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from the shock and live for years with only slight defects, their psychotic symptoms are of a 'functional' nature; on the other hand, perhaps years later the disease may attack the Ego nucleus again and induce more symptoms of mania or depression, but this time the patient becomes uncritical because the separation or tension between Ego nucleus and the narcissistic Ego residue is diminished.

There is another clinical type called 'galloping' or 'agitated' which may be explained by assuming that the disease does not begin in the Ego-periphery but in the Ego nucleus, so that the forces in the latter which normally bind together the various elements of the personality, are destroyed and (lacking 'cement') the patient gives himself over to separate identifications and 'personifications.' This process is to be noted in acute toxic deliria and may be similarly explained.

Ferenczi now takes up another speculation: he makes analogies between individual and group psychology and a 'symbolic' conception of the organization of the Psyche. Narcissistic libido links the individuals in the crowd, but they are led to action by a leader; narcissistic Ego residues are the individuals and the Ego nucleus the leader; if this leadership fails in the crowd there is panic, in the Psyche there is-hallucinatory confusion!-and in both anxiety is experienced.

He closes "these speculations on a stereo-chemistry of the Psyche" with the remark that at any rate many psychotic manifestations of paresis as well as the whole course of the disease are not inaccessible to psycho-analytic explanation.

J. R.

Internationale Zeitschrift für Individualpsychologie. Arbeiten aus dem Gebiete der Psychotherapie, Psychologie und Pädagogik. Edited by Dr ALFRED ADLER (Vienna).

[This Journal was started in April 1914 under the joint editorship of Dr ADLER and Dr CARL FORTMULLER. It appeared again in May, June and July, 1914, and September, 1916. About 1923 it appeared again in a new format.]

III Jahrgang. Nr. 1. December 1924. ADLER: Neurosis and Crime. The author states as the fundamental concept of Individual-psychology that every mental situation develops under the dictatorship of the impulse to mastery, and he develops this theory to show how it may be regarded as a basis for understanding neurosis and crime. Both neurotics and criminals share the following features: (1) feelings of discontent and of being thwarted, (2) incapacity to join in with what is going on, a lack of social feeling, disregard for others and for society, (3) an egoistic perspective which since childhood has been modelled on a self-centred pattern, (4) unruly impulses to master others not by courageous actions but by tricks, craftiness and devices, (5) a considerable narrowing of their 'radius of action.' He repeats the familiar view that neurosis is due to reactions against feelings of inferiority by means of the masculine-protest; the child suffering the blows of fate in the narrower circle of the home extends his hatred to the broader world when he grows up. The gravity and importance of a neurosis can be measured by the degree of discouragement, but not its form and content. All forms of treatment,

suggestion, auto-suggestion, all medical measures, are effective in psychotherapy only so long as they keep up the courage of the patient; a treatment promises positive results if it gives back to the neurotic the feeling of equality which was destroyed in infancy. These patients frequently play with the idea of committing crimes or dread such tendencies in themselves. Both neurotic and criminal disorders share the same starting point (feeling of inferiority) and inevitable and avoidable failures are common to both, due to wrong preparation for the life at school and life in general. But in the case of criminals there is courage enough left to wish to overcome others, and this is carried out in ways that are not in accord with culture or from a feeling of power. Crime brings peace to the tormenting feelings of inferiority and appears to the criminal to be an heroic act. This applies both to the crime of craftiness and to that of action. But at the moment of the crime the same lack of courage is shown that leads the criminal at other times to shun the normal activities of life.

In contrast to the neurotic the relation between 'I' and 'thou' is essentially stronger, and the criminal's dealings with the opposite sex, his friendships and camaraderie is greater than the neurotic's. These traits show a relation to the will to conquer, and the criminal's forbearingness and mildness to the weak and poor supports this view. The mixture of will-to-conquer and feelings of inferiority allows a loose contact with society, strong enough to carry them along but too weak to permit the carrying out of normal tasks. The dread of being bottom dog drives them to do things that seem heroic. A further evidence of the criminal's cowardice is his superstitiousness, this and vanity and boastfulness are his sheet anchors, the supports of his feeble courage. The difference between the criminal and the neurotic lies in the fact that the former seeks for a cheap victory and hinders his own attainment of it through his grievances. The neurotic seeks for conditions that will make his part in life easier, the criminal looks for something to strengthen his resolution to do the deed. Here follows an individual-analysis of Dostoevski's Raskolnikoff in eight lines. Thirteen other criminals are briefly dealt with.

In conclusion he notes that he is continually struck by the situation of childhood being a poor preparation for present-day life. In this he finds himself in agreement with nearly all workers in this field. The crux of the matter lies in the unfolding of the child's mind and the rôle of the mother. The mother is important because in her the child sees the absolute reliability required of him as a man. If the mother fails in her duty or if the child has no mother he will have difficulty in finding a substitute. A child brought up without love or with too much has difficulty in making social adjustments, in the former case from insufficient preparation for life, in the latter because social feeling is bound up too much with one person. In both cases the child lacks the necessary security and self-consciousness, under-estimates his own powers, feels inferior and weak. Often physical defects further disturb the belief in his own power and he is finally discovered to be neurotic or a criminal. STEIN: On the psychological interpretation of disturbances of function conditioned organically. The feeling of incompetence induced by the organic condition leads to increased (psychogenic) disturbance of function, in other words selfdistrust leads to functional derangements. The therapist must eliminate the idea of inferiority in the patient. SUMPF: On the capacity for forming psychical relationships in the normal and neurotic. Individual-psychology gives a criterion for distinguishing neurotic from normal of greater efficacy than intelligence

tests. In the child's development Ego- and Self-feelings appear. The child learns to distinguish itself from the outer world and gains an idea of its own Ego. The environment which helps it to acquire this also sets values both on the self and the outer world. In earliest childhood standards of value are created, based on the value of the self and values determined by others. Love, tenderness, and readiness to help are experienced as proofs of the value which the child can set on itself or on outside objects. Thus a comparison between Self and Others is formed, between his own Being and Doing and that of others. What is important is the correctness or falseness of the values set on the Self and on Others, and from what perspective it is viewed, and how standards thus set up exert an influence on action. Here the educator's tact is needed to make the child's smallness tolerable to him and to rouse his slumbering capacities in measured extent with his tasks. The longing for precedence is the instinctive force which the educator employs. The tension. of waiting for success must be endured with the necessary elasticity. Selfregard consists in restraint plus self-confidence.

In pathological cases, whether due to organic inferiority or a discouraged self-regard, the child has undergone a disturbance of his self-valuation, tact could have overcome the fault, when already established the patient needs special treatment. Freud's analysis is criticized as dangerous because of the dependence ('transference') on the analyst, in Adler's method 'transference' is regarded as a symptom of the total orientation of the patient to society [total, not a libidinal relation only] so the individual-psychologist can say to his patients, "As you [the intimate 2nd person singular is used in the German text] behave, feel and react to this or that so you behave to me." It is possible, says Dr Else Sumpf, to reverse Freud's concept of transference in a certain sense, a patient can displace on to others what should belong only to his relations to his physician. Transference' gives the analyst an opportunity to see the patient's capacity for forming relations to the outer world. Treatment is a sort of 'training' [a word now much in use in Adlerian literature] in the relation to one person on a basis of truth; the patient finally wishes to 'speak freely,' though at first hindered by shame. Continual 'free speech' and solution of the current conflicts effects extraordinary release from tension, the over-valuations and under-estimates are corrected and the path is cleared for a change from egocentric to objective relationships. Justice and love become freed. Owing to the dynamic processes of the mind the relation of patient to one person only (the physician) develops into his relation to many personsthe neurotic acquires a new outlook. The one-sidedness in the patientphysician relationship can be compensated by the goodwill of the patient, anxiety lest he be depreciated gives way to trustfulness, increased self-regard demands increasing independence, finally the relation of patient to physician disappears in favour of a friendly relation on an equal basis, it is one of trust. What is important is the tendency which makes a man open or secretive and whether it makes him for or against society in wide or narrow sense. The test of a society is the value it sets on the individual, the test of a man is his relation to himself and to others; these are correlates and must be kept in equilibrium. WEINMANN: Reports on the Second Congress of Educational Therapy. LAZARFELD: Erotic memory and erotic faithfulness. A general discussion with many quotations from the poets.

RUTH KUNKEL: Punishment in Education. A child learns from its own actions, not from punishment. If a child breaks something and is punished

for it he will isolate himself more or less from the outer world and will become egocentric. He should be told that he has destroyed something useful and beautiful, his attention must be directed to self-control and recognizing the value which others place upon objects. The more 'difficult' a child is, the more must his teacher express regard and love for his pupil. Education proceeds not by compulsion but through feeling. WILHEIM: On the Alteration of Meaning of Words. Examples: The Latin 'universitas' signified the whole, or, in a wider sense, the universe. About the year 1200 we meet with the word 'university,' meaning a place of higher education. In the security provided by the double ramparts of the Latin and Greek languages, and supported by the enormous strength of the Church, the ambition of the universities grew beyond bounds, and men of education found a new means of gratifying their ambition by acquiring the title 'Doctor Universalis.' The Latin 'homo' originally signified a man. Only in a time when the male was completely dominant and the female without rights would it be possible for the word 'Mensch' or 'man' to signify mankind as a whole. As a final proof of the masculine protest he says the word 'werewolf' was originally 'virwolf' from the Latin 'vir,' meaning 'man.'

III Jahrgang. February 1925. ADLER: A Frequent Source of Sadism. In most cases of sadism we find hostile impulses directed against children both in phantasy and in reality. Some authors find both sadistic and masochistic. components in such individuals. Adler thinks that closer examination resolves this contradiction and eliminates the necessity for postulating an original masochism. It is clear that we have to deal here with a pseudo-masochism, a comedy of masochism, but not the reality. Who has not heard of a schoolmaster, as he beats one of his boys, saying, "When I was your age, I was beaten on the smallest occasion if I hadn't done all my work," and so forth. In Adler's view, we are dealing here with a man whose childhood's terror had not disappeared from his memory, and who takes up the standpoint, "Others shall not have a better time than I had." They are people who in childhood lived under enormous pressure. It is a matter of indifference whether that pressure was real or was only strongly felt. Adler recalls Shakespeare's words. in a similar case, "And so I am resolved to prove a villain1." He distinguishes two types of teacher and parent. The one wishes that the children should have a better lot than they had. The other, that the children should not have a better lot than they had. Both types may appear in complicated and veiled forms, so that a person such as we have described would be astonished if one pointed out the connection, and said, "You belong to those who wish that the children should not have a better time than you had." However grotesque such persons may appear, on a closer individual-psychological examination the caricature is resolved and we are able to observe them with extraordinary frequency. SEIF: A Case of Phobia of Eating. A merchant, 55 years old, the eldest of ten, and his mother's favourite, married at 23, had attacks of anxiety when eating soft mealy food or hot meat and certain kinds of soup. In childhood his mother had been a pedant on health-culture and insisted on punctuality and thoroughness in eating, depriving them of the

1 Shakespeare's couplet runs:

"Since I cannot prove a lover,

I am resolved to prove a villain."

By omitting the first line Adler loses sight of the most important feature in the situation. J.R.]

Med. Psych. v

9

second course if her children did not finish the first. When he spat out mealy foods on to his plate his mother took this amiss and told him bogey-stories. In order to 'understand' these symptoms it is necessary to understand his 'dominant tendencies,' his 'goal.' These can be summed up in the antithesis: Slave Lord, Compulsion-Freedom, To-be-underneath-on-top. His childhood's model of behaviour, which he applied in every situation in life, finds adequate expression in the categorical imperative: Behave as if you could get back to the same painful condition of restraint that you were in in childhood with your rights of primogeniture to the oppression of the mother against your brothers, behave as you did then when illness and obstinacy gave you power over your mother and her commands and prohibitions! The root of this lay in a profound discouragement, in a tremendous feeling of inferiority due to his mother's persistent obsession about food and his constitutional weakness and the organ-inferiority of his bowels, which last was shared by his mother and uncle; also he was jealous of his uncle. The outbreak of his illness occurred when under great stress during the war he took to alcohol, tobacco and coffee. He realized, too, that others were taking his place in the business during his absence, he felt he would have to take a back seat. Then his disturbance of eating began, and was accentuated by reading in the papers that a man with similar difficulty had died of starvation. He had always been hypochondriacal, an ordinary cold sending him to bed, and the slightest illness necessitated a visit from the doctor. He built up on this strongly egocentric 'training' till he had established his superiority on all around him. He used his illness, his trouble with food, to become irresponsible and independent of claims upon his energy. His fictive compulsion made him pass most of the dishes in a restaurant and concentrate on alcohol and puddings. "I only let my mother and no one else decide what I must eat." He could eat what his neighbours took and eat of that freely though he "could not touch" the same food when alone; as a child he snatched Christmas fare from his brothers' plates. Finally everything had to be prepared specially for him. Then his Imperialism took shape, at table he had no equal! The same tendency was seen in childhood and youth in other forms: he could not endure military drill, he seldom wrote personal letters (30 in his whole life). In all things he must have the last word. His whole life was a fight against his mother, against compulsion to do things, and loss of position, an obstinate attempt to avenge himself and overthrow her.

The treatment of this case lasted several weeks. His great sensitiveness, his timidity and dejection, his readiness to say "no" to any proposition and his quarrelsomeness showed clearly a disorder of his self-feeling and demanded a corresponding degree of tact. But his desire to be cured afforded a bridge to understanding his case and to co-operation in the work of treatment. Quickly he came to a clearer view of his orientation to life [no details given], the error of his feeling of inferiority was perceived, and he understood how he had struggled with himself, with his mother, his family and friends for the semblance of mastery and dominion. He saw how infantile he had been and how unsocial. Individual-psychological treatment was combined with therapeutic gymnastics to develop the weak muscles of arms, legs and trunk. He once more joined in social functions and took what was set before him at table. This case is a demonstration of the axiom that anxiety and compulsion are poor teachers. Meals are social functions, not mechanical swallowings of food, they should be cheerful occasions and occasions of cheer. Threats,

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