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sexuality and normal health. Some would regard the consequent disappearance of 'feminine' or infantile manifestations as undesirable. He returns to theoretical topics to discuss whether all libido is masculine and considers this view incompatible with the theory of bisexuality. He next reviews other papers; Harnik's paper on "Various developments undergone by narcissism in women" is regarded as unsound because suppression of masturbation is attributed to repression and not to normal growth, because menstruation deprives them of clitoris feeling and stimulates vaginal erotism. He does not deny Harnik's conclusion that in women it is by no means uncommon for the narcissism not to be centred on the genital but to be distributed over the surface of the body, but thinks it abnormal and a wish fulfilment on the part of those elaborating this theory. PHILIP S. GRAVEN: A Case of Smoke Phobia. A twenty-three year old male for seven years had fears at the sight of smoke. Oedipus situation, pangs of conscience, pains in the eyes, hence the sequence: (1) smoke, (2) thoughts of the father, (3) thoughts of revenge, criminal impulses, (4) painful conscience symbolized by the eye, i.e. of God who watches us, (5) the eye has the pain of tormented conscience projected into it. Patient advised when he got the pain to think of the sequence the technique "worked like a charm," "like a cocaine of the soul," as the patient said. The author concludes with the remark that the very strong sadistic and homosexual components which analysis revealed played no important rôle in the actual production of the conflict. J. ALLEN GILBERT: The Battle of Opposites. Subjective Objective, Analysis-Synthesis, Physiological Psychology-Psychological Physiology (Harvard and Yale), Structure and Function. Mind and Body, Ought and Can-not....Experience is not absolute but relative, it includes both 'me' and the 'other-than-me,' and these fuse into an intimacy which defies analysis.

J. R.

Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, XIII, June 1925.

CURT. P. RICHTER: Some Observations on the Self-Stimulation Habits of Young Wild Animals. Three cases: a 3-months old female coatimundi (a small bear') sucked and chewed its left knee before going to sleep, or when hungry or when thwarted in its attempts to explore its surroundings, particularly when tied. When given its freedom this sucking activity immediately stopped. The hair on the left knee was almost completely worn away. A 3-months old male kinkajou (honey bear'), bottle fed, had a habit of autofellatio so firmly fixed that the physician who reared it could not break it. This was indulged in when the animal was going to sleep, when hungry or when thwarted. The third case was a spider monkey, 6 years old, also bottle fed, who had been brought up, ate and slept with a human family and was given a daily bath. It was well behaved till puberty (aet. 5), when it showed unprovoked outbursts of rage and bit its master. It sucked its fingers under similar conditions to the other two cases. In all three cases the activity was the same-sucking-but the parts were different, but though different were each well suited to the activity; the animal which sucked its knee had long claws. The author has observed sucking activities in rabbit and guinea-pig foetuses, and supposes that an under-nourished foetus will suck more vigorously than a well-nourished

one. He concludes that most self-stimulation habits have their origin in the intra-uterine stages of development. HENRI CLAUDE, D. SANTENOISE and RENÉ TARGOWLA: An attempt at a Biologic Diagnosis of States of Excitement and Depression. Biological diagnosis here means serum diagnosis and the employment of the routine of a modern and thorough physical examination. They find that certain psychoses may be characterized by certain vagosympathetic formulas. The paper is not so detailed as Eppinger and Hess's and is regrettably vague. GEORGE W. HENRY and ELIZ. MANGAM: Blood in Personality Disorders. Well-known blood-analysis methods are described and the term personality disorders is taken to cover psychoneuroses, constitutional inferiority as well as the psychoses. The CO,, urea, non-protein nitrogen, uric acid, dextrose and Cl of the blood are the same in normal and psychotic; glucose tolerance shows "more or less characteristic changes in either phase of affective psychoses "

J. R.

Internationaler Zeitschrift für Individualpsychologie, III, iv, June 1925.

ALFRED ADLER: On children who are difficult to educate and on nervous adults. Individual psychology forges the bonds between psychiatry and pedagogy, between physician and teacher, and teaches the fundamental importance of organ inferiority and the feeling of inferiority, the psychical compensation for the same and the over compensation, the destiny of social feeling and the effect of 'guiding lines'-the issue thus opened shows how the bonds are forged. ALFONS SIMON and KURT SEELMANN: The Psychology of the School Child. The difficulty with children results from their disturbed relation to social life. The duty of the school is to make every attempt to cure the trouble, to remove the uncertainty from the child's mind, or the anxiety as the case may be, and lead the pupil to social feeling. If difficult children have difficult parents the latter should be invited to the school to attend a class to observe a pedagogy that does not use the birch. If a child still shows 'traits' it is given special attention and encouraged to take courage. And so on. MELKA SCHLAMAN and ELLI ROTWEIN: On imparting sexual enlightenment to school children. Boys are usually content, but girls usually want to be boys. When 25 proletarian girls were asked "Are you content with your sex-rôle?" 21 answered in the affirmative, they were aged from 9-14. The authors attribute the peculiarity of this proletarian choice to the fact that the fathers came home begrimed from work, that the girls have witnessed scenes in which the father is weaker than the mother or in which he is less good at business-thus is the contradiction to the usual bourgeois answer explained. Turning to boys they found four who would prefer to be girls. No further psychological observations were made or deductions drawn. LEONHARD SEIF: Advice on Education and School. All will go well with a child who has good family conditions, love and those demands on his social feeling which exert the most favourable influences, which develop his trust and sensitiveness and give him courage to overcome difficulties, which leads from self-help to mutual help. Less favourable cases need help and Dr Seif gives examples of friendly conciliatory explanations which dissolve the unfriendly relationship of the child with its relations: "Haven't you often made it difficult for your parents?

Aren't they occasionally right? They love you when you are good to them and help them..." and so on. COMMUNICATIONS FROM THE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD (conducted by Dr ALFRED ADLER). Case 1: A 14-year old girl who thought herself remarkably beautiful set herself to be a great film-star and get her photo in all the papers. At school she made poor progress, was quarrelsome and dominating. She had lost her father at an early age, and was the second of three sisters. Strongly urged to strive for situations of importance-she was the second sister-but sought the path of least resistance, often falsifying reality by phantasy. She felt defeat to be dangerous. Advised: There is to be no brusque discouragement of her choice of profession but she is to be shown the difficulties in the path (to be sure not insuperable), is to be told of the meaning of the work and the study required of an actress and of the lesser role played by beauty. The child is to be encouraged in its own studies by hints about the need for a higher standard of education in the acting profession and in case the intention of going into the films persists for three years she is to be strongly advised to go to a good school of acting. Forty-two cases are dealt with thus in twelve columns.

J. R.

REVIEWS

The Primitive Archaic Forms of Inner Experiences and Thought in Schizophrenia, a Genetic and Clinical Study of Schizophrenia. By Dr ALFRED STORCH (Tübingen). Translated by CLARA WILLARD. Washington, D.C.: Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Co., 1924. Monograph Series, No. 36. Pp. xii + 106. With Bibliography. Price $2.00.

In his attempt to discover the deeper foundations of the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia the author turns to genetic psychology. There are disadvantages in this proceeding which he has perhaps not perceived and certainly not avoided. He is a clinician and is in constant touch with his patients, that is to say, the material of his study is constantly presenting itself directly to his notice in an ever-changing and yet ever-repeating form; unfortunately he turns from this stimulating source of inspiration and hopes to get clearer insight into the complicated mental structures of this disease by employing the theories of genetic psychologists and religious historians. Genetic psychology (and religious history) is usually studied in the armchair (Lévy-Bruhl) and makes little claim, at least on the continent, to be the result of field work; it draws its conclusions from second-hand material; the author by adopting this method has lost more than he has gained, he gives up first-hand impressions for those at second-hand.

His thesis is that "the complexes which determine pathological experiences are not really unconscious emotionally toned thought formations, but rather, vague, obscure tendencies and feelings of wholly indefinite ideational content' (p. ix). Even in a highly developed normal man, emotions, strivings and thoughts are mingled together in an inseparable conglomerate, much as they are in the primitive, and this makes the "irrational units of emotional experiences and thoughts" only imperfectly accessible to rational analysis; the nearest that can be got to analysis is emotional participation and sympathetic understanding (p. x) though he tries earnestly to give due weight to the results of other methods.

His method is descriptive. He does not strive to discover the connection between the different contents of the mind nor to interest himself in the dynamic construction which can be put upon pathological conditions-both of these methods of work are "one-sided" (pp. ix, 80)-but tries to discover similar modes of thought and emotional attitudes in primitive man and in schizophrenic patients; he hopes to give depth to his understanding of the disease by genetic analysis. As we shall see his method is really upside down, he gives "depth" to genetic psychology by borrowing interpretations from the one-sided" schools of Freud and Jung. To take a single instance: he says the schizophrenic's inner experiences find more immediate expression in bodily movement than in thought, they use pantomime in place of speech. A patient bit off one of his finger joints, and, when asked why he had done this, replied that he wished to show there was a place wanting; when pressed further he said he had done it to atone for a sin committed many thousands of years before among the Chinese. Dr Storch now turns to genetic psychology, or more precisely to anthropological writings, and shows how certain Australian

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races carry on "a sort of symbolic conjuring" in which they furnish in their own body the realization of a wish, they make rain by taking water into the mouth and then spitting it out again. Having made this "genetic" gesture he returns to his patient and says that his act may have a secondary meaning which is sexual, when referring to his sin long ago among the Chinese he may have meant incest and his expiatory self-mutilation was really a self-castration; he adds, "unfortunately I neglected to ask concerning this."

We must now follow him chapter by chapter: commenting on the schizophrenic characteristic to employ images and symbols profusely (Bleuler) he also notes that primitive man thinks in "total percepts" without analytical discrimination (Thurnwald), three boats belonging to one tribe and two belonging to another make five boats only under certain circumstances; the schizophrenic and primitive disregard logical categories (by which I think he means that they have little capacity to go behind the sense of the moment, and, rejecting irrelevant differences, to combine presentations into orders, whether of quantity or quality). Another character related to this is the indefiniteness of the boundaries of objects within consciousness, objects are shapeless, "resembling emotions" as one patient said, they lack form-qualities (Gestaltqualitäten). He gives an instance from normal experience, an object in the periphery of the field of vision is perceived as a shadowy colour complex, which acquires form-quality only when one turns a glance directly towards it, or again when surprised by an unusual situation one experiences an undifferentiated total complex impression which may be subsequently analysed. This kind of mental process he says is characteristic of primitive man, his experiences are of the nature of "psychic amalgams" (Werner), he remains at the level of perceiving objects as wholes and has not advanced to the stage when the mind analyses the whole object into separate elements.

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A primitive or schizophrenic can regard a centaur as an absolute unity, the heterogeneity of the fragments being no barrier to the acceptance of the composite picture. As a corollary to this both groups fail to perceive the boundaries of the self. They feel their souls go out of their bodies, pass through walls and enter other people or inanimate things, they become 'divided up" into several persons, they feel they are as big as the world or their bodily parts and excretions acquire a sort of independent existence, the hairs they tear out of themselves become serpents, and so on. These great changes are due to "obliteration of the boundaries of the ego" (p. 25). In like fashion the "boundaries" of familiar objects are lost, so that a physician is thought to be the patient's father. One patient (quoted from Nunberg) did not know whether he was the physician or himself. In this way the author carries the analysis of schizophrenic symptoms to disturbances of apperception, so that his exposition becomes rather "one-sided" if we may use his term. He makes some rectification, however, by frequent quotations from Schilder.

He touches on the process which psycho-analysts call identification in the most general terms, and says that there is not only "sympathetic psychic vibration with the dynamics of the object...but a real motor participation" in its gestures and performances. The nearest that highly civilised people can get to this state is in "aesthetic introjection."

Section Two deals with Archaic Primitive Emotional Attitudes and Directions of Mental Experiences. The impulse to perform magic arose from the need for self-preservation. A man when hunting observes that animals approach a creature of the same species as themselves, accordingly he disguises himself

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