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the question cannot be decided by the contradiction which that agreement would involve. Be that as it may, we shall find that he cannot fairly interpret many parts of Scripture without implicitly sliding into the doctor's position.
When, therefore, Mr. G. finds himself hemmed in by such scriptures as denominate the Holy Ghost the Spirit of God, he is obliged to grant that “ by the Spirit of God is meant the same thing, in reference to God, as the spi. rit of man in relation to man." (Vol. i, p. 162.) “ Now, I think, for consistency's sake," says he, "you must allow that if by the Spirit of God is meant a distinct being, by the spirit of man must also be meant a being distinct from the man.” (Vol. i, p. 122.). “ Only," he adds, “ do not say that in one instance the words must be figurative, and in another they must be literal, just as best suits the system you have adopted. (Saul among the prophets !) Upon fair reasoning, then, on Scripture grounds, if your arguments prove the Spirit of God to be a being distinct from God, from precisely similar premises we may draw the following inferences, that the spirit of Jesus was a being distinct from Jesus, the spirit of Paul a being distinct from Paul, and the spirit of every man distinct from the man himself.” (Vol. i, p. 123.)
“ How forcible are right words!” Who could have argued more conclusively that the Spirit of God is God, than in these few lines Mr. G. has done! We believe that the spirit of man, though distinct from the body of man, is man, and not a being distinct from man. With Dr. Lardner, and Mr. G. who quotes ( query, believes ?) him, we say that it is the incorruptible part of man which survives after (the) death (of the body.) And we join with them in their judicious appeal to Solomon, who says, “ And the spirit shall return to God who gave it,” Eccles. xii, 7. God, however, has no body, but is all incorruptible spirit. We are, therefore, violently driven, by Mr. G.'s most 'conclusive argumentation, to confess that “the Spirit of God is not a being distinct from God, but God himself.”
We may now, without fear of contradiction, and in hope of farther occasional assistance from Mr. G., pro. ceed to adduce some additional proofs of what he has so liberally granted.
1. The Spirit of God is frequently called God. Not that the sacred writers formally announce the divinity of the Holy Spirit, as when they say
6 the Word was God," they announce the divinity of the Son. In the latter case, the truth was, and must be unknown, until it was reveal. ed. But, in the former case, treating the subject as already known where the Holy Spirit was understood to be the Spirit of God, and supposing his proper divinity to be as obvious to all men as it is to Mr. G., they only mention it incidentally, and, as it were, without design. This method, however, rather strengthens than weakens their testimony. In this way St. Peter, having charged Ananias with “ lying to the Holy Ghost,” immediately subjoins, 6 Thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God," Acts V, 4. “ So that,” to use the words of Athanasius, approved 3, by Dr. Lardner, and cited by Mr. G., in confirmation of his own argument, “he who lied to the Holy Spirit lied unto God, who dwells in men by his Spirit.” (Vol. i, p. 162.) St. Paul speaks in the same manner; for having made that appeal to the Corinthians, “What ! know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God," 1 Cor. vi, 19, he, in another place, tells them, “ Ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them,” 2 Cor. vi, 16. To the Ephesians the same apostle writes, “ You are builded together, for a habitation of God through the Spirit,” Eph. ii, 22. And lastly: St. John
says, “ He that keepeth his commandments dwelleth in him, and he in him. And hereby we know that he abideth in us, by the Spirit which he hath given us," 1 John iii, 24.
2. As the name of God is thus applied to the Holy Spirit, the argument adduced from thence is much con. firmed by the application to him, which we find the sacred writers make, of those perfections which are exclusively divine.
(1.) He is represented as eternal. “Christ, through the eternal Spirit, offered himself without spot to God,” Heb. ix, 14.
(2.) He is represented as omnipresent. “ Whither shall I go from thy Spirit ? or whither shall I fee from thy presence ? If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there; if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea ; even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me," Psalm cxxxix, 7-10. In this passage the psalmist speaks of the presence and of the Spirit of God as synonymous, and attributes to the Spirit of God the proper omnipresence of God.
(3.) He is represented as omniscient. 66 Who hath di. rected the Spirit of the Lord, or, being his counsellor, hath taught him? With whom took he counsel, and who in. structed him, and taught him in the path of judgment, and taught him knowledge, and showed to him the way of understanding,” Isa. xi, 13, 14. It is remarkable that in this passage, compared with the context, the prophet speaks indifferently of Jehovah, and of the Spirit of Jehovah ; and that the Apostle Paul applies it to God himself, when, speaking of the infinite knowledge and wisdom of God, he exclaims, “O the depths of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! For who hath known the mind of the Lord ? or who hath been his coun. sellor ?" Rom. xi, 33, 34. The drift of the passage is to assert that peculiar attribute of the Holy Spirit, original, underived knowledge. Of the extent of that knowledge we have already seen the strongest testimony in those words: “The Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. The things of God knoweth ovdels, no one, but the Spirit of God,” i Cor. ii, 10, 11.
(4.) He is represented as omnipotent. In the passage just cited, without changing the person, the prophet proceeds, “ Behold, the nations are as a drop of a bucket, and are counted as the small dust of the balance; behold, he taketh up the isles as a very little thing," Isa. xl, 15. * All these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit.” Should it be asked, What are all these? The answer is, “Wisdom,” “ knowledge," "faith,” “gifts of healing,"
“ " 66 * working of miracles," " prophecy," " discerning of spi. rits,” “ divers kinds of tongues,” and “ the interpretation of tongues," i Cor. xii, 8-11,—gifts which imply omnis. cience, prescience, and omnipotence in the donor. So the angel declared to Mary, the mother of Jesus : “ The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the
Highest shall overshadow thee,” Luke i, 35—thus declar. ing the power of the Holy Spirit to be the power of the Highest.
(5.) He is represented as supreme. The gifts just now mentioned, the donation of which requires the exertion of prescience, omniscience, and omnipotence, are said to be by the Spirit “ divided to every man severally as he will,” i Cor. xi, 11. Even Mr. G. acknowledges his su. premacy: “That its (the Holy Spirit's) commands are to
: be obeyed, we know, because they are the commands of God." (Vol. i, p. 131.)
3. The word of God is said to be the word of the Holy Spirit. “ God,” says the writer to the Hebrews, “ at sundry times, and in divers manners, spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets," Heb. i, 1. They said, 6 Thus saith Jehovah,” Isa. xlii, 5. “ All Scripture is given by inspiration of God,” 2 Tim. iii, 16. On the other hand, “No prophecy of the Scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost," 2 Pet. i, 20, 21. “ For David himself said by the Holy Ghost," &c., Mark xii, 36. 6 The Holy Ghost also is a witness unto us : for after that he had said before, This is the covenant that I will make with them,” &c., Heb. X, 15. It would be easy to multiply passages to the same purpose. But these
It is an important observation, that in the lat. ter passage the Holy Ghost is represented as the God who had made a covenant with Israel, Let the reader compare with it the following :"Behold the days come, saith
-, Jehovah, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel," &c., Heb. viii, 8.
4. The works of God are ascribed to the Spirit of God, “ He that built all things is God," Heb. iii, 4. “ Thus saith Jehovah, thy Redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am Jehovah that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone ; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself,” Isa. xliv, 24. Yet these works, which Jehovah hath wrought alone, and by him. self, were wrought by the Spirit of God. “The Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters," Gen. i, 2. “By his Spirit he hath garnished the heavens," Job xxvi, 13.
Such are the testimonies of the sacred writers to the proper divinity of the Holy Spirit. If any addition to them be wanting, it is the testimony of Mr. G., whose arguments will clear up whatever remains of difficulty, thus :-
“Omnipresence is exclusively a divine attribute. Yet I appeal to you to say what are the representations you have commonly received from” Christ and his apostles concerning the Holy Spirit? “ Are they not, that he is everywhere, at all times present with you? What is this but the divine attribute of omnipresence ?"
“ Is he not also represented to you as omniscient? Does he not dive into your most secret thoughts? Has he not access to your hearts? Does he not suggest to you motives of action? What is this but the divine attribute of omniscience?"
“ Does he not possess the power of changing the laws of nature, by the operation of a miracle ?" “ Has he not also the power of prescience? This being is represented as foreknowing the counsels of God.”
“ These attributes are all divine. And, if there actually be a being possessing these attributes, that being ought to be a deity. If he be a deity, he ought to be worshipped.” (Vol. i, pp. 19, 20.)
Thanks to Mr. G. for thus saving us the trouble of proving that divine worship ought to be rendered to the Holy Spirit. “He which persecuted us in times past, now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed !"
Of the Scriptural Doctrine of the Trinity. To a being like man, who knows noting of the essence of any of the creatures of God, it is absolutely impossible to entertain precise and adequate ideas of the Most High. God has therefore been pleased to make himself known to us by analogy. This method is to be distinguished from that which the Socinians call call metaphorical. Metaphor in their hands is a mere figure of rhetoric: a form of speech in which, for the sake of either beauty or force, any qua.