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At last I was moved to attempt to find some of these technical terms, and in view of the welter of uses of the same word for differing processes and states, and different words, for the same process or state, it was evident that four conditions were necessary.

1. Technical terms must mean only one definite process, and one that cannot be confused with any other process or state, by whatsoever differing authorities they are used.

2. They must be original, and not borrowed from other sciences, except perhaps in rare instances, e.g. the use of the term 'sublimation borrowed from chemistry.

3. They must be words sui generis and not used in popular speech either in English or in any other important language.

4. They must both connote and denote 'dynamic' conditions only, i.e. they must on no account be so ambiguous that it would be possible to read into them any idea expressive of 'static' conditions.

It soon became clear that the terms would have to be 'coined' if these conditions were to be fulfilled, for psychology is commonly supposed to be what is known as a popular science, mainly because most of the terms at present in use are words we find in popular speech. I decided to try to find such terms and I planned deliberately that my conscious should give directions or suggest to my 'un-sub-co-etc. conscious' that it should find a set of suitable technical terms for the dynamic processes or states of the mind described in Freud's teaching.

Freud's psycho-analytical method was to be the means employed to ascertain the meaning and reason of these terms. Incidentally, I suggested that it would be a blessing if Freud's 'sexual' theory should be as far as possible conspicuous by its absence, i.e. so far as compatibility with his teaching would allow, when the result, if any, of the experiment came to be analysed. The great authorities on psycho-analysis tell us that what seems fanciful and even absurd in a dream is on the contrary full of deep and sensible meaning. We must not be surprised if at first sight the result of the experiment looks fanciful and meaningless, for the 'outcropping' process is a kind of waking dream. But even in dreams, and perhaps, too, during dreamless sleep, sensible things have been accomplished, e.g. America's famous verse "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." The following list of names or technical terms for dynamic processes and states of mind, resulted from the experiment. At first sight they seem to be fanciful, purposeless, and meaningless, but on analysis they yield their secrets and are found to be pregnant with deep and significant meaning.

MAZ Sum total of all MIND and of all mental life

and processes known and unknown

(in time)


'Preconscious' (OLIMMEX

Once in time (Formerly CLAMMEX

Always 'Unconscious'

or never Conscious

These Technical Terms comply with all four necessary conditions (on p. 47).



Repressed PLEXES and



The first task was to find a term for the word 'mind' which should include the whole mind, known and unknown, i.e. all that ever has been known, is known, and all that ever will be known by means of scientific research. Mind at present may be likened to the universe on a dark night, when but few stars are visible to the naked eye. We are, as it were, but on the fringe of a vast unknown and at the threshold of momentous discoveries. Scientific research may be likened to an astronomer's telescope revealing the wonders of the universe, and the physiologist's, biologist's, or naturalist's microscope revealing the wonders of nature, when brought to the light from the depths of ignorance. Perhaps in the future astounding wonders of the mind will be revealed comparable with a photograph of the heavens taken with the world's most powerful telescope, or the perfection in working and plan in every wonderful particular in minute detail such as the microscope reveals in tiny creatures invisible to the naked eye.

This conception of mind necessarily includes all states or processes of mind already known and to be discovered hereafter, but excludes the possibility, for example, of a loose conception of mind, contained in the phrases heard in popular speech, 'out of his mind' or 'out of sight, out of mind.'

Space will only permit of a full account and analysis of the finding of the first two terms, viz. for 'mind' and the 'conscious,' with a sketchy analysis of the remaining terms. Having attained that state or process of mind necessary for the experiment, a solitary syllable appeared and reappeared with increasing frequency during the mental paper-chase for a suitable term for the 'whole mind.' This term looked like a nonsense syllable, maz, which I wrote down immediately the 'conscious' reasserted itself. The next day I analysed this word, but in the interval it flashed constantly into consciousness, nor could other terms, e.g. muz, moz, etc.,

displace it. By the analytic method of free association, broken only to jot on paper keywords to enable me to write a full analysis later, the extraordinary content of the word was made clear.

First came ideas of various states of mind and then visual 'images of ideas' of 'mind' as follows:

A. The universe on a dark night dotted here and there with stars and the wonders the darkness hid, as mentioned above, but with the addition of comets, meteors, blazing suns, etc.

B. Then in rapid succession appeared visual images of swirling eddies,. air pockets, typhoons, cross currents of air in velocity varying from hurricane force to gentle zephyrs, interspersed here and there with becalmed regions similar to the doldrums.

C. Next a whirling mass of oceans, storms and calms; lagoons, water-spouts, lakes, rivers, streams, underground waters, springs, waterfalls and trickling rivulets. In the oceans, currents at varying depths were criss-crossing and sweeping along their courses, hot, like the Gulf Stream, and cold, like the East Greenland Current or Antarctic Drift. Hideous monsters of the deep stretched out long tentacles which attracted, grasped, drew to themselves, and absorbed all manner of living things both beautiful and hideous.

D. Here I became aware I was thinking of mind in terms of matter. The scientific explanation of the composition of matter was then visualised, namely the doctrine that an atom highly magnified would be merely space, dotted here and there with whizzing and whirling speck-like appearances, called electrons, in the vortices of ether.

In each visual image there seemed to be a luminous figure, ever moving and groping in the darkness as though seeking to understand these great dynamic forces. Here I understood the meaning of these visual images to be, that mind is a great dynamic force composed of many distinct currents, traits, trends, trains, etc. These streams or currents seemed, as it were, to be composed of atom-like thoughts, traits, desires, wishes, etc. These atom-like thoughts were, by analogy, composed of dynamic electron-like whizzing and whirling non-material irreducible 'somethings,' in the mental equivalent of the vortices of ether of the material atom, which I called zons. These zons were radium-like in their properties. Certain thoughts and zons appeared to possess affinities for other particular thoughts and zons. And because these currents of thoughts, etc., composed of zons of radium-like properties were nonmaterial, they were able to interpenetrate when mental processes or states were suitable, or could be rendered suitable by unusual means. And

Med. Psych. v.


because they were co-existing currents 'in time' and not 'in place,' except when they excited the neural tracts in the brain and the nervous system, they seemed at times to be entirely interpenetrating and yet distinct, i.e. one complete, purposive, orderly whole, after the manner of warp and woof in a piece of rich material of a magnificent brocade-like pattern of ever-changing details in an ever-persistent design, being incessantly worked out on the loom of time with threads of ever-living dynamic, atom-like, thoughts, composed of dynamic and radium-like activities called zons. Words are barely capable of describing the idea. The groping luminous figure represented the 'conscious ego' or 'that part of the ego in consciousness in time.' It seemed bewildered and amazed, in short, lost in a maze, a mental maze so to speak, with only one outlet, a maze with its dynamic interior ever constantly changing, but at no period purposeless, by reason of the wonderful composition of its content.

Then by a fantastical twist I became aware that the 'conscious ego' itself was both the inlet and the outlet, that 'inversion' had taken place, e.g. that some of the zons were seeking the outlet, some trying to control it, others were fighting them to prevent them doing so while at the same time carefully avoiding being drawn into contact with the outlet, the 'conscious ego.' Some zons grouped themselves in the shape of the hideous prehistoric monsters already mentioned, which I now understood to represent a Jungian 'complex,' and which attracted to themselves and absorbed certain of the zons from time to time entering the swirling currents of the maze.

All these visual images give us a 'composite image' of a dynamic-like maze with the luminous 'conscious ego' lost in the midst of its eddyinglike interior. Take the word 'maze' and cross out the e which represents the 'ego lost,' and we are left with the syllabic term maz. The term maz, I understood, meant 'm from a to z.' m is the initial letter of the word 'mind,' therefore maz represented the mind from a to z, i.e. from beginning to end, and note that 'from a to z' includes the letter e which typifies the lost ego. 'From a to z' includes and means everything that has been known, is known, will be known, or can be known about the 'm,' viz. the mind; this is what I desired the technical term should include and mean. 'Maz,' therefore, is the technical term for 'the sum total of all possible states and processes of the whole mind.'

Further, the words 'a maze' or the verb 'amaze,' with the letter e again crossed out, for the same reason as before, becomes 'amaz,' i.e. maz preceded by the first letter of the alphabet, for which I often use the Greek Alpha. Look at the word again; the last letter in English is z

but in Greek o. Put o after the z so as to give us 'maz between the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet' and we get amazo, i.e. maz both includes and stretches from the first to the last things, it covers all things possible in mind and also in all ages and times. But this conception of mind to infinity is indicated explicitly if we place the index 'n' after the o as in Algebra, i.e. we get amazo", to the nth power, i.e. infinity; note the dynamic idea in nth 'power.' This we find gives us the word amazon. Or again, m in amazo is the initial letter of the word mind in English, and of mens in Latin. But n is the initial letter of nous in Greek. Add the n to amazo and again we get amazon. In this word we see also the origin of the term zon. The word amazon, then, contains both maz, the whole mind, and zon, the unit or nucleus of the atom-like thoughts, wishes, etc., composing the dynamic currents of the maz or 'mind.' (Perhaps an atom-like 'thought' would be made clearer if we take an example. The atom-like thought of 'apple' is composed of the zons of smoothness, roundness, weight, size, hardness, taste, colour, smell, etc.) The significance of the a before mazon I saw lay in the Greek Alpha representing a placeless and timeless dynamic force, i.e. the First of all things. From infinity comes the beginning of the letter which first makes a small circle in time before once again trailing off again into infinity1. Pre-existent to all minds, stands the Infinite Mind, thus it precedes the maz, the mind of created beings, which is our study.

Or again, the Amazon is the longest river (stream, current) in the world. The current flows strongly, and Mind has been compared with a stream or current. I prefer current, for we speak of the electric current but not often of an electric stream. This mighty river has its rise or origin in the land of the buried or hidden cities of the past, and during its course it is fed by other large streams or rivers which flow through unknown tracts of country covered with dark primeval forests as yet scarcely explored. One tributary, the Niger, is inky black; the Amazon at the confluence of the two rivers is yellow-brown; and the change from the one to the other is not a gradual blending so much as a patchy or broken one. Thus the whole word amazon2 again gives us a simile of the mind, for even the round patches of black water in the yellow at the junctions of

1 Compare Doctrine of Incarnation.

2 Here, for me, comes a proof of Freud's doctrine that the incidents of infancy and childhood fix the trend of the Unconscious. From infancy till almost eleven years of age I was privileged to enter the estuary of the Amazon about twenty-three times, and twice to sail up the river a distance of 1000 miles. I might also add that up the Amazon I witnessed five incidents which further analysis brought again to light, and that all these incidents were sexual ones. Here also I may indicate the unconscious symbolism of

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