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in the sense compassion,' subsequently both are found also in the sense 'piety'; the differentiation of forms and senses was here scarcely completed by 1600.'
tho. OE. þā, which is the nom. and acc. plur. of the article and dem. pron. se.
The form became po ca. 1200, and remained in use as tho until ca. 1550. It is used as a dem. adj. in concord with a sb. antecedent to a relative' (NED.) in Rom. I, 18, I. 20, I. 28, 2. 14, 4. 21, 13. I, 14. 19,
In one instance, 4. 17 (b), tho is used as an ‘antecedent pronoun followed by a relative clause' (NED.), and in two instances, 1. 32, 2. 3, as a simple demonstrative adjective.
I. 20. creature. The word was used in its original Latin sense, 'thing created,' from ca. 1300, Cursor Mundi. It is found in AV 8. 19, 20, 21, although in 8. 22 the word creation is used in precisely the same sense. It is used in the Book of Com. Prayer, in the Communion Service, Prayer of Consecration : 'these Thy creatures of bread and wine'; 1878, Hooker and Ball, Morocco, p. 274 : ‘The gentian and saxifrage ... and the other bright creatures that haunt the mountain tops.' everlastynge. Hex. eternal(l).
Hex. eternal (I). The distinction between Gr. aióvios and idios was kept by L. æternus and sempiternus, but is disregarded by W. The group of words eterne, eternal, etc. is found often in Chaucer, but apparently nowhere else before 1400, with the single instance of eternity in EV, Pref. Ep. Jerome 4. 64.
1. 21. vanyschiden. T, C, G wexed (waxed) ful of vanities ; R are become vaine ; AV became vain. L. evanescere occurs only 5 times in the whole Bible, and is always rendered vanisch in the Wycliffite versions. It is impossible to elucidate the term in the present state of information. There is apparently no other instance of evanescere in this sense, and the Gr. &uat auo Inday, according to Thayer, is not found outside of the Bible.
1. 23. deedli. T, C, G mortall ; R, AV corruptible. In the sense of 'subject to death,' the word became obsolete in the 16th century.
1. 24. bitook. So also I. 26, 1. 28, etc. In these senses, ‘to deliver, give up,' the word became obsolete in the 17th century.
1. 25. the whiche. So also 1. 32, 5. 14, 8. 32, etc. Which, formerly an interrogative, began to be used as a relative in the 14th century. Which and the which seem to be used with little or no distinction of meaning. The form the which may be due partly to OE. se with the relative þe, but is more directly influenced by OF. li quels (Mätzner). Abbott, Shakespearian Grammar, explains the use of the article by the desire for definiteness, which being considered as an indefinite adjective.
to. The verbs seem to govern creature in the accusative, but here the construction changes.
into worldis of worldis. This expression is a survival of OE. on worulda woruld or in woruld worulde, used to translate L. in sæcula sæculorum, and rests upon an early temporal significance of the word world.
1. 26. passiouns of schenshipe. T, C, G shamful(l) lusts; R passions of ignominie ; AV vile affections. Late L. passio is chiefly a religious word, and most of its applications grew out of its use to designate the sufferings of Christ. It is used only twice in the OT, Lev. 15. 13, 25, of physical disease. In the present instance, as in 1 Thess. 4. 5, it means “a powerful feeling or emotion of the mind.' Shend, the verb, 'to shame, confound,' has been retained in poetic use as late as Browning, Sordello 3. 746 : ‘Shall your friend (not slave) be shent For speaking home'? Keats uses the adjective unshent in Lamia 197 :
As though in Cupid's college she had spent
And kept his rosy terms in idle languishment. 1. 28. preueden. Cf. 2. 18, 12. 2, 14. 18, 14. 22. In every instance but one (15. 26) in Romans, L. probare is translated by EV LV preue, but the L. word is not always an accurate rendering of the Greek text. In the present instance the Gr. word is idoxiuatav, rendered by Thayer 'did think worthy. See 15. 26, assaied.
repreuable. T, C, G leawde (lewde); R, AV reprobate. The Vulgate here lost the precision of Gr. ádóximos, by rendering it reprobus, the idea of 'failing to stand a test being omitted. The Wycliffite repreuable, 'subject to reproof,' and the later lewd, 'vile, follow the Latin. Reprobate, introduced in the 15th century, is used almost entirely in senses derived from Biblical passages, ‘rejected, condemned as worthless.'
wit. So also II. 34, 12. 2, 14. 5. T, C, G, AV mynd(-e, mind); R sense. Wit, in this sense of 'mind, understanding,' seems to have fallen into disuse in the 17th century. It is still retained in a few expressions, such as 'at one's wits' end,' 'to lose one's wits.'
couenable. T, C, G comly; R, AV conu(v)enient. The word means 'fit, suitable,' and was in frequent use until the 16th century. It became obsolete in the 17th. I. 29. enuye. So also 10. 19, 13. 13.
Hex. uses the same word. This meaning, 'malice, ill-will,' did not become obsolete until the 18th century. Chaucer uses it in Parson's Tale 483: 'Envye cometh proprely of malice, therefore it is proprely agayn the bountee of the holy goost'; Shakespeare, J. C. 2. 1. 162–4:
Our course will seem too bloody, Caius Cassius,
1. 30. fadir and modir. The word 'parent' was not introduced from the French until the 15th century.
vomanerli. This is a feeble rendering of the L. incompositos, which is a false rendering of the Gr. dovviétovs. T,C, G, AV read correctly covenant breakers'; R'dissolute.' For a complete discussion of this and without boond of pes, see Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament, Part 2, p. 8. Cf. also John Selden, Table Talk 39: "'T is true the Christians, before the civil state became Christian, did by covenant and agreement set down how they would live; and he that did not observe what they agreed upon, should come no more amongst them; that is, be excommunicated. Such men are spoken of by the Apostle, Rom. I. 31, whom he calls ασυνθέτους και ασπόνδους; the Vulgate has it, incompositos et sine fødere; the last word is pretty well, but the first not at all.'
1. 31. without boond of pes. T, C trucebreakers; G promesbreakers; R without fidelitie ; AV implacable. For discussion, see the preceding word vnmanerli. Here also, the correct rendering of the Gr. is found in AV.
1. 32. worthi the deth. Hex. worthy(ie) of death (deeth). The omission of of after worthy, combined with the retention of the definite article, is rare, and seems not to occur after the early 17th century. There are a few examples in Shakespeare, as in J. C. 2. I. 316—7:
I am not sick, if Brutus have in hand
AV uses it once, 2 Macc. 4. 25, 'bringing nothing worthy the high priesthood.' These examples, however, are not exactly parallel to the case in hand, since they are all more or less figurative. “Merit' or 'desert' can literally be applied only to persons, and in no case except the present have I found a personal subject used in this construction. Sir Thomas More, Works, p. 54. e., uses the personal subject with omission of of, but he also omits the : 'thei be worthy heinouse punishement.'
aftir. So also 2. 5, 2. 6, 2. 16, etc. L. secundum ; EV vp; Hex. according(-ynge, -inge) to. According to’ is a sense of after retained from OE. æfter, and still in occasional use, as in the Litany, 'Deal not with us after our sins,' and in the phrase, 'a man after his own heart.' The EV up is not so easily accounted for. There is no record of this use of the word outside of the Wycliffite versions. In the Epistle to the Romans, LV never uses vp, EV uses it very irregularly. For instance, secundum occurs 9 times in ch. 8, but is not once translated vp, as against some 20 times in the rest of the book where it is so translated. In the OT, secundum is sometimes translated vp in LV: Ps. 5. II, 27. 4, etc. In the General Prologue, ch. 15, the translator says: 'This word
secundum is taken for aftir, as manie men seyn, and comynli, but it signifieth wel bi, either vp, thus bi zoure word, either op zoure word
2. 3. ascape. Hex. escape. Ascape is the common form found to 1523, due to phonetic leveling of proclitic ě. and å.. Cf. amend, abash, etc. (NED.).
2. 4. forthenkyng. T, C, G, AV repentance(-aunce); R penance. Forthenkyng goes back to two distinct words, OE. for bencan and the prefix for + OE. þyncan. In Middle English it is used to render L. pænitentia, though the more common rendering is penaunce, equivalent to the modern word repentance. Forthinking in this sense became obsolete in the 16th century, and penance was dismissed from Protestant religious writings, because of the controversy with the Roman Catholics. The latter maintained that penance was one of the seven sacraments, and necessarily included giving satisfaction for sin. The word is frequently used in the (Douay) Rheims version.
whether. So also 3. 3, 3. 5, 3. 29, 6. 3, etc. or numquid ; OE hwæðer. The use of whether to introduce a simple direct question, though retained from OE., is rare in ME. outside of the Wycliffite versions of the Bible. It is found 14 times in the Epistle to the Romans. The Century Dict. cites two examples: 1549, Latimer, Ist Sermon bef. Edw. VI: ‘Well then, if God will not allow a king too much, whether will he allow a subject too much?' 1596, Spenser : 'What authoritye thinke you meete to be given him ? whether will ye allowe him to protecte, to safe conducte, and to have marshall lawe as they are accustomed ?' The second example, it will be noticed, is a dubious one, since the alternative or not is vaguely implied. I have found no example later than Latimer.
2.7. sotheli. Here the word renders L. quidem ; in 4. 5 it renders vero. In EV the frequent use of sotheli and forsothe to translate L. quidem, autem, enim is a mannerism which betrays the intense desire of the translator to follow closely his sacred text. Sotheli (in modern spelling, soothly) is used by Spenser, F. Q. 3. 2. 14: