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statue in ivory, which were laid on the table. They were beautifully executed, and excited universal admiration. The machine, like many others, produces its results through the medium of a model, to govern its movements, but it has this peculiarity, that the copy which it makes of the original may be of a size reduced in any proportion; and that it is enabled to effect this result, not merely on surfaces such as bas-reliefs, but in the round figure, such as busts and statues,

Geology and Geography.-A memoir was read by Captain Denham, on the basins of the Mersey and Dee :


The paper was regarded by every one as of extreme value, and was received with great enthusiasm. We regret we can merely refer to it with great brevity, but we understand it will be speedily made public. He showed the difference between the horizontal impetus of running water, and its force when acting downwards by pressure. Channels had been opened to receive the tide, being more perpendicular to its course, and yet the tide had capriciously avoided them, and no mud had been deposited. By many experiments and observations, he has determined, that while the high and low water levels are variable, the height of the mean tide or half tide is the same at all times; a fact of the highest importance, both in a scientific and practical point of view. Let us hope that future observations may speedily confirm this matter, and thus give us a secure standard as a base line for all our measurements.

Statistics.-Mr. Babbage read a paper, illustrated by curves, on the effect of co-operative shops. The workmen, in the employment of Mr. Strutt, of Derby, had combined to set up a joint-stock shop for the sale of necessaries among themselves. It was carried on from 1818 to 1832, but finally proved a total failure. He showed, on the curve, that the amount sold was greatest in the fourth year, and the profit greatest in the beginning. He assigned, as causes of failure, the want of mercantile knowledge in members of the committee; the corrupt influence of bribes from the wholesale dealers, and the want of that stimulus which the extra indulgences, which they could purchase when their wages were paid in money, gave to the women and children.

The Rev. E. G. Stanley read a paper on the religious attendances and state of education in the parish of Alderley, in Cheshire, from which it appeared, that about one-sixth of the population attend day-schools, onetenth Sunday-schools, one-sixth attend morning, and one-tenth eveningservice, and one-sixth are communicants. There are no Dissenters in the parish.

Dr. Reid delivered his views upon a plan tried at Edinburgh, for the extension of the study of physics. He proposed to have large classes formed for observing chemical experiments, and that nothing should be employed in these experiments which were not easily procurable by every person. A bit of glass, such as glaziers throw away, a piece of charcoal, and a blow-pipe, would be instruments enough with which to make from one hundred to one thousand experiments, and these would illustrate the essential operations of chemistry. By this means a peculiar knowledge would be obtained, and the mode of conducting an examination on a small scale. Dr. Reid here made some experiments on a small piece of glass, and afterwards on paper, showing the formation of crystals, &c., and the effects were as distinctly marked as could be desired. He recommended that the pupils should write down on paper, at the time, the changes observed by them during the experiments. Dr. Reid then made some beautiful experiments, by applying tests to different liquids and solids. He took some lead ore, and adding nitric acid to it, myriads of little globules were at once reduced from the ore, and fell upon the paper. At the termination of each experiment the persons present were handed the specimens. The lecturer said, that a common beer-bottle with a tube,

and another bottle for a receiver, would answer for the preparation of gases, and the conducting of operations on a small scale was the better to the student, as the substances passing from one state to another were distinctly seen in a simple apparatus. From calculations made in different places, he found that from 27. to 5l. would provide apparatus and materials sufficient to show many thousand experiments. The great object was to render this department of knowledge accessible to all persons; and, as to the time its study should be commenced, he (Dr. Reid) would say from three to nine years of age would not be too early. This species of information was easier of acquisition than that of language. The greatest difficulty with children was to arrest their attention, on account of the liveliness of their sensations, and abstract subjects were not sufficient to excite interest. Objects in external nature they observed, and were ready to attend to any instruction afforded in reference to them. The lecturer then noticed the necessity of persons devoting a short time to informing themselves of the principal practical results of chemistry in relation to the knowledge of the purity of water, the component parts of agricultural materials, &c. This species of knowledge would be of the highest utility to the emigrant, and by imparting it to the natives of the district in which he located himself, he would be elevating the character of his own countrymen, and receiving the friendship and support of strangers.


Spirituous Liquors.-The number of gallons of proof spirits distilled in England in the year ending January, 1835, from a mixture of malt with unmalted grain, was 4,652,838. In Scotland, from malt only, 5,994,623; from a mixture of malt with uumalted grain, 3,198,468; total, 9,193,091. In Ireland, from malt only, 62,895; from a mixture of malt with unmalted grain, 9,307,448; total, 9,370,343. In the United Kingdom, from malt only, 10,710,356; from a mixture of malt with unmalted, 12,505,916; grand total, 23,216,272 gallons.

The number of gallons of proof spirits which paid a duty of 7s. 6d. per gallon in England in the year ending 5th Jan. 1835, for home consumption, was, from malt, 279,047; from a mixture, 7,365,254; total, 7,644,301; amount of duty, 2,866,6127. 178. 6d. In Scotland, at 3s. 4d. per gallon, from malt, 5,466,702; from a mixture, 578,341; total, 6,045,043 gallons; amount of duty, 1,007,5077. 3s. 4d. In Ireland, from malt, 160,777; from mixture, 4,572,511, 4,733,288, at 3s. 4d. per gallon; and from malt, 167,970; from mixture, 4,807,204, 4,975,174, at 2s. [4d. per gallon; amount of duty, 1,369,318/. 68. The United Kingdom, from malt only, 6,074,496; from mixture, 17,323,310; total, 23,397,806 gallons; total amount of duty, 5,243,4387. 6s. 10d.

The number of gallons of proof spirits imported into England from Scotland, which paid a duty of 7s. 6d., in the year ending 5th January, 1835, was 2,575,316, upon which the total amount of duty was 965,743l. 10s., of which 493,3081. 19s. 2d. was paid on removal from bond, and 472,4347. 10s. 10d. after arrival at place of destination. From Ireland, 416,147 gallons, paying 7s. 6d. per gallon; amount of duty, 156,0557. 2s. 6d., of which 106,6957. 11s. 2d. was paid on removal from bond, 49,3597. 11s. 4d. after arrival at place of destination. From Scotland, 247,976, at 3s. 4d., 302,318, at 28. 4d.; total amount of duty, 76,5997. 15s. 4d.

The number of proof gallons of malt whisky imported into England from Scotland was, in 1834, 252,181; and in 1835, 274,960. The number of proof gallons of rum that paid duty in England, was 3,206,650, net amount of duty, 1,442,816/.; of brandy, 1,326,204 gallons, net amount of duty, 1,491,2007,; Geneva, 13,229 gallons, net amount of duty, 14,850.;

other foreign spirits, 8003, net amount of duty, 83257.; total foreign spirits, 4,554,086 gallons, net amount of duty, 2,957,1917. Spirits of the manufacture of the United Kingdom, 7,644,301 gallons, net duty, 2,866,6097.; spirits of the manufacture of Guernsey or Jersey, 10,164 gallons; net duty, 38097.; total spirits of all kinds, 12,208,551 gallons, net duty, 5,827,6091.

In Scotland-Rum, 111,169 gallons, net duty, 50,0271.; brandy, 37,075 gallons, net duty, 41,710.; Geneva, 6139 gallons, net duty, 39067.; other foreign spirits, 1534 gallons, net duty, 9837.; total of foreign spirits, 155,917 gallons, net duty, 99,6267.; spirits of the manufacture of the United Kingdom, 6,045,043 gallons; net duty, 1,007,5057.: total spirits of all kinds, 6,200,960 gallons, net duty, 1,107,1317.

In Ireland-Of rum, 27,358 gallons, net duty, 12,2971.; brandy, 25,360 gallons, net duty, 28,5177.; Geneva, 2264 gallons, net duty, 25477.; other foreign spirits, 364 gallons, net duty, 4917.: total of foreign spirits, 55,246 gallons, net duty, 43,8527.; spirits of the manufacture of the United Kingdom, 9,708,462 gallons, net duty, 1,368,9607.: total spirits of all kinds, 9,763,808 gallons, net duty, 1,412,8127.

Total United Kingdom-Rum, 3,345,177 gallons, net duty, 1,505,1407.; brandy, 1,388,639 gallons, net duty, 1,561,4271.; Geneva, 21,632 gallons, net duty, 24,3037.; other foreign spirits, 9901 gallons, net duty, 97997. : total of foreign spirits, 4,765,349 gallons, net duty, 3,100,6691.; spirits of the manufacture of the United Kingdom, 23,397,806 gallons, net duty, 5,243,074/.; ditto, of Guernsey and Jersey, 10,164 gallons, net duty, 38097.; spirits of all kinds, 28,173,319 gallons, net duty, 8,347,5527.

Halley's Comet.-Professor Airy says this remarkable body has at length made its appearance. As early as August 6 it was seen at Rome; but though carefully sought it was not discovered in this country until Thursdry, August 20. We may probably fix on Nov. 15 as the day when the comet will be nearest to the sun. On that supposition, the comet will be nearest the earth about Oct. 14, and its distance will then be less than one-fourth of the sun's distance. For the first ten days of October the comet will not set to this country; and on the 6th or 7th of October it will probably be seen within the square formed by the four principal stars of the Great Bear, or Charles's Wain. The comet at present exhibits no tail; in all its former appearances it is described as having a tail of considerable length. There is, however, reason to believe that all comets diminish in splendour on each successive appearance. The comet is only visible at present with a telescope of at least six inches aperture. The near agreement of the observed time of re-appearance with the predicted time (the error not exceeding nine days in seventy-five years) must be considered an astonishing proof of the accuracy which has been introduced into astronomical calculations. The neglect of the most trifling disturbing cause would have many times increased this error, as is evident from the circumstance that the periodic time of this comet has once been increased more than a year by the attractions of the planets.

The great American Aloe in Flower.-This exotic, though not uncommon in its ordinary state amongst us, yet rarely gratifies the lovers of nature's great productions, even in its natural soil and climate, by displaying its floral honours, and in our climate such exhibitions are very rare indeed. We were, therefore, much pleased to have the opportunity of inspecting one of the finest that perhaps has ever expanded its blooming crest in this country. It is now on view at Bute House, Old Brompton (Viscountess Dillon's). This surprising plant, as we have been informed by H. Bryant, the gardener, has been known in that establishment for seventy years, and was brought from South Carolina in 1760, by the gentleman who occupied the cottage previous to the Marquis of Bute, who built the present mansion. The stem has grown about twenty feet within seven weeks, and the bunches of flowers, all of which are near the top, are twenty in numOct.-VOL. XLV. NO. CLXXVIII.


ber, of a bright yellow colour, forming globular-shaped masses, the individual parts somewhat in the shape of the woodbine without its curvature, · each mass being about fifteen inches in diameter. It is rich in honey, which actually drops from it in the mornings, and the incessant visits of the bees prove that there is much business to be done in their line. The stem at its lower extremity is about six inches in diameter, gradually tapering to about half that size, and about seventeen from the base commences the first bunches of flowers, and in proportion as the circulation of its juices ascend, so the lower parts decay, and the thick fleshy leaves which form the plant, as we see it ordinarily, become dry and lose their colour; the lowest go first, and this effect gradually ascending to the flowering head, that droops at length, and the flowering aloe is no more, for it never vegetates again.

It appears by a Parliamentary return, that the number of persons ordered to be imprisoned by the House of Commons since January 1, 1825, is nineteen; for though the return mentions twenty-one warrants, it gives but nineteen names. Of these persons, eight only were imprisoned from May 20, 1825, till May 31, 1832, inclusive; the other eleven warrants were all issued by the present Reform Parliament since June 11, 1835. Add the name of Maclean, who has been ordered into custody since the return was published, and we have twelve vouchers of the new system of justice in the course of two months; a proportion of about eighty to one!

The Slave Trade.-A treaty has been just concluded with the Spanish government, which will, it is believed, have the effect of wholly putting an end to the slave-trade. By the new treaty, the owners and crews of slavers are to be punished as piratical robbers,-vessels fitting and preparing may be seized and condemned as if they were laden with their cargo, and previous to their sale are to be broken to pieces, so that they may never be used again,—and all slaves captured by British cruizers are made over to the British Government, which will thus have the power not only to give liberty to those unfortunate creatures, but to secure it. In short, the new treaty puts the abolition of the slave-trade, which now almost solely flourishes under the Spanish flag, entirely in British hands, and the result may be readily anticipated. It may be hoped, that in a very short period the enormous expense attendant upon keeping numerous cruizers for this object in the most sickly part of the globe will cease to be necessary, and that, in our endeavours to prevent the horrors of the slavetrade, we may not be called upon to sacrifice the lives of great numbers of our most valuable fellow-countrymen.

Malt Consumed in Brewing.-The total number of brewers in England is 1,907; of licensed victuallers, 53,207; of persons licensed for the general sale of beer, 35,354; of victuallers who brew their own beer, 25,483; of persons licensed for the general sale, who brew their own beer, 14,698. The number of bushels of malt used by the brewers from the 5th of Jan,, 1834, to the 5th of Jan., 1835, was 15,837,409; by the licensed victuallers, 9,373,026; and by persons licensed for the general sale of beer, 3,724,288. The total number of brewers in Scotland is 217; of licensed victuallers. 17,239; of victuallers who brew their own beer, 360. The number of bushels of malt used by the brewers from the 5th of January, 1834, to the 5th of January, 1835, was 997,771; by the licensed victuallers, 141,830. The number of brewers in Ireland is 240, and the number of bushels of malt used by them in the year ending the 5th of January, 1835, 2,055,326. -Parliamentary Paper.


Proof of French Silk.-The French have adopted a system of security against fraud in the sale of silks, by submitting it to examination and experiment in an establishment called the condition. Silk exposed to a humid atmosphere, and yet more to wet, will imbibe a considerable quantity of humidity without undergoing any perceptible change in external appearance. This establishment, of which there is one at Lyons and another at St. Etienne, receives about three-fourths of the whole consumption of silk. It is submitted during twenty-four hours to a temperature of from 18 to 20 degrees of Reaumur (72 to 77 of Fahrenheit), and if the diminished weight be from 2 to 3 per cent., the application of the high temperature is continued during another twenty-four hours. On a certificate granted by the condition as to its true weight, the invoice is made out. The means of correctly ascertaining the real humidity of silk are now the subject of investigation at Lyons, and it is believed that the purity of the material will, ere long, be as accurately tested as is that of metals by an assay. The quality of silk is estimated by deniers, which represent the weight of 400 ells wound off on a cylinder; the number, of course, increases with the fineness. The Alais silk is sometimes reeled from three to four cocoons, and weighs only from eight to ten deniers; sometimes from seven to eight cocoons, which will give eighteen to twenty deniers. Of French organzines, the quality varies principally from twenty to thirtysix deniers, and of French trams from twenty-six to sixty deniers.-Dr. Bowring's Report.

The Submarine Vessel.-The experiment with this machine took place at St. Ouen, as proposed. The vessel was repeatedly sunk to the depth of ten or twelve feet, and reappeared on the surface at different points. M. Godde de Liancourt got into it, and remained there a quarter of an hour. He stated that he did not experience the least inconvenience, or any difficulty of respiration, during his voyage under water. An official report upon the subject is about to be submitted to the French Government.

A letter dated the 29th August from the town of Bex, in Switzerland, gives an account of one of those phenomena to which that mountainous region is liable. On the 26th of August a considerable portion of the principal peak of the Dent du Midi, one of the great spurs of Mont Blanc, fell with a tremendous crash into a deep and narrow valley, situate about a league to the eastward of St. Maurice, on the road to Martigny, where an accident of a similar nature occurred in the year 1818; but it ended with much more disastrous results, as then no less than four hundred houses were washed away in a moment. In this recent instance the peak in its fall carried with it a glacier, which, filling up the valley, dammed up the stream which ran through it, until it had acquired sufficient force to drive before it the whole mass of earth and rocks into the bed of the Rhone, the course of which became so completely barred as to dry up all below it, and convert the upper part of its rugged and rocky course into a sort of temporary lake. It was on the fourth day after the fall from the Dent du Midi that the letter before me was written, and up to that time this extraordinary interruption to the course of the Rhone still continued, disturbed from time to time by intermitting bursts of the growing flood across the barrier, the recurrence of which was so uncertain as to deter the approach of the curious. It was not known that any lives had been lost, but it may be well to add that the passage across the Alps by the Great Simplon road is at present cut off. An attempt had been begun to re-open the communication by a provisional road, which was to describe a considerable circuit, but it was not yet known what success was likely to attend it.

Fountain of Sea Water.-A clockmaker in Malta, who possessed some

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