網頁圖片
PDF
ePub 版

differ exceedingly from the deluge of books people the land, and the buffalo skeletons now appropriating the name. It is folly to may be referred to an ancient period. We suppose that before one can study a science know that the lion has become extinct in thoroughly, his mind inust be filled with Greece during the historical period. With the pointless gossip so abundant in text these instances before us, why need we books. We study not merely to gain in- urge great antiquity to such mammalia as formation, but also to discipline the mind. became extinct before the historical period, Dry narrations of effects give the student and at a recent geological period ? a disjointed skeleton of the subject, and, Again, the diluvium in which many of by converting the study into rote, injure these flints are found, was regarded as of the mind. Mind, like body, must have ancient origin by Buffon and others only exercise and nourishing food, or it will be because it contained no human relics. enfeebled. We require, therefore, in an Now that such relics are found, and as the elementary work a careful discussion of formation gives abundant evidence of great causes and effects, so presented that the disturbance, we are as justified in assignstudent must exercise thought in preparing ing a modern origin to the formation as if the lesson. Important matters should not we assigned great antiquity to our race. be omitted for the sake of subjects which In his reference to Brixan Cave, Sir Chas. are merely entertaining.

Lyell is unfortunate. Dr. Falconer has Such a work is Mr. Lyell's “Elements denied finding flint implements under the of Geology." It consists of no naked nar- head of a Rhinoceros Hemistoechus in that ration; it is not a mere list of disconnected cavern. With this exception, which probfacts. It is a treatise. It gives causes and ably resulted from oversight, the argument effects, explaining and investigating their is fairly conducted, and, as it gives a clear relations; it discusses facts and theories; statement of the author's views, adds con. regarding physical laws as secondary to siderably to the value of the work. We phenomena, its author generally discards perceive that Mr. Lyell now inclines stronghypotheses as such, and consequently treats ly toward Mr. Darwin's theory of natural the subject in an impartial and thorough selection. manner; so that the student who uses it This work is especially full upon palegains a far from superficial knowledge of ontology and description of the various the science as a whole. It is what we formations, nearly five hundred pages bethink a text-book should be, concise, in- ing thus devoted. As it relates particularly teresting, and comprehensive..

to the geological history of Europe, it will With many theories offered in the work prove a necessary companion to Mr. Dana's we can not agree. Especially are we dis- noble manual, which gives the American satisfied with Mr. Lyell's argument respect- history. Among other important addiing the antiquity of man. It is almost tions, we note a description of the Eozoon entirely based upon the discovery of flint Canadense, discovered in 1859 by Sir Wilimplements in certain caverns and in di- liam Logan, in the Laurentian rocks of luvium at Abbeville, Amiens, and other Canada, and since ascertained to be a places, where they are accompanied by Rhizopod. An excellent paper concerning bones of extinct mammalia. We concede this fossil, supposed to be the oldest crethat, beyond all cavil, the flints are of ated thing, is contained in Silliman's human origin, and that they do accom Journal for November last. The chapter pany fossils of the post-pliocene period. on the Stone and Bronze ages is full of But mere juxtaposition is no proof of con- marrow, and can not fail to interest archætemporuneity. In Alabama, on the plains ologists. The chapters on the Glacial of Nebraska, and on the pampas of Buenos epoch are especially full. Ayres, we find the remains of vast mam- We find many new illustrations, but fail malia referred to the post-pliocene period; to see the frontispiece referred to by the but with them are also found the bones of author. Perhaps the American publishvast herds of cattle, which were destroyed ers thought it an unnecessary ornament. but a few years ago. Even the antiquity The book is well printed, though, like of the fossil mammalia is doubtful. A few most American books, it is disfigured by hundred years hence, the bison will be ex- numerous typographical errors, which re'inct on this continent. A new race may flect little credit upon proof-readers.

SEASIDE STUDIES) is a description of the misery than was effected by the erring and ** radiate animals found in Massachusetts unfortunate queen of Scots. Even at this Bay. Though thus limited in its range, it day, there are conflicting opinions as to her is a thorough little work upon the whole principles and conduct; and the student class. The sections on embryology are who would either learn her history or study pithy and entertaining. The style is her character, will find little in Schiller's everywhere pleasing; and some portions, play by which to approximate truth. For such as that upon the “Mode of catching the purpose of udapting her history to his jelly-fishes," are especially fine. The au- literary requirements, he modifies facts, thors have followed Professor Agassiz? creates new personages, and to some of method of nomenclature, and have made his characters attributes principles and acthis subject more interesting than we had tions wholly unwarranted by any chronithought possible. It would have been cles known to historians. Yet with all these simplified, had the derivation and signifi- features, and with all the palpable neglect cation of the specific names been given. of historical background which might have Possibly the omission was intentional, that heightened the effect of the play, it is justthe reader might be incited to inquiry; ly regarded as a creation of genius, and yet it detracts from the convenience of the holds high rank among the masterpieces book, for some who will read it are not of German literature, as a painting of an acquainted with Latin or Greek. It is a eminently tragic situation, and of a signal remarkably good specimen of book-mak- triumphrof mind over matter, of the human ing, creditable alike to the authors and will over brute force and violence. publishers. The illustrations, which are : very numerous, are taken principally from A NEw edition of a unique work has ap- . life, exhibiting the animals in natural posi- peared, which will be of no little interest to tions, and are good. The book is printed all who rightly estimate the value of music upon tinted paper, and is substuntially in the school-room. It is a collection of bound. We sincerely hope that Mrs. Agas- hymns made especially for schools, embrasiz and her son will not stop at this point, cing a wide range of themes and metres, but give us like descriptive works upon with appropriate scriptural quotations, and the other classes of marine animals. a collection of effective standard tuues. In

literary merit, poetic excellence, and pracThe series of German works so often ad tical adaptability, it well sustains the high verted to in these pages has been ang- reputation which the author has achieved mented by a novel by Paul Heyse, and a in educational and classical literature. small volumes which will be of interest to students of the German language. A more “Bright MEMORIES''s is the title of a litimportant addition is Schiller's tragedy, tle book, designed to exhibit to the young “ Maria Stuart," comprising the original the graces, virtues, and sufferings of one text, with an introduction and notes, for who had become endeared to numerous translation into English. History records friends, and was, through her poetical effuthe names of few persons, who, possessing sions, becoming known in literary circles. many amiable qualities and actuated by no The beauty of the character depicted, and malevolent impulses, have wrought more the tenderness with which a sister has here

performed her work of duty and affection, (3) SEASIDE STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY. By will cause feelings of sadness and pleasure

ELIZABETH C. AGASSIZ and ALEXANDER AGASSIZ.
Marine Animals of Massachusetts Bay. Radi.

to all who read the book. ates. Boston: Ticknor & Fields. 8vo, pp. 155. (4) DIE ErnsAXEN. Von PAUL HEYSE. 12mo, pp. (0) HYXNS FOR SCHOOLS, with appropriate Selections 44. 40 cents.

from Scripture, and Tunes suited to the Metres of (5) WAS SICH DER WALD ERZRULT. Ein Maerchen.

the Hymns. By CHARLES D. CLEVELAND. New straus von GUSTAV ZU PUTLITZ. Mit einem Titel

York : Schermerhorn, Bancroft & Co. 18mo, durbilde von Gustave Doré. 12mo, pp. 64. 60

Able cloth, leather back ; pp. 270. 75 cents. cents.

BRIGHT MEMORIES. Io Memoriam AXELIA MARIA STUART. Ein Trauerspiel von FRIEDRICH HULSE ROBERTS. By Mrs. GEORGIE A. HULSE VON SCHILLER. Notes, etc., by Dr. Adolphus MCLEOD, author of Sunbeams and Sbadows, Sen. Berpsys. 12mo, pp. 174. 60 cents. Boston: Drifts, etc. New York: John W. Brown, printer. De Vries, Ibarra & Co.

18mo, pp. 79.

$3.00.

(0)

SCIENCE AND THE ARTS.

-A German professor has discovered the water-courses, while they avoid forests. means, by the aid of chemistry, of recog. The influence of forests may be attributed nizing the presence of cotton in linen fab- to two causes: 1. They are an obstacle to rics. He takes a piece of cloth, about two the motion of the masses of air which carry inches by three-fourths of an inch, and heavy clouds; hence, on the borders of after having unraveled both weft and warp, forests, eddies are formed in the atmosplanges it into an alcoholic solution of phere, and both the air and clouds find an aniline and fuchsine. The superfluous easy issue along those same borders. The coloring matter is removed by water. If, consequence is, that the velocity of the while still wet, it be placed in a saucer aerial masses, and clouds with which they containing armonia, the cotton fibres will are charged, is checked, and they therefore immediately become discolored, while those disburden themselves of their hail before of linen will preserve a fine red color. they arrive at the forest. 2. Admitting -To aid bees in the formation of their

that electricity exercises some action in

the formation of bail, the trees inay be comb, narrow sheets of wax are now inprinted by machinery, so as to exactly

considered as conductors, depriving the represent the dividing wall of comb be.

clouds of their electricity. They would tween the cells.

thus cease to be “storm clouds, and no

hail could be formed in them. --Wood shavings are extensively used for the manufacture of paper. To ascertain --A new use for petroleum has been dewhether a given kind of paper contains vised. The invention consists of a simple wood, pour a few drops of aniline into process of forming the debris of dust or & test-tube, add a few drops of diluted sul- coal-inines aud yards, with petroleum, into phuric acid, and apply heat by means of lumps or blocked masses, which ignite å spirit-lamp. This done, a strip of the readily without use of soft coals or kinpaper to be tested is dipped into the dlings, last longer, and give out a more inliquid, which is a sulphate of aniline, tense heat than ordinary anthracite, and and iminediately an orange tint will be per cost about one-half as much. ceived, which becomes intense in proportion to the wood contained in the paper.

-A French savant says he has discov-M. Javal, a French savant, recently re

ered a complete substitute for rags in the

manufacture of paper. The root of the ported a method of curing strabismus, or

lucern-plant, he observes, when dried and squinting, by the use of the stereoscope.

beaten, shows thousands of very white Though entirely novel, the suggestion com

fibres, which form an excellent paste for mends itself as of high probability, and as belonging to the homeopathic, or similia

paper-makers. The three kinds of lucern

--the medicago media, the medicago faloata, similibus, principle of healing. Few have failed to notice the painful effect upon weak

and the medicago maculata--produce equally

good roots for paper-makers' use. The eyes-producing for the time almost an arti

roots are to be first pressed between two icial strabismus--of a continuous use of the

rollers to open them, and, when sufficiently stereoscope.

crushed and dried, they are left to soak in -A recent post-mortem exainination running water for fifteen days or three proved that death had been caused by apo weeks. The pulp, besides the thread for plexy, induced by the presence of a parasite paper, produces salt of soda, and a coloring called cysticercus in the left ventricle of the matter, called by the inventor luzerine. brain.

-The Rev. W. Fox, of Brixton, near . -Amongst the patents lately taken out

Brooke, Isle of Wight, has discovered in

Brooka la in France, are the following: A hygienic

the vast weaden formation, at the back of alphabet, in gingerbread; a method of

the island, a new reptile of the Dinosaurian making head-dresses, caps, and pocket

family. The only parts of the skeleton handkerchiefs in paper; a mechanical fan, opening and shutting instantaneously ; &

wanting are the head and neck. The animal

was above six feet long, from the shoulder machine for cutting stone by means of a system of points, reproducing minutely

to the rump, and was furnished with a the relief required ; an apparatus for making

massive tail five feet long. The legs were

about four feet in length, terminating in a deaf people hear; and no fewer than ten

brond, short foot. Plates of bone from half patents for stopping railway trains.

an inch to four inches in diameter, and -Hail-storms are either regular or irreg about half an inch thick, covered its body, lar. The former return periodically; the with the exception of its back, which was others, the most disastrous, make their protected by a great bony shield. Spineappearance at long intervals; visit indis- like boues ran along the sides of the body criminately the places most, as well as least, and tail, some of which are fifteen inches subject to haif, and follow valleys and long and weigh seven pounds.

MISCELLANY. - Mrs. Southworth's method of publica- with long bamboo tubes, and the gas comtion is thus described : “Her plan is to hit municated through these tubes serves to the public thrice with one work. !t first illuminate the machines by which the saltappears in the London Journal under one wells and the places where they are situatitle, and then in a New York sensation ted are explored. weekly with a second name, and finally as a book, with a third name."

-It is an important fact, that if a meat

pie is made without a hole in the crust, to -In New York city there are 15,000 dram- let out certain emanations from the meat, shops, and 800,000 drinkers, each drinking colic, vomiting, and other symptoms of two gills of liquor per day-300,000 barrels slight poisoning will occur. a year. This quantity would make a reser

-A young lady, after having been sevoir 900 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 63 feet deep, and could float four large ships in full

verely interrogated by an ill-tempered counsail; at sixty dollars per barrel, it amounts

sel, said she never before fully understood to $18,000,000. Out of 7,000 cases tried be

what was meant by cro88-examination, fore the Court of Special Sessions last year,

- The necessity of putting clauses in not more than 94 were sober when arrested. their proper places is seen in the subjoined Paupers in the city cost $4,000,000 a year. extract froin an editor's notice of a poem :

"The poem published this week was com_"How shameful it is that you should

posed by an esteemed friend, who has lain fall asleep," said a dull preacher to a

in his grave many years for his own amusedrowsy audience, “while that poor idiot,"

ment." pointing to an idiot who stood staring at him, "is awake and attentive !” “Per

-“Can you inform me," said a student haps," said the fool, “I would have been

to a bookseller, “ whether I can find any

where the biography of Pollock ?" "Yes," asleep too, if I had not been an idiot."

said the bookseller: “I dare say you'll -Just as the brain may be removed find it in the Course of Time." from a tortoise, and the animal will still live, so, too, without brains, will certain

-The construction of the English lanbooks live. The arts of the publisher and

guage must appear most formidable to a the circulating library keep them in mo

foreigner. One of them, looking at a piction. Their life, however, is purely me

ture of a number of vessels, said, “See, chanical, and consists in being lifted froin

what a flock of ships !" He was told that a shelf to shelf,

flock of ships was called a fleet, and that &

fleet of sheep was called a flock. And it -"I think our church will last a good was added, for his guidance in mastering many years yet," said a waggish deacon to the intricacies of our language, that “a his minister; “I see the sleepers are very flock of girls is called a bevy, that a bevy

of wolves is called a pack, and a pack of --Swift said that the reason a certain thieves is called a gang, and a gang of anuniversity was a learned place, was, that gels is called a host, and a host of porpoimost persons took some learning there, and

nd ses is called a shoal, and a shoal of buffafew brought any away with them; so it ac

loes is called a herd, and a herd of children cumulated.

is called a troop, and a troop of partridges

is called a covey, and a covey of beauties is FORTUNE.--Fortune may favor fools; but called a galaxy, and a galaxy ur ruffians is that is a poor reason why a man should cailed a horde, and a horde of rubbish is make a fool of himself.

called a heap, and a heap of oxen is called -Satire is both foolish and wicked in a drove, and a drove of blackguards is the school-room, and those teachers who called a mob, and a mob of whales is called resort to it proclaim their own weakness. & school, and a school of worshippers is Teachers who do not respect the feelings called a congregation, and a congregation of their pupils cannot expect the pupils to of engineers is called a corps, and a corps respect theirs.

of robbers is called a band, and a band of -In the districts of Young Hian, and of

locusts is called a swarm, and a swarm of Meisonug Hian, in China, there exists a

people is ealled a crowd.""' large number of salt-water wells extending -One of Theodore Hooks friends was ata over a space of about six leagues, which enthusiast on grammar; a badly constructare actively explored by the neighboring ed sentence, or a false quantity, inflicted as population. From the mouth of these wells much pain on his sense of hearing as a false arise columns of inflammable air, so that if note in music does on the ear of a musician. a torch be applied to the opening, globes of Theodore Hook said of this grammaniac, fire of from twenty to thirty feet high are “If any thing could cause his ghost to reseen to arise, shining with a brilliant light. turn after death, it would be a grammatical The Chinese arch over these sources of gas error in the inscription on his tombstone,”

[ocr errors]

EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY.

VOL. III.

MARCH, 1866.

No. 3.

THE FLY AND THE MICROSCOPE.

THE accompanying cut represents the under surface of a common

house-fly, as seen in the Novelty Microscope. This instrument, by an admirable contrivance, confines the insect within the focus during the examination, and yet does not interfere with its freedom of motion ;

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed]

indeed, to witness the activity and sprightly movements of the insect, is one of the most interesting features of the examination. He moves this way and that with the utmost agility, as if conscious of the restraints of his prison walls, and anxious for his freedom ; for a moment he forgets himself, stops his frenzied motions, rubs his fore-feet together with apparent delight, hastily brushes the dust from his face and eyes, and around he goes again—but all to no purpose. He feels the smooth surface of

« 上一頁繼續 »