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FOREWORD TO TEACHERS

This School History is intended first of all to be a textbook which children will study. It is illustrated by pictures and maps which ought to be used as a part of their study; beyond that, it contains references and topics which will make it easy to extend the work somewhat outside of the textbook by additional reading and essay writing. All the work of the children is intended to fix in their minds the impression that history is continuous and that those who came before us were living human beings like ourselves.

Recitations. - The text is written in simple language so as to be easily understood by pupils in the grades. Some subjects, as for example the Federal Convention, banks, slavery, specie and paper currency, conservation, etc., involve ideas which may be novel to the children, but which every American school child can and should acquire.

The questions at the ends of chapters referring to parts of the numbered sections are about twelve hundred in number, and cover the whole text. Most of them, however, cannot be answered by a mere repetition of the text, and children should be encou

ouraged to make all statements in their own words.

Pictures and Maps. — The illustrative material has been chosen with great care so as to make the text clearer. Children should be encouraged to search the pictures for details, and to use the picture references at the ends of chapters to find other illustrations on the same subjects. The maps also will be found directly helpful to the pupil. The teacher ought to bring out geographical details in the recitations and use the black board for further information. Properly taught, political geography is a great aid to history. The chapter references will lead to the use of additional maps.

Topics. — Where the conditions allow, the work of the children will be enlivened if they can do something constructive. Carefully selected references are therefore made to standard histories, especially the briefer ones, and also to easily available sets of sources; for nothing gives such vitality to a child's knowledge as some use of things actually

FOREWORD TO TEACHERS

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written by people of past times. The essay subjects offer a good opportunity to connect the work in English with that in history; and the chapter references will lead to good materials for the knowledge necessary to the essay writer. Children should also be encouraged to read stories which have an historical background, and the references provide for that pleasure.

Scope of the Book. In the Introduction attention is called to the social and economic trend of the volume; the spirit of modern times calls for knowledge of and constant use of this significant side of history. In the nature of things it is not so easy to study conditions and inventions and methods of business as to take up the personal, narrative part of history; but social life, the opening up of the frontier, the growth of mechanical devices, and the improvement of business are among the things that count most in the development of our nation. It is just as important for children to learn how their forefathers worked and lived as to learn about their wars and their government.

Brief List of Desk Books. — Every teacher ought to have at hand a few historical aids, some of which should be at all times available for the use of the pupils. A list of the most important books referred to in the chapter references will be found in the Appendix. Here is a carefully selected list of about twenty works out of which the teacher should choose at least one from each of the four groups for personal and desk use:

1. Methods and Materials. American Historical Association, Committee

of Seven, The Study of History in Schools. (N. Y., Macmillan, 1899.) Bourne, H. E., The Teaching of History and Civics in the Elementary and

Secondary School. (N. Y., Longmans, 1902.) Channing, E., Hart, A. B., and Turner, F. J., Guide to the Study and Read

ing of American History. (Boston, Ginn, 1912.) History Teachers' Magazine (monthly). (Philadelphia, McKinley, 1909.) New England History Teachers' Association, A History Syllabus for

Secondary Schools, Part IV. (Boston, Heath, 1904.) Historical

Sources in Schools. (N. Y., Macmillan, 1902.) 2. Collection of Sources. Caldwell, H. W., ed., Survey of American

History. (Chicago, Ainsworth, 1900.) Caldwell, H. W., and Persinger, C. E., eds., Source History of the United

States. (Chicago, Ainsworth, 1909.) Hart, A. B., ed., American History told by Contemporaries. (4 vols.,

N. Y., Macmillan, 1897–1901.) - American Patriots and Statesmen. (5 vols., N. Y., Collier's, 1916.) - Source Book of American History, (N. Y., Macmillan, 1900.) Source Readers in American History. (4 vols., N. Y., Macmillan, 1902–1903.)

Hart, A. B., and Channing, Edward, eds., American History Leaflets. (36

nos., N. Y., Simmons, 1892-1910.) Hill, Mabel, ed., Liberty Documents, with Contemporary Exposition and

Critical Comments. (N. Y., Longmans, 1901.) MacDonald, Wm., ed., Documentary Source Book of American History.

(N. Y., Macmillan, 1908.) 3. Single Volumes and Brief Series of Histories. Bassett, J. S., Short

History of the United States. (N. Y., Macmillan, 1913.) Epochs of American History. (3 vols. by Thwaites, R. G.; Hart, A. B.;

Wilson, Woodrow. N. Y., Longmans. Rev. eds. about 1914.) Home University Library of Modern Knowledge. (5 vols. by Andrews,

C. M.; Smith, T. C.; MacDonald, William; Paxson, F. L.; Haworth,

T. L. N. Y., Holt, 1911-1914.) The Riverside History of the United States. (4 vols. by Becker, C. L.;

Johnson, A.; Dodd, W. E.; Paxson, F. L. Boston, Houghton Mifflin,

1916.) Fish, C. R., Development of American Nationality. (A history of the

American People from 1783 to the present. N. Y., American Book

Company, 1913.) Sparks, E. E., The United States of America. (2 vols., N. Y., Putnams,

1904.)

4. Maps. Shepherd, William R., Historical Atlas. (N. Y., Holt, 1911,

new ed.)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

I. FORERUNNERS OF AMERICAN HISTORY (1200-1550).

II. DISCOVERY AND DISCOVERERS (1000-1604)..

III. FIRST ENGLISH SETTLEMENTS (1607-1660).

IV. RIVALS AND NEW COLONIES (1604-1689).

V. COLONIAL LIFE (1689–1750).

VI. WAR AND THE West (1689–1763).

VII. COLONIAL LABOR AND COLONIAL BUSINESS (1689-1763).

VIII. Why THERE WAS A REVOLUTION (1763-1774).

IX. THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR (1775-1783). .

X. INDEPENDENCE AND THE UNION (1775-1781).

XI. THE OLD ROOF AND THE New RooF (1781-1789).

XII. How PEOPLE LIVED A CENTURY AGO (1790–1820).

XIII. THE FEDERALISTS IN POWER (1789-1801). .

XIV. EXPANSION AND NEUTRAL TRADE (1801-1812).

XV. WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN (1809-1815). .

XVI. GOING West (1790–1830). .

XVII. How THE NATION CAME TOGETHER (1815-1829).

XVIII. THE AMERICAN PEOPLE (1829-1860)..

XIX. New PARTIES AND POLITICS (1829-1841). .

XX. New BUSINESS METHODS (1829-1860).

XXI. WESTWARD EXPANSION (1840-1850). .

XXII. YOUNG AMERICA (1829-1861)..

XXIII. SECTIONAL FEELING (1850-1860). .

XXIV. FIRST PERIOD OF THE Civil WAR (1860-1863).

XXV. THE PEOPLE DURING THE CIVIL WAR (1861–1865).

XXVI. CONCLUSION OF THE CIVIL WAR (1863-1865).

XXVII. RECONSTRUCTION (1865-1869). ..

XXVIII. THE WEST AND THE PACIFIC SLOPE (1870-1885).

XXIX. POLITICS AND PARTIES (1869–1885).

XXX. THE NEW SOUTH (1869–1885)..

XXXI. BUSINESS AND LABOR (1869–1890)...

XXXII. DEMOCRATIC ADMINISTRATIONS (1885-1897)...

XXXIII. THE SPANISA WAR AND ITS RESULTS (1897–1907).

XXXIV. BIG BUSINESS (1890-1916)....

XXXV. THE PEOPLE'S LIFE (1900-1916).

XXXVI. New PROBLEMS FOR AMERICANS TO SOLVE (1890–1916)

XXXVII. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT (1905-1917)

XXXVIII. AMERICA IN THE WORLD WAR

APPENDICES

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