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as a buffalo and thus exercises a "magical" attraction, the notion thus acquired is transferred to other situations, he will stand on a turtle shell in order to harden his feet, and so on. He thinks that the "irrational background of emotion" must not be left out of account and explains the power which is felt to proceed from tabooed objects as arising from horror at the unfamiliar— indeed for him magic is so peculiar it cannot be described in words but only comprehended through sympathy. We can perceive how magical experiences reawaken in schizophrenics if we seek out the magical mood in our own emotional lives. Schizophrenic symptoms are due to an effort to preserve the ego against the mysterious powers of the universe, the patients are continually complaining of a loss of strength, this gives rise to anxiety and a feeling of persecution. Their egos are sensitive and have to be protected, so they resort to incantations (verbigeration). Schizophrenic ideas emerge when the emotional currents in the primitive life of the soul are dammed back, the formation of the ideas is not due to direct emergence of the emotional currents but to their secondary elaboration (p. 60). This obscure passage, and many others, seems to be based on something more than genetic psychology, and something less than psycho-analysis; it has the vagueness of the former, and imports into the complexity of the latter an unnecessary amount of confusion by omitting the libido theory and the Oedipus complex. The origin of religion is traced to "numinous primordial feelings" of awe and schizophrenic symptoms may be understood by reference to primitive cults, to a "fluctuating idea of a transcendental somewhat, at first quite vague, of a being...(which) receives concrete form as demon or god" (p. 63). He says the supernatural, at first quite formless, is rationalized till it takes the form of definite gods and demons. Even his anthropology is open to question on several important points. He holds that puberty rites are carried out because the primitives believe that nature does not run on of itself but must be made to go along its course by magic; they circumcise to make a man of a boy. This may be criticized as putting too much weight on rationalization-puberty rites it might be said with greater truth are carried out in order magically to stop the course of nature, to undo the boy's incestuous fixation on his mother by a symbolic ritual rebirth and to diminish hatred towards his father by pretending that his father gave him birth; the father joins in the magical deflection of natural processes by substituting for the death or castration of a rival the painful but harmless rite of circumcision.
Space does not allow an examination of every point made in the book but mention must be made of his views on "cosmic identification." He holds that the primitive and schizophrenic do not realize the boundaries of their egos, the division ego-non-ego does not exist. "The psycho-analysts make a too one-sided interpretation when, in accordance with the libido theory, they regard this concentration of all values on the person's own self and the despoiling of the rest of the world of values, as an infantile narcissism" (p. 80 n.), but, he adds, the schizophrenic world-catastrophe is a reflection of an inner cataclysm (though not a libidinal one, we gather).
The disorder is regarded as one in which the perceptual functions of the ego play the dominant rôle, even delusions of persecution being attributed to this, though the author acknowledges that "perverted sexual attitudes," especially the homosexual (p. 105), play a part in causing the patients to seek substitute gratification in phantasy. "The implacable conflict of the soul is resolved into a conflict of good and bad powers-into a struggle between the
ultimate principles of the universe." A clinician may be pardoned for neglecting the ultimate principles of the universe from his aetiological analysis of schizophrenic symptoms if more mundane factors will serve his purpose. The book is rendered less useful than it might be through neglect of the mundane: these patients, for example, frequently complain of hypochondriacal troubles, have hysterical attacks, sometimes have obsessions the author passes by these "complications." The psycho-analysts regard symptoms similar to those of the transference neurosis as either residues of a former transference neurosis or attempts at cure. The neologisms are also not explained adequately on genetic psychological lines, and the relations of this disease to paranoia and its position in the series of neuro-psychoses is left out. It may be said that it is not the author's intention to place this disease in a category, he is free to choose his method. True; but he has lost touch with the correcting influence of clinical experience when he goes hunting for explanations among savages. Is not the loss of boundary between ego and non-ego, to take an instance, perhaps characteristic of one stage of libido and ego development, namely the first oral stage (Abraham), and is it not in this stage that the dementia praecox patient has his fixation (Freud)? By gazing into the remote past of human history or into tribal customs the author loses sight of just those clinical complications which call for explanation, and which when explained act as excellent correctives to the tendency we all share to "one-sidedness" in our interpretations of psychical phenomena.
The Psychology of the Free Child. By CHRISTABEL M. MEREDITH. London: Constable and Co., 1924. Pp. 212. Price 5s. net.
A question of no little significance for general psychology is left with the reflective reader of this book. How is it possible for a mind so shrewd, clearly observant, and sensible of the developmental value of the native activities of the child, one so much on the side of the child as against the adult's cultural narcissism, to go so far, and yet to go no further? For we are given what is in certain respects, and within its limits, a very valuable account of the 'free' child, together with much excellent practical advice as to the arrangement of his environment. Indeed, if it were possible to get the majority of parents to take seriously and act systematically upon the point of view expressed in the chapters on habit, on desirable conditions, on self-dependence and on play, we should, in one decade, be perceptibly nearer to the world of 'men like gods.' But there is trouble for education and interest for psychology in that 'if.' The sensible practical advice about letting children "mess about in the garden," have their way with water, climb the railings of suburbia and talk freely about their own interests, is too sadly often as seed falling on stony ground or amongst thorns that choke it. And the reasons for this lie in those deeps into which the author does not enquire the facts of infantile sexuality. She shows clearly, for example, the intellectual value of the child's coprophilic interests at one remove from their original form, in play with mud and water; but does not take them at their organic level, and so misses their deeper significance and the way in which they are woven into the pattern of the love and hate relationships. Nor does she look below the surface with regard to these latter, and the general social life of the 'free' child. The general purpose of the book, it is true, is to emphasize the problems of the intellectual development of the
child; but this is not, for the young child, separable from his social development, as the recent psychology of family relationships has made certain. With this recent psychology the author does not seem to be acquainted, if one judges from her account of the instincts in the first chapter. In this theoretical discussion of the instincts and innate tendencies the book is weak and inadequate. Indeed, the central problem of both psychology and education, that of the fate of the instinct-impulses, is dealt with in a few dogmatic words which as they stand are certainly untrue-"...but instincts in man have varied outlets, and their satisfaction can be obtained as well along one line as along another." It would be a simpler world if that were true; and little need either of psycho-pathologists or of educators. Fortunately, the practice of the author is wiser than her theory; and one feels that if now she could go on from the 'free' child to the whole child, with the same quiet observation and intuitive understanding, some valuable further chapters of genetic psychology and pedagogy might ensue.
The Theory and Practice of the Steinach Operation. With a Report on one
ment of Experimental Surgery of the Collège de France; Assistant Director
The news value of this subject has been so well exploited that even the medical psychologist, who ought to know better, has had his professional prejudices aroused and opens these books with a feeling that he will find therein extravagant and unsupported claims. Yet many of the case descriptions are so striking that the sceptic must admit that a new chapter in medicine is opened if the results are confirmed. And confirmed or confuted they should soon be, for they are objective and embrace both clinical and laboratory examples. Contradictory observations, however, puzzle the reader: Steinach, whose rejuvenating operation consists in ligature of the vas deferens, finds that spermatogenic cells in testes successfully transplanted undergo atrophy, whilst Voronoff, who restores vitality by grafting testes into the scrotum of the beneficiary, claims that the grafts even develop from the prepuberal stage to that of spermatogenesis. Both operators give us photographs of aged animal wrecks restored to health, sexual vigour and pugnacity, and both present enthusiastic reports of similar results in human subjects.
Dr Voronoff's demonstration that grafts can survive and retain their specific characters is important, for it is generally believed that invading lymphocytes eliminate the specialized cells. He recognizes the distinction between cases in which a disability is due to defects of the gonads and those where mental processes are primarily responsible, but finds diagnosis difficult and uncertain. It is unfortunate that none of these writers is familiar with psychopathology. Dr Schmidt, indeed, is of the school that believes that the problems of psychology can be solved by speculations expressed in anatomical
terms. A conditioned reflex is "an objective process taking place in the cortex, which can be measured in time and in space," and the psycho-sexual abnormalities "obtain an exact scientific explanation by means of this theory." Dr Haire's book contains cases of his own but is largely a compilation: we find "sexual neurasthenia" given as a sufficient clinical description of a patient upon whom transplantation was performed, and the account of Stanley's work is such poor material as to be valueless. To read that thirty-two people out of forty-one suffering from "poor vision" were benefited by the injection of testicular substance is worse than unconvincing.
After studying these three books one concludes that much of the clinical evidence must be taken seriously, that the co-operation of critical psychopathologists is needed, and that the principles involved must be protected from that hasty application which has marred the kindred subject of endocrinology.
The Theology of the Real. By R. GORDON MILBURN. Williams and Norgate, Ltd. London, 1925. Pp. xiv, 264. Price 10s. 6d. net.
The title of this book may scare away many who might find much to interest them in its pages. Theology is commonly regarded as a universe of discourse so far removed from that of modern science that votaries of the latter discipline have usually no desire to enter into disputations concerning matters which they regard as being devoid of all objectivity. Mr Milburn endeavours to entice the man of science from his aloofness and sets out to formulate theology upon lines having "the character of scientific rather than of philosophical knowledge to an extent sufficient to affiliate it to the general thought of the present age." "Is there, or is there not," he asks, "a possible sphere of reality in any way corresponding to religious beliefs of any kind? If there even may be such a sphere of being there is place for a systematic enquiry, and we cannot know that there cannot be except as a result of such enquiry." He hopes that this book "may fairly be described as a contribution to the study of objectivity in theology."
It would perhaps be out of place here to make any observations on the greater part of the evidence on which the author relies in his endeavour to discover and demonstrate objectivity in theology; but there are some sections of his book in which are discussed problems that are closely connected with medical psychology, and it is fitting enough that some of the opinions expressed on these matters should be referred to in this Journal.
In a chapter on "Medical Theology" evidence of scientific objectivity in theology is sought in the records of "Spiritual Healing" of physical maladies, and of redemption' from sin and neurosis-the cure of mental and moral bondage. These are "the fields of experience in which the power of God is most confidently asserted to be effectually operative."
In discussing these questions Mr Milburn takes as his starting point the Report of the Archbishop's Committee on Spiritual Healing which he criticises severely on the ground that it almost entirely abandons the basis upon which the religious position rests. It "catalogues medical methods, applies religious terms to them and proposes certain devotional practices as a means of applying those methods," but on the fundamental issue of the reality of 'spiritual
causation' in the healing of disease the report is silent. There is indeed some justification for Mr Milburn's declaration that "when...the Committee complains that some exponents of medical psychology have 'propagated views that are subversive of...religious principles,' I cannot but feel that no such literature is so damaging to religion as this Report itself, which dares neither act upon the supernaturalism which it professes nor profess the naturalism on which it acts." In true spiritual healing Mr Milburn sees the activity of some transcendental agency of a specific kind "which cannot analytically be reduced to some kind of mental or physical healing which has no close connection with the idea of God." He says the evidence in support of the existence of such an agency is abundant, but the only instance he records (one taken from his own experience) is an unfortunate example to bring forward in support of his contention. A little girl was seriously ill with pneumonia and the doctor had left the parents with the impression that the child was dying.
Her temperature was then 104 degrees, and the father told me that the doctor had said that this temperature would last three days, that then the crisis would come, and it was very doubtful whether she had the stamina to pull through." Mr Milburn immediately wrote to a Christian Science practitioner enclosing a photo of the child and asking for two treatments for her. "The child rallied within an hour or two from the time when my letter was received, and within about thirty hours she was well."
This is a fair sample of the kind of evidence on which believers in "miracles of healing" rely. A very little knowledge of the ordinary course of pneumonia in which there is 'recovery by crisis' would have saved Mr Milburn from supposing that his harmless interference had anything to do with the happy termination of a serious illness. One cannot help wondering, when it is a question of proving miraculous healing, why such implicit faith is put in a doctor's diagnosis or prognosis by people who in other matters, or on other occasions, show that they have really rather a poor opinion of the medical profession. Had Mr Milburn known that the accurate foretelling of the time at which crisis will occur in pneumonia depends upon an accurate knowledge of when the disease began, he would have seen that the fulfilment of the doctor's prediction would depend on the accuracy of the information given to him about the beginning of the illness; and he would have suspected that the crisis was due some days earlier than the doctor thought, rather than that the absent treatment by the Christian Scientist had effected a miracle.
Mr Milburn laments over the venality of medical men, for he thinks that their refusal to "diagnose and certify cases not under their control"-which is "the great difficulty with regard to proof of the miraculous character of these cases" is due to their preoccupation with the commercial aspect of their profession. In the matter of receiving acknowledgement or co-operation from the medical profession he considers the position of the lay-analyst to be the same as that of the Christian Scientist. Yet he ought to know that almost the only people who speak in defence of lay-analysts are those medical men who really know what analysis is and how little does success in this work depend upon medical qualifications.
Mr Milburn tells us that he has himself been through several courses of analysis, and this may perhaps account for his outspoken criticism of the sexual ethics of the Church and of Society at the present time. In the sphere of sexual ethics he enunciates the principle that "when sex is the vehicle of real love and promotes the development of the personality, is allowed by