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"we should have seen a more rapid advance.” Freud is further reproached for not defining human instincts in the light of comparative psychology and for making passing references to base instincts of cruelty without pausing to define them and for his neglect of the ego-instincts. The greatest need to-day is a union of hormic psychology with the valuable insight into human nature which Freud and the psycho-analytic movement have brought us. “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” is a most welcome step in this direction. He ends with a warning that nervously deranged patients are not a sound subject-matter for investigation without widely correlated observations on men and animals. Viewed in this way Freud's attempt to display such instinctive reactions as fear and curiosity as disguised expressions of the sex instinct appears to be narrow, unbalanced and trivial. SAMUEL A. TANNENBAUM: Interpreting' a Compulsion Neurosis. The author means an obsessional symptom and is dealing with the symptom mentioned by Freud in his ‘Introductory Lectures’ in a woman who ran into the next room, stood by a table, summoned the maid and then dismissed her with a trivial order. Tannenbaum asks Freud nearly sixty questions about the case, points out over fifty additional objections to the technique employed or omissions made and makes fourteen rhetorical statements or questions. The abstract cannot therefore be a full one. He says that the size and colour of the table-cloth are not mentioned, nor the size, colour nor location of the stain. Was it red ink or gravy? On a white or coloured cloth? Did she make a fresh spot every time. How long did the maid put up with this treatment? He ends his 15 page paper with alternative interpretations, the compulsive act may be (1) a manifestation of a desire to prove to the maid that she was a virgin on her bridal night (not that her husband was impotent), or (2) that she indulged in coitus frequently (as shown by the many stained sheets), or (3) that she was making homosexual advances to the maid (by standing at the table or lying on the bed), or (4) she was unconsciously saying to the maid: “Pity me! see what a wretched marriage I have made! This old dotard has to stain the sheets with ink to give the impression of potency,”or (5) she proclaimed to the world through the maid her husband's unfitness and her justification for not living with him. The author who shows so much ingenuity in devising alternative interpretations, though he calls it foolery, is really persuading his readers that neurotic symptoms may have a meaning—a point which he sets out to refute. MORTON PRINCE: Automatic Writing combined with 'Crystal Gazing. There can be multiple synchronous activities, or more precisely there can be subconscious processes which may take on autonomous activity and determine automatic and other kinds of behaviour (including conscious mental processes). FREDERICK Hausen LUND: The Psychology of Belief. A Study of its Emotional and Volitional Determinants. Advertisers, politicians, ministers and others cannot afford to be ignorant of the nature and conditions of belief, the author believes there is a high correlation between what the people want and what the people believe. He devised the following experiment to bring statistical validity into the solution of the difficult problem. Thirty propositions were
up and the subject had to say of each one whether he believed in it without doubt, or had only a fairly strong belief, or a slight belief, or no belief or disbelief, or was somewhat inclined to disbelief and so on, he had then to say of the same propositions whether he could very certainly affirm it, or only fairly certainly, or was not sure, or whether it was a chance, denial was also carefully graded, he had further to say whether the proposition was highly or only quite desirable, somewhat desirable or indifferent, etc. Now these are
samples of the propositions: (1) Was Lincoln an honest and upright man? (6) Did the whale swallow Jonah? (7) Do molecules exist? (9) Is Christianity losing its influence in this country? (20) Does 2 + 2 = 4? (25) Do animals have feelings similar to our own? (27) Do landscape paintings yield as much satisfaction as the finest natural scenery? In addition to assessing accurately the degree of belief, certainty and desire for each of these propositions, the subject finally has to say in a percentage whether the content of the proposition is within bounds of demonstrable and indisputable fact and the extent to which it remains a matter of opinion. The author proceeds to analyse the returns: women school-teachers from Nebraska ranked as most desirable of all propositions that marriage should continue monogamous while Columbia sophomore boys ranked it as low as eighteen in the order of desirability. In the same way the puritanical West brought up the correlation between belief and desire on the religious propositions to a very high figure, and so on. He concludes this part of his paper with the remark that the theory of the psycho-analytical school that beliefs are wish-realizations is confirmed by the statistical tables, but he does not bring out the significance of the fact that it is not conscious but unconscious wishes which determine beliefs. W. S. TAYLOR reviews and comments on Laud's “Modern Theories of the Unconscious," preferring a concrete and relativistic to Freud's abstract and absolutistic theory. The Journal has opened its pages to Correspondence, which includes short clinical communications and other topics.
Archivos Brasileiros de Hygiene Mentali. J. P. FONTENELLE: Mental Hygiene and Education. The author establishes the difference between mental prophylaxis, which aims at attacking the causes of psychic degeneration, and Mental Hygiene, which endeavours to promote the adjustment of the individual personality to the psychical and social environment.
He compares Psychology to Physiology, as the basis respectively of mental and physical health, and touches on the automatization of habits, either physical, or of thought and deliberation. Education, the foundation of the development of personality, is the true constructive work in Mental Hygiene.
These fundamentals are reviewed under the headings of education by the Mother, in the Kindergarten and in the school. The principal habits needed for the satisfactory foundation of personality are indicated, such as self-reliance, self-control and independence. Over-sensitiveness and day-dreaming are discouraged, and sex education is indicated as important.
The author concludes by analysing the responsibility of the Education Bureau in Mental Health work, and the role of the Brazilian Society for Mental Hygiene in the co-ordination of all efforts towards the attainment of better mental health in the country.
1 This is vol. 1, pt. 1 of the Official Organ of the Brazilian League of Mental Hygiene (Headquarters in Rio de Janeiro). At the end of each paper a short summary is given in English or French.—Editors.
W. RADECKI: Mental Hygiene of the growing child, based on psychological laws. The author reviews the general rôle of Psychology, especially with reference to the mental hygiene of the child.
After an analysis of the usual tests a personal scheme of observation is suggested.
The most important laws of the development of the different psychic functions are formulated, and the manner of applying these laws in practical education demonstrated.
A careful analysis follows of the processes of sensory and affective sensibility, attention, discrimination, association, memory, thought and will, with suggestions for the appropriate educative action based on this analysis.
MURILLO DO CAMPOS: Notes on Mental Hygiene in the Army. The author studies the measures of mental hygiene of easy application in military centres. He insists on a systematic psychological examination of soldiers, both on admission and in the event of any grave crime being committed, suggests that conscripts should be classified and employed in accordance with their mental aptitudes, and insists on the necessity of maintaining a specialised staff of military psychiatrists or adequately trained army physicians and instructing officers.
JULIANO MOREIRA. A paper on the necessity for careful selection and supervision of all immigrants in new countries from the point of view of mental and moral suitability, with power to repatriate unsuitable applicants.
F. ESPOREL: General Ideas on Mental Hygiene. Dr Cunha LOPES: Social Prophylaxis of Toximanias. Dr HEITOR CARilho: Mental Prophylaxis of Delinquency. These three papers deal with the subject of mental prophylaxis, from the points of view of general mental hygiene, the problems of toximania, and the study of delinquency regarded as the result of abnormal mental and moral states.
F. Esporel reviews the general possibilities of mental prophylaxis, with a special application to the work of the Brazilian Society of Mental Hygiene; agreeing with general hygiene in the campaign against syphilis, all forms of intoxication and the social poisons, infectious toxaemias, etc.; uniting with social hygiene in the care of the expectant mother, housing, the avoidance of poverty, anxiety, difficult labour, and the improvement of environment and general conditions; and specialising in mental hygiene proper, including the mental and moral education of the infant and the adolescent, assisting the growing child in adaptation to environment, choice of a suitable profession, self-knowledge and self-control, thus laying stable foundations of personality and avoiding much revolt, crime and neuroticism in the adult citizen.
Dr Cunha Lopes advocates collective prophylactic education with regard to the use and abuse of all forms of intoxication, alcoholism and drug taking, beginning with the physicians, who so often sow the seeds of drug-addiction in their practice, by the use of unwise prescriptions.
He urges a campaign in the Press, which should disclose the fatal results of drug taking from the point of view of moral, mental and physical health, and suggests severe repressive measures on the part of the Government (insisting on the necessity of International co-operation) as regards the trade in noxious drugs, rendering their acquisition at least very difficult.
He further emphasises the necessity for early internment and treatment in all cases of alcoholism and addiction to drugs even, if possible, before the development of the characteristic moral and mental degeneration.
Dr Heitor Carilho recommends the careful study, by trained psychiatrists, of delinquents in all prisons, and their treatment and re-education with the aim of enabling them to adapt to social conditions. He takes the view that no truly healthy-minded and normal human being will deliberately set himself in conflict with the penal laws. This should be combined with eugenic teaching in order that the misdeeds of pathological heredity may be avoided.
He considers the prisons to be a valuable field, not only for the re-education, rather than the punishment, of the mental and morally unstable, but for the study of the types (degenerative, hysteric, neurasthenic, toxic, depressive, paranoid, obsessive, etc.) which tend to moral and social delinquency or to the psychoneuroses and psychoses.
M. E. BURKE.
Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse. 1925. Bd. xi. ii. ERNEST Jones introduced the symposium on Theory and Practice in Psycho-Analysis.' Hanns Sachs: 'Metapsychological Points of View in Technique and Theory.' Sachs begins by asking why hypnosis has added so little to psychological theory. In hypnosis enormous quantities of libido are mobilised, the patient may even pass to a different state of consciousness—yet the hypnotist tells us almost nothing, and for the reason that both in his mind and in his patient's processes take place in the same system of the mind—in the unconscious. So he cannot explain why he fails or succeeds, nor what leads him to adopt now this tactic now that.
Analysis has passed through the stage of free-association; that is, the stage in which through free association small quantities of affect could achieve cathexis of isolated groups of ideas and thus be helped into consciousness one at a time. This technique can change the direction of energy but it cannot make a change in quantity. Change in quantity is brought about by interpretation (second stage of the psycho-analytical development) in which the barriers of repression are broken down. The strength to do this comes from three sources: (1) the analyst must be able to assimilate the material which he receives from the patient's unconscious and reconstruct it in his consciousness, he must tell the patient the links in the chain of associations so that the patient can follow the secondary process of thought in consciousness) and make the 'primary process' of thought (in the unconscious) subordinate to it. (2) The
which is oriented outwards to the world of stimuli more than inwards to the region of instinct, can assimilate knowledge presented from without more readily than it can perceive the same processes going on within, in which direction it has only direct access to emotions. (3) The circuitous route from the unconscious complex,' via memory fragments brought up in the free associations, to the conscious thought is accomplished more readily and rapidly through the assimilation of the interpretation which represents the same ideas linked together by the analyst, who, far from being an indifferent being, has become his egoideal. Nevertheless much remains in the unconscious. The next stage in development consisted in taking a new orientation to the resistances, these belong to the ego but are for the most part unconscious. (Freud, 'The Ego and
the Id'—translation in preparation). In more detail the resistances in part belong to the id, in part are reinforced by the super-ego. The ego has in all this struggle a double attitude, it tries to overlook the resistance in the first place, and when squarely faced with it the ego tries to overcome it. In the analysis the ego and id have to be separated and the ego induced to take up a new position, namely renunciation of id-gratifications instead of countenancing them. This is particularly difficult when the relations between ego and id are closer than usual, i.e. in cases with strong narcissism. Here Ferenczi's 'active' technique is of great use. The ego, induced by the ego-ideal to enter into conflict with the id on account of id-gratifications, is in analysis induced to countenance them, thus setting up a new conflict; the ego enters the 'degrading' situation at first unwillingly, then when the ego begins to change and to accept the gratifications a second analytic intervention requires the ego to renounce the gratification. These manoeuvres induce the ego to take up different attitudes to id-gratification, and at the same time the ego is enlisted against the resistances proceeding from the super-ego. This brings Sachs to the discussion of the third stage of technique, that of guiding “repetition-compulsion' into a new path, namely recollecting and working through the former experiences instead of eternally re-living them in an incomplete manner. The goal is for the patient to adopt the ego-ideal put forward by analysis: perfect sincerity towards himself and removal of repressions. But since the transference is to personal idiosyncrasies of the analyst, the magnification of these is employed in analysis for the purpose of re-experiencing old situations-old situations however re-lived in an atmosphere of a new ego-ideal. The ego-ideal is being constantly changed, from the nursery and class-room stage to a gentler, more mature attitude to the ego's weaknesses, neither ignoring faults nor at the other extreme rigidly obeying impossible commands. FRANZ ALEXANDER:
A Metapsychological Description of the Process of Cure.' The Fechner-Freud principle postulates that there exists in the mental system a tendency to reduce as far as possible or at least to keep constant the amount of stimulation and tension in that system. Stimuli come from without and are external, instincts from within are internal, sources of unrest. Taking an example of the former, the reaction to cold may be by an increase of external heat, as by fire (external change-alloplastic) or by alteration of body covering, as by growth of hair · (internal change-autoplastic), the former is characteristic of man, the latter of animals. We meet the same two mechanisms in the mastery of instincts. Here the stimuli arise from within but the action has to be directed to an external (love) object. In obtaining relief from instinct-tension both alloplastic and autoplastic mechanisms are involved. Food is obtained by autoplastic means among animals, man uses machinery (ploughs, etc.—alloplastic). The reproductive instinct has adopted the autoplastic moulding of the bodily apparatus, but is directed outwards as well, by creating new objects. However, to return to neuroses: whether it is abolishing inner tensions by mastering external stimuli or internal stimuli (instincts) the psychical apparatus will employ either auto- or allo-plastic mechanisms. It either attempts to modify reality or it alters itself. Following Freud's remark that neurotic symptoms are unsuccessful attempts at adaptation, Alexander puts forward the formula: every psycho-neurosis is an attempt at autoplastic mastering of instinct, and is only partly successful since only the id is free from tension, the ego bearing the strain as a feeling of illness or ego-conflict. I.e. the conscious ego has reached the mature, exogamous, genital object-libido stage; the symptom is