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well sustained. It can now boast a list of contributors on subjects pertaining to its specialty-Physical Culture--unexcelled by any magazine in the country.

The American Journal of Science and Arts for September is more than usually interesting. C. M. Warren continues his new methed of Organic Analysis ; Mr. Lea contributes a valuable article on the Action of Light upon Iodid of Silver. Profs. Bache, Newberry, Gray, Dana, Smith, Clark, Dewy, and Shepard also contribute to the number. The “Scientific Intelligence" is hardly as full as usual.

The recent improvements in our worthy contemporary, the Herald of Health,'* are

Among the many excellent agricultural papers, one, The Rural American,'8 aspires to be of national character. How well it maintains such a position, those acquainted with agricultural matters must decide. It is evident, however, that no farmer's family can read it without deriving benefit more than equal to the price of subscription.

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NE PLUS ULTRA BOOK-HOLDERS. D VERY one that has attempted to fol- any size, firmly and simoothly open at any

E low the advice of Jeffrey-always page, no matter how thick or thin either to read with pen in hand-has had occa- side may be, seems to have been left for sion to regret that the great reviewer Mr. D. J. Stagg, of this city, to devise. His neglected to tell how he managed to hold recent invention, “The Ne Flus Ultra Adhis books while his hands were employed justable Fingers," despite their clumsy with pen and paper. Certain it is that name, are a clever contrivance for accomone cannot long continue his method plishing with great simplicity and neatness of reading--excellent though it be--with- the end desired. The cuts show some of out so severely taxing his patience and the various styles of book-holders which he the muscles of his back as to make him makes. covet at least one extra pair of the multi- The "fingers" work independent of each tadinous hands of Briareus.

other, so that it does not matter where the The thousand and one contrivances of book is opened; it will be held smoothly wood, and leather, and wire, that have and firmly in place at any page. We have been devised for holding books open at seen and tried many styles of book hold. such an angle that they may be easily read, ers, but none so simple and convenient as and yet leave the reader's hands free to use these. Some style of them should be on a pen or pencil, are evidences of a popular every reading-stand, and attached to every want; and, for the most part, are unsuc. school-desk. It is useless to expect chilcessful attempts to meet it.

dren to sit erect in school so long as their It would seen that every possible condi- books lie flat upon the desk. Stand their tion of cost and beanty and finish had been books up so that they can be read withmet, time and again ; but the one great out stooping, and then we may reasonably desideratuni, something to hold a book of require them to maintuiu a proper position.

EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY.

Vol. III.

DECEMBER, 1866.

No. 12.

PEDAGOGICAL LAW.

ARTICLE VII. The Law as to Religion in Schools.- Concluded. SEC. 1. MARYLAND.-It is the duty of every man to worship God in

such manner as he thinks most acceptable to Him, and all persons are equally entitled to protection in their religious liberty ; wherefore, no person ought by any law to be molested in his person or estate on account of his religious persuasion or profession, or for his religious practice, unless under color of religion any man sball disturb the good order, peace, or safety of the State, or shall infringe the laws of morality, or injure others in their natural, civil, or religious rights (Const. of Md., B. of R., art. 33). No other test or qualification ought to be required on admission to any office of trust or profit, than such oath of office as may be prescribed by this constitution or by the laws of the State, and a declaration of belief in the Christian religion; and if the party shall profess to be a Jew, the declaration shall be of his belief in a future state of rewards and punishments (Id., art. 34). In order to carry out faithfully the spirit of these constitutional provisions, every teacher in Maryland should be a believer in the Christian religion, or, at least, in a future state of rewards and punishments. Persons who do not so believe, should not be licensed, or if any are already licensed, their licenses should be revoked. The examiners in this State may very properly inquire whether the candidates for licenses believe in the Christian religion or in a future state of rewards and punishments—for such an inquiry is a part of their legitimate duty at the examination. But they have no right to go further than the law requires. If, for example, an applicant for a certificate declares that he believes in "a future-state of rewards and punishments,” or “ in the Christian religion,” then he can be questioned no further on the subject; or if questioned, he may refuse to answer. If he says he believes in a future state of rewards and punishments, the law can require nothing more, for the Constitution prohibits any further test. It is a little singular that this Codstitution, which does not secure full religious liberty, is the only one of thirty-five now before us which has the phrase "religious liberty" in it.

The Constitutions of several of the States, without the phrase, have more of the spirit.

Sec. 2. VIRGINIA.—Religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence; and it is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian forbearance, love, and charity towards each other (Const. of Va., B. of R., sec. 16). There is no public-school system yet established in Virginia. At the last session of the Legislature, two of the counties, King George and Stafford, were authorized to borrow money for educational purposes, but owing to the great scarcity of money, pothing of moment has been accomplished. We have the assurance of a high official of the State, that the people are only waiting for better times in order to inaugurate a system of public schools similar to those now so successful elsewhere. If such schools are established under the present Constitution, they should, and doubtless will, be perfectly free from sectarianism.

Sec. 3. NORTH CAROLINA.—All persons shall be at liberty to exercise their own mode of worship ; provided that nothing herein contained shall be construed to exempt preachers of treasonable or seditious discourses from legal trial or punishment (Const. of N. C., art. 34). No person who shall deny the being of God, or the truth of the Christian religion, or the divine authority of the Old or New Testament, shall be capable of holding any office or place of trust or profit, in the civil department within this State (Id., art. 4, sec. 2, of Amend. Although there is an established Church in England, the Jews were admitted to Parliament more than ten years ago. North Carolina is, in this respect, evidently behind the times. No other Southern State is so illiberal. More than two centuries ago, little Rhode Island was inspired with a new theory of government. All the other States of this Union have since caught the inspiration, either wholly or partially, but North Carolina is the most laggard of them all.

Sec. 4. SOUTH CAROLINA.—The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever hereafter (1790) be allowed within this State to all mankind, provided that the liberty of conscience thereby declared shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this State (Const. of S. C., art 8). What this State now needs more than any thing else, we imagine, is a popular sys tem of public schools ; and we have reason to believe that something of this kind is in contemplation. The legislation of this State, running through a period of more than forty years, embraces little else, in reference to schools, than the appropriations annually made to support in. digent scholars. The appropriation for some twelve years was seventyfive thousand dollars annually, and previous thereto thirty-seven thousand five hundred. This sum was appropriated to the districts according to the representation in the lower branch of the Legislature, and its expenditure was confided to Boards of Commissioners in each district. Each Board adopted its own rules and system, and hence there has been no uniformity in the organization of schools or in expending the funds. The Boards are only required to report annually to the Legislature, and exhibit the manner in which the funds have been expended and the number of indigent scholars taught. Persons who have the means of educating their own children are never permitted to share in the appropriation ; the privilege is restricted to the indigent alone. (Letter from Gov. James L. Orr, May 12, 1866.)

Sec. 5. GEORGIA.—The constitutional provisions in reference to the liberty of conscience in this State are the same, in legal effect, as those of South Carolina, though more extended, and, if possible, more emphatic. (Const, of Ga., art. 4, sec. 10).

Sec. 6. FLORIDA.—All men have a natural and inalienable right to worsbip Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences ; and no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious establishment, or mode of worship, in this State (Const. of Fla., art. 1, sec. 3.)

Sec. 7. ALABAMA.—No person within this State shall, upon any pretence, be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshiping God in the manner most agreeable to his own conscience ; nor be compelled to attend any place of worship; nor shall any one be obliged to pay any tithes, taxes, or other rates, for the building or repairing of any place of worship, or for the maintenance of any minister or ministry (Const. of Ala., art. 1, sec. 3). No human authority ought, in any case whatever, to control or interfere with the rights of conscience (Id., sec. 4). No person shall be hurt, molested, or restrained in his religious profession, sentiments, or persuasion, provided he does not disturb others in their religious worship (Id., sec. 5). The civil rights, privileges, and capacities of any citizen shall in no way be diminished or enlarged on account of his religious principles (Id., sec. 6.) There shall be no establishment of religion by law; no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious sect, society, denomination, or mode of worship ; and no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State (Id., sec. 7). Every citizen may speak, write, and publish his sentiments, being responsible for the abuse of that privilege (Id., sec. 8). We cite the foregoing sections of the Alabama Constitution in full, not because they are unique, for almost the same words are in the Constitutions of several other States ; nor because they insure a larger religious liberty, for we are fully aware that perfection cannot be made more perfect by the mere force of repetitions. In Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and several other States, religious liberty, is as completely constitutional as in Alabama, Thongh the provisions in some of the Constitutions may not be so extended, they are equally comprehensive, and the same in legal effect. The Constitution of Alabama, however, contains so many different expressions for the same thing, that we think any one who will take the trouble to read the sections cited, will never after be in error as to what is meant by "religious liberty."

Sec. 8. MISSISSIPPI.-The constitutional provisions in relation to the liberty of conscience, of speech, and of the press, are in legal effect the same in this State as in Alabama, and the language is very nearly the same (Const. of Miss., art. 1, sec. 3–7).

Sec. 9. LOUISIANA.— The Constitution of this State is singularly silent on the subject of religion. The freedom of the press is secured, and every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for an abuse of this liberty (Const. of La., tit. 6, art. 106). This is one of the few Southern States that have a system of public schools. These schools suffered greatly from the war, but it is to be hoped that they will not be permitted to languish long, now that peace is restored. So many considerations of vast import to the highest interests of the State, and so many influences affecting alike the moral and intellectual welfare of her citizens, are involved in this, that the encouragement of popular education would seem to be the simplest expression of public duty at this crisis. The war has, indeed, deprived most of those citizens, who formerly supported public schools, of the power of contributing to them for a period which it is not now easy to determine. But while this is true, it cannot be overlooked that, now more than ever, are the people in need of a liberal system of public education which will supply their children with those advantages which their private means will no longer enable them to afford. Upon the State, therefore, falls the responsibility of a wise and provident legislation-a legislation that shall hold the present in wardship for the future—to guard this beneficent system from complete extinction (Rep. of Supt., Jan. 22, 1866).

Sec. 10. TEXAS.—The law on the subject under consideration is the same in Texas as in Alabama, though not expressed in the same words. It is also made the duty of the Legislature to pass such laws as shall be necessary to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of their own mode of public worship (Const. of Texas, art. 1, sec. 3 and 4).

Sec. 11. ARKANSAS.—The civil rights, privileges, or capacities of any citizen shall in no wise be diminished or enlarged on account of bis religion (Const. of Ark., art 2, sec. 4). But no person who denies the being of a God sball hold any office in the civil department of this State, nor be allowed his oath in any court (Id., art. 8, sec. 3).

Sec. 12. TENNESSEE.—The law as to religion in this State is the same in legal effect, and almost the same in language, as in Maryland (Const. of Tenn., art 1, sec. 3 and 4 ; Id., art. 9, sec. 2).

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