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Dr J. H. van der Hoop (Amsterdam) writes on the subject of projection. This process has been described by Freud as follows: "An inner perception is suppressed and in its place its content, having undergone a certain distortion, enters consciousness as a perception from without1." Dr van der Hoop thinks that this definition does not cover all the phenomena of projection. For example, persons of a kindly disposition frequently impute to others their own benevolent attitude. Here, though the feelings in question may be largely unconscious, it is difficult to account for the projection as the result of repressed tendencies. The writer would extend the definition to include not only inner tendencies which have been suppressed but also perceptions which have not been consciously assimilated, owing to an imperfect differentiation between subjective and objective. Such a lack of differentiation is to be observed in young children and in primitive peoples, in whom we regularly and normally meet with extensive projection. Even in civilized adults the process of differentiation is gradual and partial. Thus we are projecting when we attribute moods or sentiments to Nature, or our own feelings and ideas to our fellow-men or to God.

Pathological projection arises when either the degree or the content of the projection is abnormal. It may be most clearly studied in (a) delusions of reference, and (b) schizophrenia. In (a) the content of the projection is plainly recognisable as repressed impulses. In (b) the confusion between subjective and objective may be carried to great lengths, as when the patient complains that his thoughts are put into his mind by outside agencies.

The principal factors in pathological projection would seem to be (1) an increase in repression and a corresponding inner tension seeking discharge in the outside world; (2) a marked tendency to introversion. It is obvious that, since the subjective is the side of which the introvert is most conscious, he will tend to regard the evidence of his inner perceptions as valid in his conception of the outer world and may fail to correct his inner impressions by his experience.

A consideration of these two factors in projection leads the writer to discuss the question of introversion, which he defines as a turning away from the outside world and a turning towards the subject's own being and the products of his inner life. Dr van der Hoop deprecates the conception of introversion as necessarily implying regression. He considers that the poet and the mathematician, both introverts, have not regressed but have adapted themselves to inner laws. At the same time the introverted attitude will determine the specific form of regression where that exists. The introvert regresses typically to narcissistic and autoerotic gratifications, whereas, in the extravert in whom regression occurs, either old objects (e.g. the parents) are invested with libido or old, infantile, gratifications are sought in connection with the present objects. (Both phenomena may be present.) Where introversion takes place in an extravert there will be a repression of infantile elements, which may lead to projection, but the manifestations of projection are likely to be transitory and they will not dominate the picture. On the other hand, introversion in the introverted type does not lead so directly to repression, for the subject's inner life holds more possibilities of sublimation and disguise. There is, however, a special proneness to projection, and this would seem to indicate that projection is primarily connected with introversion rather than (necessarily) with repression.

Turning now to the question of the content of projection, the writer distinguishes between normal and psychopathological contents. The former are due to the imperfect differentiation between subject and object (as in children) and the latter to regression and repression. The question arises whether in delusions of reference and in schizophrenia we have to assume a specific regression to a particular phase of development. Dr van der Hoop's experience inclines him to think that the projection arising in delusions of reference is due to an intensification of the degree of introversion. In schizophrenia, on the other hand, he believes that there is a specific regression, not only to the autoerotic phase of individual development but to psychic forms which would seem to be an inheritance from far-back times in the history of the race (cf.

1 Freud, Psychoanalytische Bemerkungen über einen Fall von Paranoia. Gesammelte Schriften, Bd. vIII, S. 417.

Jung's Collective Unconscious), from some stage of development when, as in the infancy of the individual, the personal organisation was but imperfectly developed and distinguished from the outside world. Thus in the introversion of schizophrenia we have regression to the infantile-archaic phase of non-differentiation, and with the weakening of the critical faculty of the personality the liability to project is enormously increased. In a short communication entitled "The Two Kinds of Narcissism," Dr F. P. Muller (Leyden) distinguishes the narcissism which invests with libido the subject's self (his person or his intellectual gifts, as they really are or as he imagines them) and in so far retains an object-cathexis and makes reference to those around him, and the narcissism which aims at complete freedom from libidinal cathexes. To this latter type he gives the name of ‘anerotism.' It is found in paraphrenics in whom the principal symptom is that of complete indifference. The gratification derived from this form of narcissism Dr Muller thinks proceeds from the mere discharge of affect undirected towards any object. He believes that we have an analogy to it in such activities as the making of purposeless movements or sounds, which may be observed both in the lower animals and in human beings. In children the anerotic pleasure in activity would seem to precede the true narcissistic admiration of their own actions. Other short communications include remarks by Dr A. Endtz on the subject of the dreams of schizophrenics, showing that in some cases at least the content of the dream is the same as that of the delusion and that the patient has not insight into the unreal nature of the dream; an analysis of the dreams of a patient suffering from retentio urinae, by Dr Westerman Holstiju; and a discussion of delusions of persecution in women, by Dr W. J. J. de Sauvage-Nolting.

This number of the Zeitschrift contains also critical notices and reviews, notes on the psycho-analytical movement, and correspondence of the International PsychoAnalytical Association



(Previous notices in Journal, Vol. I, p. 96, Vol. II, p. 99.)

October 26th

November 23rd
December 14th


January 25th

February 22nd
June 28th

October 25th

The Affect in Dreams, by W. H. R. RIVERS.

The Castration Complex, by DOUGLAS Bryan.

The Evolution of the War-Neuroses, by GERALD H. FITZGERALD.

Homosexuality and Alcoholism, by ROBERT M. RIGALL.
The Constituents of the Unconscious, by LEONARD WILLIAMS.
The Nomenclature of Minor Mental Disorders, by MILLAIS CULPIN.
Some Medical Novelties in Vienna, and The Nature and Treatment
of Epilepsy, by E. W. SCRIPTURE.

November 29th The Importance of the Instinct of Self-Preservation, by E. N.

December 20th An Attempt to explain the 'Reality-feeling' Associated with the Phantasies of the Insane, by H. DEVINE.

1923 January 24th

February 28th

March 22nd

April 25th

May 23rd

June 27th

October 24th

November 29th
December 19th

January 23rd

February 27th

March 11th

April 30th
June 25th

October 22nd

November 26th

December 17th

Autosuggestion and Transference, by WM. BROWN.

Some Observations and Criticisms of Psychotherapeutic Methods, by J. A. HADFIELD.

The Nature of Autosuggestion, by ERNEST JONES.

Joint Meeting with Education Section. A Symposium on Delinquency and Mental Defect, by N. EAST, C. BURT, F. G. SHRUBSALL and W. H. B. STODDART.

Narcolepsy, by C. WORSTER-DROUGHT.

The Psycho-Analysis of Hate and Sadism, by JAMES GLOVER.
The Castration Complex in Women, by PAUL Bousfield.
The Sting of Death, by M. D. EDER.

The Classification of the Neuroses, by EMANUEL MILLER.

Primitive Mentality and the Unconscious, by H. GODWIN BAYNES. The Rôle of the Physician in the Aetiology of certain Symptoms of the Traumatic Neuroses, by A. C. WILSON.

'Meaning' and 'Setting' in relation to Pathological States-A
Theory of Phobias, by MORTON PRINCE.

The Significance of the Mouth in Psycho-Analysis, by EDW. GLOVER.
The Pathology of Tremor in Relation to the Neuroses, by R. G.

William Sharp and The Immortal Hour, by H. CRICHTON-MILLER.
The Clinical Value of certain Emotions, by DONALD E. CORE.
The Development of the Psycho-Analytical Theory of the Psychoses,



(All Rights reserved.)

CHARLES S. MYERS. On Consciousness

WILLIAM MCDOUGALL. Professor Freud's Group Psychology and his
Theory of Suggestion

WILLIAM BROWN. Suggestion and Personality

H. CRICHTON-MILLER. William Sharp and The Immortal Hour

P. YOULDEN JOHNSON. Technical Terms for the Various Dynamic States of the Mind











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