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said that the filariasis caused the insanity it was doubtless a contributing factor by its effect on the cerebral circulation and some toxic action producing a wastage of energy. The patient was repatriated when her condition had sufficiently improved. 4. Peruvian Folk Lore. (Gerado Quintana.)
Notes on some customs and beliefs of the Indians. Children are suckled till 18 months or 2 years old. If the baby is difficult to wean, the mother's breast is smeared with blood, or with acid juice; horrifying masked figures are made to suck the breast in full view of the baby.
Journal für Psychologie und Neurologue
Band 31, Heft 1 and 2. 1924.
1. Zur Pathoarchitektonik der Dementia praecox. (Dr Julius Schuster.)
M. D. EDER.
Schuster reports the clinical symptoms of a case of catatonic schizophrenia and describes in detail changes in the brain as found in serial microscopic sections. He concludes that there are two main pathological factors: (a) an inherent, endogenous alteration in the ectodermal elements; (b) a later secondary degeneration of the pyramidal cells, accompanied by clasmatoendrosis of the glia. The (a) changes are found only in and about the lamina.
2. Ueber die Neuro-psychische Tätigkeit der Grosshirnrinde. (J. Beritoff.)
Beritoff gives a physiological explanation of certain psychological processes, such as attention, sleep, dreaming, hypnosis. This praiseworthy attempt is confined, unfortunately, to guesses as to what should take place in the central nervous system. He concludes that although physiology need pay no regard to psychological experiences, psychology, however, must be supported by the facts of physiology.
3. Beitraege zur Faseranatomie der Stammganglien. (Dr Walther Riese.)
Riese's new investigation of the histology of the basal ganglia are based upon pathological data, on observations of a foetal brain and that of a new-born child, and partly upon the results of animal experiments.
Journal de Psychologie normale et pathologique.
Vol. XXI, No. 5. October 1924.
M. D. EDER.
1. La Biologie des Insectes avant, pendant, après J. H. Fabre. (E. Rabaud.)
A criticism of Fabre's experiments and observations. His vogue is a continual surprise to every field naturalist.
2. La Vision des Animaux, (A. Rochon-Duvigneaud.)
The vision of animals must not be judged by human sensations; very little is clear about even the visual acuity of the lower animals, little about the vision of mammals, still less about that of birds and about insects!
3. L'étude Statistique des Dessins d'enfants. (G. H. Luquet.)
The statistical studies of children's drawings hitherto made are insufficient both as to number and as to groups of different school ages. The methods employed by authors quoted are subjected to considerable criticism on account of their looseness and absence of systematic observation.
4. Hallucinations in a case of retinal detachment. (A. Favory.)
A woman, aged 47, myopic-10D, with double retinal detachment, saw letters and numbers about 1-2 cent. in height; they generally formed parts of French words and occasionally complete words. The letters were sometimes replaced by geometrical figures. No explanation can be offered.
M. D. EDER.
Archivio Generale di Neurologia Psichiatria e Psicoanalisi.
Vol. IV-v. 1924.
1. La Dégénérescence Colloido-calcaire du Cerveau. (C. I. Urechia and S. Mihalescu.) 2. Gli Istinti nel Sistema dei Psichismi umani. (M. Levi Bianchini.)
The specific qualities of a primary instinct are carefully laid down; three primary instincts are recognized concerned with nutrition, autonomy, reproduction or hunger, liberty, love. The two first are ego instincts, the last a libido instinct.
3. Quelques Considérations sur un cas d'encephalite lethargique. (Prof. C. L. Urechia and Dr N. Elekes.)
4. Su alcune critiche di autore italiani in tema di psicoanalisi. (Dr E. Weiss.)
An examination of the present position of psycho-analysis in Italy. Although there is a good deal of opposition it is interesting to know that the veteran Augusto Murri has welcomed psycho-analysis; Levi-Bianchini, the first Italian translator of Freud, is a tower of strength.
5. Una varietà rara di Distrofia lipomatosa. (Dr G. Fumarola.)
A woman, aged about 75, acquired during about 3 months a large accumulation of fat in the mammae, nates and the anterior portion of the abdomen. There is no pain but a hypoalgesia of the skin in the affected area.
Journal de Psychologie.
Vol. XXII, No. 1. 15th January, 1925.
La vision binoculaire, facteur d'evolution. (M. Landolt.)
M. D. EDER.
An examination of the vision of the vertebrata leads to the conclusion that in the evolution of man binocular vision was a stage antecedent to the upright posture and the invention of the hand.
La philosophie naturelle de La Mettrie. (R. Lenoir.)
La Mettrie's originality has not had justice done to it. His doctrine that the soul of man could be understood in physical terms originated in observing in himself that during great mental activity his pulse rate was increased. This observation turned him from his ecclesiastical training to medicine and to science. He expounded his view in the Histoire Naturelle de l'ame. In his works L'Homme Machine, L'Homme Plante, Les Animaux plus que Machine, the development of organic life from the inorganic world is suggested and the relationship between man, his fellow-animals and the botanist's world are marked out on the basis of observation and analogy. La Mettrie has his limitations; the origin of the arts and of science does not engage his attention; he does not ask how we obtain our knowledge of the external worldhe is no psychologist. It must be remembered that he lived in the midst of furious controversy, that he was compelled to fly from Paris to Leyden and from Leyden to Berlin, where under Frederick the Great he found a refuge. His irony made him numerous enemies. La Mettrie's philosophy was inspired by a desire to find the right way for man to live.
Une Délirante mystique et érotique du XVIIIe siècle. (L. Herr.)
In a private library the writer accidentally came across a large work dated 1730; the second volume from p. 472 to p. 660 was annotated in a feminine handwriting. These annotations, printed in full, indicate that the writer was a Frenchwoman, born in the provinces, married in Paris, where she led for some time a very immoral life which became a public scandal. Her parents removed her to their home out of France; she was regarded as mad and prohibited from contact with anyone. The allusions in the annotations show that they were written not later than 1740. Though perhaps not well read the writer has a vigorous and lively style, and amid all the extravagances due to extreme mental confusion there are passages which are eloquent and betray
an unusual loftiness of spirit. Herr is surprised at the not infrequent appearance of obscenities which he considers due to the reading of indecent literature, the conversation of servants, and a licentious life. But he leaves the interpretation of the last to the psychologists interested in erotic mysteries. (They might, for instance, give another interpretation.)
Though she finally takes God as her lover, her spouse after her fall (when she had become a putain a whore) there are suggestions of erotic mysticism before marriage, that it was the Lord himself who chose her husband for her. Her writings end in an outburst of jealousy of Mary Magdalene whom she is to succeed as Christ's favourite spouse. She will have merited this by her sufferings, by her terrible and cruel death.
Vol. XXII, No. 2. 15th February, 1925.
Un chapitre d'histoire de la physiologie: La conception de la durée dans l'excitation au XIXe siècle. (L. Lapicque.)
Du Bois Reymond's general law of muscle irritability is discussed and contrasted with the very different conclusions arrived at experimentally by Pflüger (1859), Fick (1863), Brücke (1867), Engelmann, König (1870). These results were entirely overlooked and had to be rediscovered thirty or forty years later by other workers in this field.
Lapicque ascribes this neglect to the influence of Hermann's Handbuch, which, published in 1879, adopted Du Bois Reymond's law. For years the teaching of physiology practically equalled what the Handbuch taught.
The psychological fact drawn is that truth by itself no more suffices in science than it does elsewhere. For an abstract conception to become successful publicity is needed just as much as in politics or business.
Recherches sur les rapports des mouvements d'expression et du langage. (R. Le Savoureux.)
Language as a means of expression is accompanied by two sets of muscular movements; one set for articulation, another set for meaning. In the second set words expressing conative, representative, affective tendencies have their respectively different movements. The variations between these and the first set (articulation of words without attending to their sense) is mathematically worked out on six subjects. The experiments suggest an extension to the mental conditions associated with words.
Le souvenir latent des noms propres. (P. Guillaume.)
The attempt to recall the names of forgotten places does not give rise to phenomena of affect; even the first abortive attempts are phenomena of imagery. The author describes his own experiences in attempting to recall several more or less completely forgotten names of villages and explains in many cases how the errors arise often from blending of contiguous villages, or the substituted word is some more familiar word.
Les états affectifs dans les hallucinations lilliputiennes. (R. Leroy.)
The behaviour of hallucinatory lilliputian figures always corresponds to the affective state of the subject. Thus a general paralytic saw soldiers 10 to 15 centimètres in height running along the mantelpiece, hiding behind the portrait frames, little dolls dancing, little bicyclists riding round the room. The patient was radiant with joy and amusement.
In another case a man who was in great physical pain was beset by hallucinations of little people attacking him, climbing on the painful spots; he begged for his gun to shoot the 'little villains.'
Vol. XXII. 15 April, 1925.
Les origines de l'art. (H. Breuil.)
There is no evidence of pictorial art prior to Aurignacian man. There are traces of decoration in the Mousterian age. In addition to the usual causes for the development of art Breuil considers that a fertile source is the reproduction of the foot tracks made by men and animals.
(I) L'influence psychologique et les associations du présentisme.
(II) Quelques groupes de présentistes. (Fr. Paulhan.)
The non-reflective may be grouped into three classes: (1) the impulsive, (2) the suggestible, (3) the frivolous. (1) Live but with a wide range in the present moment. Claude Bernard can be regarded as a type of the well-balanced impulsive; (2) are characterized by being always of the last speaker's opinion; they adapt themselves easily enough to their surroundings but have little personality of their own. (3) are unstable both in idea and in action; the frivolous child passes rapidly from toy to toy, the woman from lover to lover, the man will neglect an important engagement for some attraction of the moment.
The writer concludes this article which fills 30 pages by stating that the types sketched in the essay only present a section of personality, not the whole of the individual. In actual life there is never a true type but infinite gradations and contradictions.
Psychologie pathologique et sociologie. (Cl. Blondel.)
The mental life of primitives as described by Lévy-Bruhl has resemblances with that of psychotics. Both are different in kind from that of civilized normal man and both have this in common: whereas the thinking of civilized man is characterized by its objectivity, that of primitives and of psychotics alike is characterized by its subjectivity. From this point of view sociology has certain values for psychopathology. Emphasis is laid upon the consideration that psychopathology can only describe mental mechanisms, discover the laws, but physiology alone can arrive at the causes of disturbed mental conditions. Incidentally Freud's views come in for criticism especially for his attempt to classify the various neuroses and psychoses almost exclusively from a psychological aetiology thus abandoning the more valuable clinical distinctions. But Freud's real merit is his dominant idea that psychology has to be entirely remade. Lévy-Bruhl's demonstration of the two modes of thought, the civilized and the savage-is a new point of departure for psychology and pathopsychology.
M. D. EDER.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY, MEDICAL SECTION
(Previous notices in Journal, Vol. I, p. 96, Vol. II, p. 99, Vol. V, p. 64.)
Substitution. By M. D. EDER.
Some Aspects of the Inter-Relation between Bodily and Mental Dis-
The Conception of Sexuality. A Symposium opened by J. A. HADFIELD,
The 'Synthesis' of an Anxiety-Neurosis. By A. WOHLGEMUTH.
An Irrelevant Accretion to the Freudian Theory. By IAN D. SUTTIE.