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with the privileges of free citizens. And all this was the work of a privileged class, who sacrificed their prerogatives to the general welfare of the country; and who did it neither from fear, nor from compulsion, but from a deep persuasion that it was right and just to act in such a manner. By this memorable transaction the Poles have obliterated all their past errors, and it reflects more real glory on Poland than all the brilliant achievements of her sons on the field of battle. But the generous sacrifice of self-interest which the Polish legislators manifested by surrendering their privileges, incompatible with the generality of the nation, is not what we admire the most it is, their prudence at not having been dazzled by the delusive prospects which the beginning of the French revolution exhibited at that time to all the world. Those prospects, which, for a time, had even misled the sober minds of many Englishmen, produced no effect on the framers of the constitution of the 3rd May, 1791, who, instead of following Utopian schemes, introduced changes, not for the sake of change, but because reason and experience had fully demonstrated their necessity. They produced a bloodless revolution, whose object was to preserve, and not to destroy; a revolution which cost neither tears nor blood; and, let us add, a revolution which has deserved and obtained the praise of that great and good man, Edmund Burke.

Fate has not permitted Poland to enjoy the fruits of her noble work. The Diet of Russia, whose intrigues were unable to prevent the accomplishment of that glorious reform which, imparting a new life to Poland, would entirely shake off her baneful influence, declared it to be a jacobinical revolution, fraught with danger to the altar and the throne. The Russian troops entered Poland, and a few wretches, purchased by Catherine's gold, and some misguided by her solemn promises that she had no other views than to restore the ancient order of things in Poland, formed, under the protection of Russian bayonets, that infamous convention, which history has pointed out to the execration of future ages under the name of the confederation of Targowika. This confederation was joined by none-except those who were compelled by the Russian troops to sign a forced accession. The patriots strenuously exerted themselves to repell the invading enemy. Kosciusko, who was lately returned from America, had already gained two battles against the Russians, when the Duke of Wirtemberg, who was intrusted with an important command, instead of attacking the enemy, retreated without combat. His treason-the guilty meanness of the King Stanislaus Poniatowski-but, above all, the conduct of Prussia, who, after having constantly encouraged by her advice the reform of the constitution, and after having solemnly pledged herself, through jealousy of the progress of the Russian arms in Turkey, to assist Poland against her enemies, on a sudden joined Russia, and invaded the countrythis unexpected combination of calamities, which overwhelmed Poland, rendered ineffective the brilliant victories of Diebienka and Zielence, gained by Kosciusko and Poniatowski, in 1792. The country was overrun by Russian and Prussian troops, the most distinguished patriots fled the country, and the second partition of Poland was the consequence of this disaster.

But let us again return to the Czartoryski, who were doomed to the severest affliction which can befall the patriot and the parent. Not only

the fruits of an unceasing exertion during twenty years were destroyed in the very moment when they had reached their maturity, but a most painful sacrifice of domestic affection was repaid by the bitterest disappointment. Some years before, Prince Czartoryski married his eldest daughter, Princess Mary, to the Duke of Wirtemberg, a general in the Prussian army, and brother to the reigning duke. Princess Mary was young, beautiful, accomplished, endowed with the most amiable qualities, and possessing an immense dowry, while her husband was in his mind, manners, and habits, exactly the reverse of what he should be, considering his illustrious birth. But the Duke of Wirtemberg enjoyed the reputation of being one of the ablest generals whom the school of Frederick the Second had produced; and to secure for Poland the services of such a general, was a sufficient inducement for the princely couple to risk the happiness of a beloved child, and a motive powerful enough to the daughter for submitting to such a sacrifice. This match was generally considered so bad for the young princess, that Frederick the Second, when he met Princess Czartoryski the first time after the marriage of her daughter, exclaimed, Qu'est ce qui vous a porté à donner notre ange de fille à mon diable de cousin? It is more easy to conceive, than to describe, what must have been Czartoryski's feelings, when the duke, instead of becoming the defender of their country, proved a worthless traitor: an instant and eternal separation between their daughter and that unworthy man was the consequence of his unprincipled behaviour.

Amongst the patriots exposed to the vengeance of the invaders, the Czartoryski had the honour of being in the foremost rank. A special order was given by the Empress of Russia to level Pulamy to the ground. The Princess Czartoryski met in her castle the savage executioners of the tyrannical orders. She succeeded by her presence of mind and courage in arresting their devastations, and Pulamy was saved from total destruction by the timely interference of the Austrian governor, who took the Czartoryski under his protection.

Czartoryski retired with his family to the Austrian dominions. Many other patriots did the same. Austria took no part in the second partition of Poland, and seemed rather to disapprove of it. The patriots enjoyed there not only protection but even a kind of favour, and Leopol, the capital of Austrian Poland, was the place of their general resort. Princess Czartoryski, whose zeal was not damped by the severe disappointment she had met with, became again the central point and the animating soul of the patriotic saloons. A wider field was opened for her exertions, when, in 1794, Kosciusko raised again the banner of national independence; and she was constantly engaged in forwarding every kind of supplies to the heroic bands of that chivalrous leader. Many Polish ladies imitated the noble example of the princess, and we must particularly mention the aged Countess Zamagski, widow of the patriotic Chancellor Andreas Zamagski, who sent to Kosciusko from her own fortune the sum of four millions of Polish florins (100,000l. English money).

The unfortunate events which led to the dissolution of Poland are too well known to need any repetition; but the political death of Poland did not extinguish the hopes of her children. The noblest of her sons exerted themselves to foster and to preserve the sacred fire of patriotism in the hearts of the rising generation. The most important object was

to save from ruin the language, literature, and traditions of the country, and to teach the youths, by constantly pointing out to them the fame of their ancestors, that those who can boast of a glorious past, have a right to expect a better future, and should not be bowed down by the misfortunes of the present. It was necessary to establish a kind of national faith, whose dogma would be a firm belief in the restoration of Poland, and whose worship would be the departed glories of that country. Princess Czartoryski became in some respect the high-priestess of that worship. She erected at Pulamy-that beautiful Pulamy which Delille has eulogised with justice-a splendid structure which she called the Temple of the Sibyl. It was constructed exactly after the model of the celebrated Sibyl's Temple at Tivoli, and it bore on its front the significant inscription "Pressloi Pnynloici," the meaning of which was, "The past to the future." There she collected at an enormous expense, from all parts of Poland, many precious national relics which had been scattered by the successive depredations to which Poland had been exposed. There were seen the sword of the victor of Vienna, the cross which had ornamented the breast of the angel-like queen Hedoige, the necklace of Barbara Radziwill, the signet of her royal husband Sigismund Augustus, the standard of the arch-duke Maximilian, who invaded Poland as a pretender to the crown, and was taken prisoner by the great Zamoski, 1587, and many other jewels which had belonged to the ancient monarchs of Poland. There were also banners which had gloriously waved over the field of battle, richly adorned staves which had belonged to celebrated leaders, books on which holy prelates had invoked the blessings of heaven on their country, and epistles written by the hand of wise and virtuous statesmen. It is easy to conceive how dear, how sacred were those relics to the Poles, who, deprived of an independent existence, lived as foreigners on their native soil. Soon Pulamy became the object of a national pilgrimage, where numerous patriots flocked from all parts of Poland, to worship the relics of their ancient fame, and to pay the homage of gratitude and veneration to the exalted princess who watched over those sacred remains. The parents and tutors rewarded the good conduct and diligence of their children and pupils by a journey to Pulamy; the young poet went thither in search of inspiration, and the historian to consult the inexhaustible treasures of ancient records hoarded in the princely library, and liberally open to every visiter. As the Moslem considers it a sacred duty to visit once in his life the grave of his Prophet, so it became almost indispensable to every good Pole to perform the pilgrimage Pulamy.

But the Princess did not limit her exertions to the arduous task of collecting the sacred memorials of bygone days, and to preserve them from the destruction of all-devouring time, or the still less merciful dominion of the foreigner. The present was not forgotten for the past, nor the the living for the dead. The ancient establishments of education at Pulamy were resumed, and the particular care of the Princess was to instil patriotic sentiments into the minds of young females, numbers of whom were educated under her immediate superintendence. She was fully aware that, in a country groaning under a foreign dominion, the domestic hearth is the source whence the youthful minds must imbibe the early lessons of patriotism; that it was the duty of a mother to teach her infant child to love his country, and to hate its

oppressors. To that great object she unceasingly directed the minds of her pupils, and of all those who were within the reach of her influence and indeed, there is no country where the women have displayed on every occasion more patriotism than in Poland. The benefits of the Czartoryskis were not confined to the young, who were expected to repay them by their future services to the country; many a hoary warrior, broken by age, and disabled by wounds received in the last struggles for the independence of his country, was relieved from want, and found at Pulamy a comfortable and cheerful home for the remainder of his days.

Amidst the unceasing toils of her active life, the Princess was not a stranger to literary occupations. She has composed two works, very popular in Poland:-1. "The Pilgrim at Datromil," a work for children, containing the history of Poland, and many moral and practical lessons admirably adapted to an infant mind; 2. "Letters on Gardening," which is the oracle of every amateur of horticulture in Poland.

The numerous tenantry of Pulamy were not forgotten by the genius of the place, and they formed a striking contrast with the peasants of the surrounding country. Their cottages were better built, their fare more abundant and of a better kind, and their dress cleaner and more comfortable than of any other peasantry in Poland. This was the effect of careful education, and strictly adapted to their humble but useful station, and which they received in a school carefully superintended by the Princess herself. It is needless to add, that their morals were in unison with their exterior appearance, and that the honesty and orderly conduct of a peasant of Pulamy was almost proverbial.

Whilst the Princess was constantly engaged in her noble and useful avocations, her eldest son, prince Adam, pursued in another way the great object which occupied the lives of his parents-the restoration of his country; but as we intend, in order to make this sketch complete, to give our readers a short biography of that eminent man, we will now return to his mother.

The creation of the Duchy of Warsaw, by the treaty of Tilsit, restored a part of Poland to an independent state; it was increased in the year 1809 by a portion of Gallicia, or Austrian Poland. Pulamy is situated in that province, and the Princess had once more the happiness of seeing the banners of free Poland hoisted on the towers of her castle. When, in 1812, the Emperor of France prepared himself to attack Russia, the Poles were full of hope that the restoration of their country would be the chief object and the immediate result of that expeditiona hope which was warranted by the services they had rendered to Napoleon, and by his repeated promises. A Diet was assembled at Warsaw, in order to promote, by all possible means, that great object; and the aged Prince Czartoryski, who, now bent with age, lived in great retirement, left his seclusion in order to preside over the deliberations of that memorable assembly. The events of 1812, and all its consequences, are well known, and need no description. Princess Czartoryski remained at Pulamy. In the year 1822 she lost her husband, who died at the advanced age of 90, and she continued alone her noble oecupations, which seemed to have grown with her into a second nature. The events of 1830-31 arrived; the Russian army which invaded Poland committed great depredations at Pulamy, but the Princess, in

spite of her great age, met them again with the same courage as she had done forty years before. A Polish detachment relieved for some time Pulamy from the presence of the enemy, but he soon returned with a superior force. The Poles were obliged to retire, and the Princess, being now 90 years old, followed them. The Russian general, on leaving Pulamy, sent word to the Princess, intreating her no longer to remain in her residence, because it was impossible for him further to delay the orders which he received, entirely to destroy Pulamy, and that he had no heart to do so in the presence of the Princess.

She saw from the opposite house her castle in flames; destroyed in consequence of a special order from St. Petersburg; her spirits, however, were not broken by that dismal sight, she complained not of her private misfortunes, and spoke only of those of her country. Afterwards she retired to Austrian Poland, where she remained with her eldest daughter, the Duchess of Wirtemberg, who for many years had been her constant companion. She cheerfully met her approaching end, and, surrounded by many of her children, grand-children, and great grand-children, she departed life with a smile on her countenance, and a prayer and a blessing on her lips.*

V. K.

She left two sons and two daughters; the eldest son is Prince Adam; his younger brother, Prince Constantine, after having fought bravely in his youth, under Kosciusko, and afterwards in 1812, for the independence of his country, retired into private life with the rank of a general, and lives now at Vienna. We have seen the unfortunate marriage of Princess Mary, and we must add, with deep regret, that her only son, Duke Adam of Wirtemberg, proved to be no better than his father. The youngest of her daughters, Princess Sophia, is married to Count Zamagski, President of the Senate of the kingdom of Poland before the Revolution of 1831, and son of the patriotic Andreas Zamagski, whom we have mentioned in this account. She is the happy mother of ten children, (seven sons and three daughters.) Four sons of the Countess Zamagski, and two of her sons-in-law, (Prince Lupieka and Count Dzialyxkis,) fought with great distinction during the last war. The eldest of her sons, who was educated in this country, levied a regiment of cavalry at his own expense, and served as a common soldier in his own regiment. A brother of his, Count Wladyslaus Zamagski, who particularly distinguished himself during the war, is now in London.


Hebe in two Places.-Addressed to Miss Lee.

Hebe, Jove's handmaid, cup in hand,
The Queen of Youth and Beauty,

On high Olympus takes her stand

And pays to Jove her duty.

But when-this truth the poet tells

Her wings to London take her,

The Queen of Youth and Beauty dwells
At eighty-five, Long Acre.

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