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that she is a 'semen-snatcher,' i.e. it is a reaction to castration-anxiety; the death-impulses are displaced from father to mother-imagines. Also the anxiety is caused by the birth situation and vagina dentata phantasies. Further, these impulses may serve the purpose of making the love-object harmless, of providing unending enjoyment without castration-dreads-necrophilia (Pfeifer). The phantasies often show the subject using weapons first and his penis afterwards on his love object an intimate connection between aggressive and libidinal actions which normally are fused in the act of coitus. In one series of dreams analysed the mother of the patient was murdered, after that he had a fight with the analyst and had a pollution, then came active homosexual dreams, then the castration of the father, and finally manifest coitus dreams with women.

Masochists present a special problem with their extra-genital algolagnic zones, their peculiar mode of displacing factors which might lead to anxiety for or pain in the genital, leaving that organ as it were free from the danger of castration and free for gratifications. If the retention advice is given in cases with an anal orientation the erotism might be pushed back on to the genital where it belongs, thus making the patient face up to castration and the dreads of being born and giving birth.

So far we have treated of urethral, anal, and sexual habits, but this does not close the list. Observation of patients in analysis shows some to be unduly stiff in movement and posture which can develop into a resemblance to catatonia; resolution of the psychical tension brings physical relaxation. In refractory cases one must give the order to make movements, and then one finds unconscious tendencies to tenderness or aggressiveness coming forward which had been inhibited by the tension that also marked difficulties regarding sexual discharge and erection. Rhythmic movements are shown to signify suppressed processes of thinking. Unusual gestures, nail-biting, nose-picking, scratching, pulling at the moustache, etc., the author has shown1 to be onanistic equivalents, and as such should be prohibited, not so much for the purpose of stopping them as to increase inner tension and so root up unconscious material. The most obstinate transient symptom-tic convulsif is inaccessible to our understanding or treatment without this restrictive measure.

Perhaps no neurotic bodily symptom occurs without a pre-existing infantile 'habit,' recollecting in this connection that in infancy the pathways of excitation lie more freely open than in the adult to the play of auto-erotic or organ-erotic impulses. This may explain the remarkable assertion of so many neurotics at the end of treatment that they simulated' their illness. And so they do as adults; they carry into grown-up life the wishes and tricks which they used to express in childhood.

Analysis, with its uninterrupted observation of free associations, can be used in the struggle against habits of thought. The technique consists in prohibiting talking past the point' in cases where this behaviour is used as a resistance.

Freud's division of the psychical apparatus into Real-Ego, Super-Ego and id gives a clearer grasp of the nature of habit. Habits belong to that reservoir of instinct and libido-the id, the Ego only comes into action when the circumstances require a new response, when attention, consciousness or perceptions

1 "Psycho-Analytical Observations on Tic." International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, Vol. II, p. 1.

are needed. The acquirement of a habit involves the id taking over an activity from the Ego, while the weaning of a habit involves the transfer to the conscious Ego of an activity that was previously carried out and completed automatically by the id. Instead of identifying habit with instinct, it is better to regard it as a kind of transition between selective actions and the really instinctive actions which are habits of great age, not acquired by the individual but inherited by the race. In acquiring habits external stimuli are introjected, so to speak, and take effect spontaneously, as if they came from within. An analytical attempt to overcome a habit resolves itself into an endeavour to replace a purposeless mode of solving a conflict by a new, a real adaptation. Habits could neither be acquired nor given up so quickly as they are without an identification with the educator. At this point we meet with the influence of the Super-Ego in habit formation, but the way in which the external force is internalized is a problem, and one not unlike the question of the origin of instincts themselves. Psycho-analysis aims at bringing the unconscious and automatic parts of the id into subordination to the Ego. The so-called 'active therapy,' by blocking the paths of discharge, creates a situation which may be called analysis from beneath' in contrast to analysis from above,' it creates a resistance against a compulsion, the holding back of the defences at once induces pain and so reveals to consciousness instinctual forces that had not before been perceived.

Turning to the technical application of these views, Ferenczi thinks that so long as the inner tension in the patient is great enough to provide the analytical material required, the artificial raising of tension is not needed, but when the patient simply makes himself comfortable in analysis progress will be held up by the passive method. Voluntary deprivations by the patient must not be endorsed without further analysis, and indeed the very opposite may be at times advisable; the psychical motive must first be discovered. The beginning of the analysis must be passive, then the personal habits will be discovered and particularly the modes of physical gratification. Patients may be got to change their environment and if away from home to return for a while during treatment. Most difficult of all is the technical control of the transference. When the patient realizes, after weeks or months of analysis, that his earlier passionate advances have been treated objectively and not negatively, his own character undergoes development and he produces childhood's memories which can easily be analysed and reconstructed. So long as the patient is in a resistant phase, the analyst must turn his attention to the unconscious tender emotions; response by the analyst to tenderness is inadvisable, transference-love must only be one-sided. In ordinary neurotic analyses the analyst is more passive than in psychopathic or psychotic cases or in character analyses indeed, peculiarities of character are private psychoses, and paradoxically the healthy are harder to 'heal' than transference neurotics. In these Ego-analyses, where repressed id-impulses are seen to be subdued by strong Ego-resistances, the result to be aimed at is the development of a personality with strong impulses but governed by stronger forces. What cases are suitable for the method of tensional-increase? Hysterics bring emotions and bodily symptoms forward too freely to require it as a rule, but it is useful to bring back sensitivity to the genital; obsessionals behave with an intellectual habit throughout the analysis and so are specially suitable; schizophrenics change greatly under active therapy.

Setting a date for the end of the analysis is an active measure. What are

the indications for doing this, and what does one do when one has made a mistake? The indications are that the analyst has a thorough insight into the entire structure of the disease and has brought all the symptoms into a comprehensible unity. The patient must have worked over these relations intellectually and be hindered from conviction only by transference resistance. When the patient treats his symptoms as simulations one can take him at his word and say that the treatment will last only a few weeks more. He will be shocked and may produce small relapses into his symptoms. Further analysis usually but not always ends in success. The termination must not be set by the patient. Rank's repetition of birth in the transference has been noted but is not proved. Rank showed the existence of unconscious birth phantasies together with phantasies of being in the mother's womb, but whether the former are only reminiscences of the 'trauma of birth' rather than regressions from the Oedipus situation to the relatively less painful experience of birth that was happily overcome is a matter for question. In regard to the termination he recalls Freud's admonition that the analyst must not have the ambition to make his patients attain his own ideal; so long as the patient is ready to suit his Ego to the passions of the id and the demands of the Super-Ego fit the necessities of reality and he is made self-dependent, he is ready to be left to his own destiny. In conclusion the most important guarantee of safety in using the active technique is the temporary or lasting abolition of definite recommendations to deprivation. (Dated October, 1924.) HELENE DEUTSCH: The Psychology of women in the function of reproduction. (This paper is included in a book by the author that is now under review.) MARY CHADWICK: The Origin of the desire for knowledge. An attempt to trace the origin of the desire to acquire knowledge from the child's wish to satisfy his or her sexual curiosity during early childhood. Following the theme of Rank's paper, "Perversion und Neurose" (Zeitschrift VIII) that the query, "Where do children come from?" covers the deeper, "Can he himself bear a child?" a still further question arises. If the repression of the real wish of the child to give birth to an infant is the origin of the early curiosity, the subsequent gratification of this desire, in the acquisition of knowledge (which often occupies the first place in the life of an individual), leads back to the exclusion of the mature wish to have children. We find therefore, the repression of childish sexual curiosity produces either of two consequences, the successful sublimation of the component instinct Curiosity in scientific research and other investigations, or the unsuccessful condition of Obsessional Neurosis— Doubting Mania-where all knowledge is discounted by doubts.

Those who abandon their original aim to bear a child, replacing it with the desire for knowledge, are found to be to a great extent homosexual, which keeps them from heterosexual relationships and the bearing or begetting of children, and substitutes a mental creation for physical procreation, seen in the attempts of the Alchemist of the Middle Ages to produce the Homunculus, and Neitzsche's comparison of himself with a parturient woman with his thoughts as the offspring.

This thwarted desire to bear a child on the part of the man, finding a compensation in the acquisition of Knowledge, appears to be the dynamic of his opposition to the higher education of women; on account of his original envy of the female function of child-bearing, he refuses to allow her to share his compensation and also stimulates the male outcry against such books which give women advice upon the use of contraceptives. (Author's Abstract.)

CLINICAL COMMUNICATIONS: KEMPNER, "Contribution to Oral-erotism" SIMMEL, “A Cover Memory in the making"; ALEXANDER, "Dreams in pairs and in series"; ABRAHAM, "An unnoticed childhood's theory of sex"; ALIX STRACHEY, "A theory of conception"; BENEDEK, "A case of phobia of blushing"; FENICHEL, "Infantile preliminary stages to 'emotionless obstinacy. BOOK REVIEW: Long book reviews of Abraham's "Attempt at a developmental history of the Libido" by Fenichel, Rank's "Trauma of Birth" by Sachs, Ferenczi and Rank's "Developmental Aims of Psycho-analysis" by Alexander.

J. R.

The Psycho-analytic Review, vol. XII, i, Jan. 1925.

TRIGANT BURROW: A Relative concept of Consciousness; an Analysis of Consciousness in its Ethnic Origin. The time-space extension of the astronomers regards our planetary system as a function of and hence relative to a more encompassing programme of planetary motion. Psychologists must take cognizance of the "organic mass consciousness of man" in order to evaluate a man's place in the relativity of man's consciousness as a whole. Thus we shall pass from a bi- to a tri-dimensional picture of actuality, from contemplation of aspect to participation of function. This paper is the outcome of the conviction that psycho-analysts call objective evidence that is only personal or adaptive; this should be correlated not with a personal absolute but with a consensus of the unconscious of the collective mind. He does not give the analogues to Einstein's mathematical formulations which will enable the collective unconscious to be used as a term of the correlate. This is a preliminary communication. THEODORE SCHROEDER: A Contribution to the Psychology of Theism, the French Prophets and John Lacy. A short psycho-sexual analysis of a sect which claimed to be divinely inspired, with an account of some of their peculiar practices. HARRY STACK SULLIVAN: The Oral Complex. Treats of cosmos-time-organic conditions, dominance vectors, preconcepts and the structuralization of complexes, all with reference to the mouth and from a standpoint part behaviourist, part Freudian, part academic. It does not lend itself to abstract. POUL BJERRE: The Way To and From Freud. To Freud: via the mechanical theory of the universe. At Freud: "Complicated though it may seem, psycho-analysis may be reduced to a few concepts, viz., sex, repression, transference, resistance, projection and sublimation. From Freud: via Maeder (and recognition of the "relative quality of mechanization") to perception of the ever creative and ever renewing vital forces underlying the Cosmos. BEN KARPMAN: The Sexual Offender. II. A Contribution to the Study of the Psychogenesis of Sexual Crimes (concluded in part 2, both chapters summarized here). These crimes are due to unresolved psychogenic difficulties, are primitive types of reactions on a lower psycho-biological level produced by regressive fixations and immature mentation. He deals in detail with an exhibitionist, who was not a dementia praecox case, but constitutionally was an "emotionally inadequate individual" who does not handle his problems in the psychotic manner. The libidinal factors are dealt with but not the mechanism of repression. PAUL BOUSFIELD: Freud's Complex of the Over

estimation of the Male. Freud's unanalysed complex is that the female is inferior to the male and when he cannot admit this he tends to make the female as different as possible from the male; this is a subterfuge by which a man may avoid the unanalysed portions of the castration complex in himself. In "The Three Contributions" Freud thought that male and female dispositions were discernible in infantile life, whereas, discussing a case of female homosexuality, he reduces the intrinsic nature of the 'masculine' to activity, and the 'feminine' to passivity. In "Infantile Genital Organization of the Libido" in the pregenital, sadistic-anal stage of organization, there is no maleness or femaleness, but dominantly an antithesis active-passive. The author sees contradictions in these views and confusion of thought but regards his point most clearly demonstrated in “one of Freud's fundamental axioms," that puberty, bringing to the boy a great advance of libido, brings to the girl a new wave of repression which especially concerns clitoris sexuality, “it is a part of male sexual life, which sinks into repression." He sees three errors here: (1) that the normal woman loses her clitoris sensitivity in favour of the vagina, this he doubts; (2) the new wave of repression must be abnormal, since we are wont to look on repression without sublimation as being abnormal in most cases, i.e. the normal progression of female libidinal development is dependent on an abnormal process, viz. repression, therefore the female character is the result of a process which, if occurring in the male, would lead to an infantile type of character, and (3) it is assumed that clitoris sexuality is male sexuality. "It is not permissible to classify a nerve ending as either male or female." To these objections he adds a fourth, that there are two kinds of clitoris excitements, one of the glans and another of the root, the former is the seat of excitation in girls, the latter is commonest in those who have strong repressions of the excretory functions; the latter preference is due to the fact that the root of the clitoris (just beneath the symphisis pubis is his definition of this part) coincides with the position of the penis in the male, and might therefore represent to the woman's mind a different phase of the castration complex. He does not go into the anatomy of the part and say that distance between root and glans is about inch, or in erection is about 1 inches, and that the organ is held down by connective tissues and covered with fat, making stimulation of the root (to exclusion of stimulation of the glans) an exceedingly difficult matter. He has found that anaesthesia in coitus is much more common in those cases where previous masturbation has been at the root and not the glans clitoris. He follows the anatomical regression till he gets nearer to the vagina. He passes into a psychological consideration of the subject with a reminder that he does not lay too much stress on his topographical theory. Sexuality in women is of the same nature as in men and is centred in corresponding organs in both but extends to neighbouring parts, both sexes pass from and may regress to a diffuse cloacal erotism, the centre is shared by both in health: extension of pleasure to neighbouring parts is normal and is a vastly different thing to suppression of clitoris excitation and its transference to the vagina, this last amounts to a "reversal of (the female's) sexual attitude." He holds that as developmentally the vagina is older than the penis or clitoris the displacement to the former of sexual pleasure might even be regarded as a pathological regression. Repression, not transfer of the zone of sex feeling, causes neuroses. He does not develop this theme, but says that if the girl could be educated so as not to have a new wave of repression at puberty she would advance to clitoris

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