenth Century.
Studies from the Psychological Laboratory. By JAMES R. ANGELL.
The Mental Traits of Sex. By HELEN BRADFORD THOMPSON.
188 pages, 8vo, cloth; 6s. 3d. net
Heredity and Eugenics. By WILLIAM E. CASTLE, JOHN M. COULTER, CHARLES B. DAVENPORT, EDWARD M. EAST, and WILLIAM E. TOWER.
312 pages, 8vo, cloth; 15s. net
Makes clear the recent developments of knowledge in reference to evolution, heredity, eugenics, and related subjects. Five of the leading investigators in these fields have collaborated in its production.
General Cytology. A Textbook of Cellular Structure and Function for Students of Biology and Medicine. Edited by E. V. COWDRY.
754 pages, royal 8vo, cloth; 37s. 6d. net
The first single volume to state comprehensively the principles that govern cell structure and function. Written by thirteen eminent scientists.
Agents for the British Empire (except Canada)
(All Rights reserved.)
CHARLES S. MYERS. On Consciousness
WILLIAM MCDOUGALL. Professor Freud's Group Psychology and his
WILLIAM BROWN. Suggestion and Personality
H. CRICHTON-MILLER. William Sharp and The Immortal Hour
P. YOULDEN JOHNSON. Technical Terms for the Various Dynamic States
of the Mind
NOTES ON RECENT PERIODICALS
The British Journal of Psychology is issued by the British Psychological Society in two Sections, a General Section and a Medical Section, now entitled The British Journal of Medical Psychology. Each Section will appear in parts quarterly, the size and price of each part varying with the amount of material available.
PRINTED IN ENGLAND BY W. LEWIS AT THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
The subscription price, per volume of about 350 pages, Royal 8vo, payable in advance, is 30s. net per volume (post-free) for either section. Subscriptions may be sent to any Bookseller, or to the Cambridge University Press, Fetter Lane, London, E.C. 4.
Volumes I-III, Medical Section, are now ready. Price for Volumes I and II in four parts, paper covers, 258. net per volume; bound in cloth, 35s. 6d. net each. Volume III in four parts, paper covers, 30s. net; bound in cloth, 37s. 6d. net. Quotations can be given for binding cases and for binding subscribers' sets.
Members of the British Psychological Society receive the General Section of the Journal gratis. Members of the Medical Section of the Society receive also the British Journal of Medical Psychology gratis. Information concerning Membership may be obtained from the Hon. Secretary of the Medical Section of the Society, Dr JOHN RICKMAN, 26 Devonshire Place, W.1.
Papers for publication in the British Journal of Medical Psychology should be sent to Dr T. W. MITCHELL, Hadlow, Kent. Those for publication in the General Section of the British Journal of Psychology should be sent to F. C. BARTLETT, The Psychological Laboratory, University of Cambridge.
Contributors receive twenty-five copies of their papers free. Additional copies may be had at cost price; these should be ordered when the final proof is returned.
Quotations for binding cases and for binding subscribers' sets can be obtained from the publishers.
The Cambridge University Press has appointed the University of Chicago Press agents for the sale of both Sections of The British Journal of Psychology in the United States of America, and has authorised them to charge the following subscription price :-$7.00 net for either Section.