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that his countrymen were unacquainted with his abilities and character; they therefore inconsiderately rejected his proposal, as the dream of a chimerical projector, and lost for ever the opportunity of restoring their commonwealth to its ancient splendour.
Columbus was so little discouraged by the repulse which he had received, that instead of relinquishing his object, he pursucd it with fresh ardour.
He next made an overture to John II. king of Portugal, whom he considered as having the second claim to his service. Here every thing seemed to promise him a inore favourable reception. He applied to a monarch of an enterprizing genius, no incompetent judge in naval affairs, and proud of patronizing every attempt to discover new countries. His subjects were the most experienced navigators in Europe, and the least apt to be intimidated either by the novelty or boldness of any maritime expedition.
In Portugal -the skill of Columbus in his profession, as well as "his personal goud qualities, were 'xwell known ; accordingly the king listened to him in the most gracious manner, and referred the consideration of his plan to Diego Ortiz bishop of Ceuta, and two Jewish physicians, eminent cosmographers, whom he was accustomed to consult in matters of this kind. As he had in Genoa to combat with ignorance, in Lisbon prejudice, an enemy no less formidable opposed him ; the persons to whose decision his project was referred were the chief directors of the Portuguese navigation, and had advised to search for a passage to India by steering a course directly opposite to that which Columbus recoinmended, as shorter and more certain. They could not, therefore, approve of his proposal, without submitting to the double mortification, of condemning their own thcory, and of acknowledging his superior sagacity,
After a fruitless and mortifying attendance, being team ed with captious questions, and starting innumerable objections, with a view of betraying him into such a pirticular explanation of his system, they deferred passing a final judgment, with respect to it; but secretly couspired to rob him of the honour and advantages which he expected from the success of his scheme, advising the king to dispatch a vessel secretly, in order to attempt the proposed discovery, by following exactly the course whica Columbus seemed to point out. The king, forgetting on this occasion, the sentiments becoming a monarch, meanly adopted this perfidious counsel. But the the pilot chosen to execute Columbus's plan, had neither the genius, nor the fortitude, of its author ; he returned, as might have been expected, without accomplishing any thing; execrating the project as equally extravagant and dangerous.
Upon discovering this dishonourable action, he instantly quitted the kingdom, and landed in Spain, to'gards the close of the year 1484, when he determined to propose it: in person to Ferdinand and Isabella, who at that time governed the united kingdoms of Castile and Arragon. But as lie had already experienced the uncertain issue of applications to kings, and ministers, he took the precaution of sending into England his brother Bartholomew to whom he had fully communicated his ideas ; in order that he might, at the same time, negociate with Henry VII. who was reputed one of the most sagacious, as well as opulent, princes in Europe. Columbus entertained doubts and fears with respect to the reception of his proposals in the Spanish court.
Spain was engaged at that juncture, in a dangerous war with Granada, the last of the Moorish kingdoms. The cautious and suspicious temper of Ferdinand was not con-genial with bold and uncommon designs. Isabella though more generous and enterprizing, was under the influence of her husband in all her actions.
The Spaniards had hitherto made no efforts to extend navigation beyond its ancient limits, and had be held the amazing progress of discovery among their neighbours: the Portuguese, without making one attempt to imitate or rival them. Under circumstances so unfavourable it was, not likely Columbus could make a rapid progress with a nation naturally slow and dilatory in performing all its resolutions. eo Ilis character, however, was well adapted to that of the people, whese confidence and protection he solicited. He wasgrave, 11.8ugh courtly in his deportment; circumspect in his words and actions ; irreproachable in his morals;. and exemplary in his attention to all the duties of religion.. By these qualities he gained many private friends, and acquired such general esteem, that he was considered
as a person to whose propositions serious attention was plue..
Ferdinand and Isabella, though fully occupied by their operations against the Moors, paid so much regard to Columbus as to refer the consideration of his plan to the queen's confessor, Ferdinand de Talavera. He consulteck such of his countrymen as were supposed best qualified to decide upon a subject of this nature : these pretended philosophers selected to judge in a matter of such moment, did not comprehend the first principles, upon which Columbus founded his conjectures and hopes. Some of them, from mistaken notions, concerning the dimensions of the
globe, contended that a voyage to those remote parts of | the earth, which Columbus expected to discover, could not
be performed in less than three years, others concluded he would find the Ocean to be of infinite extent, according to the opinion of some ancient philosophers; or if he shouid persist in steering towards the west, beyond a certain point, that the convex figure of the globe would prevent his return, and that he must inevitably perish in the vain attempt to open a communication between the two opposite hemispheres which nature had for ever disjoined. Some contended it was presumptuous in any person to' suppose that he alone possessed knowledge superior to all the rest of mankind united ; that if there were really any such countries as Columbus pretended, they could not huye: remained so long concealed, nor would the sagacity and wisdom of former ages have left the glory of this invention to an obscure. Genoese pilot.
Columbus's patience was put to the severest trial in listening to these ignorant and malignant insinuations : after innumerable conferences, and wasting five years in fruitless endeavours to inform and satisfy them, Talavera at last made such an unfavourable report to Ferdinand and Isabella, a3 induced them to acquaint Columbus, that until the war with the Moors shouid be brought to a final period, it was impossible for them to engage in any new and expensive enterprize.
This declaration Columbus considered as a total rejection of his proposals. But happily for mankind superioi ity of genius is usually accompanied with an ardent en mula siasm, which can neither be cooled by delays, nor damped by disappointment. The insolence of office may depress, but cannot extinguish it, as it soars above the littleness of human pride,
Columbus was of a sanguine temper, though he felt deeply the cruel blow given to his hopes, and retired imme. diately from a court where he had been long amused with vain expectations. His confidence in the justness of his own system did not forsake him; and his impatience to demonstrate the truth of it became greater than ever.
Having thus failed of success with sovereign states, he next applied to persons of inferior rank, and addressed the dukes of Medina Sidonia, and Medina Celi, who, though subjects, were possessed of power and opulence sufficient for the enterprize which he projected. His proposals to them were, however, fruitless ; they did not choose to countenance a scheme which Ferdinand had rejected, even if they had approved of the enterprize. They were afraid of alarming: the jealousy, and offending the pride of Ferdinand, by acting counter to his judgment. Such a succession of disappointments excited the most painful sensations; and his distress was augmented by his not having received any accounts from his brother, whom he had sent to the court of England. In his voyage to that couniry Bartholomew fell into the hands of Pirates who stripped him of every thing, and detained him a prisoner several years. At length he made his escape, and arrived in England, but in such extreme indigence, that he was compelled to employ a considerable space of time in drawing and selling maps, in order to obtain as much money as would enable him to purchase a decent dress, in which he might venture to appear at court. He then laid before the king the proposals with which he had been entrusted by his brother; and notwithstanding Henry's excessive caution and parsimony, which rendered him averse to new and expensive undertakings, he received the overtures of Columbus with more approbation, than any monarch to whom they had hitherto been presented.
Columbus in the meanwhile unacquainted with his bron ther's fate, and all hopes of succeeding in Spain being vanished, he resolved to visit the court of England in person, He had already made preparations for this purpose, and taken measures for the disposal of his children during his absence, when Juan Perez, the Prior of the monastery of Ribada near Palos, in which they had been educated, ear. nestly solicited him to defer his journey for a short time, Perez was a man of considerable learning, and of some
credit with queen Isabella, to whom he was personally known. Warmly attached to Columbus, and prompted by curiosity or friendship, he entered upon an accurate examination of his system, in conjunction with a physician, who was a good mathematician.
This investigation satisfied them so thoroughly with respect to the principles upon which Columbus founded his opinion, that Perez fearing his country would lose the glory and benefit of so grand an enterprize, ventured to write to Isabella, conjuring her to consider the matter over again, and with the attention it merited.
Isabella was so far moved by this representation, that she desired Perez to repair immediately to the village of Santa Fé, in which, on account of the siege of Granada, the court resided at that time, that she might confer with him upon this important and interesting subject.
The first effect of their interview was a gracious invitation of Columbus back to court, accompanied with the present of a small sum to equip him for the journey. As there was a near prospect that the war with the Moors would be speedily brought to an happy issue, by the reduction of Granada, which would leave the nation at liberty to engage in new undertakings; this, as well as the mark of royal favour with which Columbus had lately been honoured, encouraged his friends to appear with greater confidence than formerly, in support of his scheme.
Of these, Alonzo de Quintanilla, comptroller of the finances in Castile, and Luis de Santangel, receiver of the ecclesiastical revenues in Arragon, whose zeal in promo. ting this great design, entitles'their names to an honourable place in history; these gentlemen introduced Columbus to many persons of high rank, and interested them warmly in his cause. Ferdinand's distrustful prudence could not be easily overcome, he considered the projecťas extravagant and chimerical ; and in order at once to destroy the efforts of his partizans, and render them ineffectual, he employed in the new negociation persons who had formerly pronounced his scheme impracticable.
To their astonishment Columbus appeared before them with the same confident hopes of success as formerly, and insisted upon the same high recompence.
He proposed that a small fleet should be fitted out, under his command, to attempt a discovery, and demanded to be appointed perpetual and hereditary admiral and viceroy of all the seas