網頁圖片
PDF
ePub 版

Dean Alford's “Plea" can hardly be packing a great amonnt of information in called a scientific treatise. It is of more a sinall space. No book of the kind which value as an amusing collection of gramma- we have seen can at all compare with it in tical anecdotes, if we may 80 speak, than conciseness of statement. For this reason as a source of useful information. Some we doubt its value to beginners, for to ambitious grainmarians in our country will them the subject must be presented in an be highly gratified, and, donbtless, equally attractive manner; to the well-informed astonished to find their crudities indorsed student, and to the instructor, the work will by one in so high a station. The Dean is be of real utility as a book of reference. heartily in favor of “It is me;" "He is The propriety of an introductory treatise as good as me" is quite proper; and “I upon Chemical Physics is doubtful. It am better than him" is the very acme of would be better to incorporate all necessary. pure English. In defiance of every re- information on this topic in the chemistry spectable grammarian, he thinks the double proper, as hus been done by Brande and romparative "lesser" quite elegant. The Taylor. The treatise in the “ Practical Dean is evidently a castaway in grammar, Chemistry" is, however, in advance of and may be quoted as authority for a large most other text-books. The authors have number of vulgarisms. His work has adopted the doctrine of conservation and given rise to much discussion. Among correlatiou of forces, and, as far as possible, the opposition, Mr. Moon: has taken up & have introduced the new phraseology. The heavy cudgel, and his letters upon the explanations of polarized light and specDean's English are in the highest degree trum analysis are superior; the latter is pithy and entertaining. He shows the illustrated by a chromo-lithographic plate, work of Dr. Alford to be inaccurate both showing the spectra of various metals. in matter and manner, compelling him to In Part II. we note that three metals, shirk direct issues and to defend himself yttrium, erbium, and terbium, are recogby arguments unworthy of a village debat- nized as existing in gadinolite. The existing-club. Altogether, these little books ence of the latter two is doubtful. Popp form the most interesting grammatical dis- maintains that yttrium alone is to be found; cussion which has been made public in more recently Bahr and Bunsen have demany years. They are written in an easy termined that terbium, at least, should be style, and each contains much inatter which stricken from the list of elements. To be will be found suggestive.

accurate, the authors should have inade

some reference to Popp's investigations, The latest addition to our Shak-pearean

which were published before their work literature is the testimony of a physician

was issued. We perceive, also, that the to the wonderful extent and accuracy of

new metals are placed together under the great poet's knowledge of psychology, "metals of the earths." This is certainly and the truthfulness of his delineations of

inaccurate, for though the proper position insanity and imbecility. Dr. Kellogg's

of thallium and indium is an open question, position and duties have brought him in

there can be no donbt respecting cæsiam contact with almost every condition of

and rubidium, which are undeniably metmental weakness and aberration, and he

als of the alkalis, and should therefore be has studied Sbakspeare in the light of the

classed with K., Na., Li., and Am, The experience thus gained. His style is pleas

appendix contains a number of useful. ing, and his analysis of Shakspeare's char

tables, some of which are not to be found acters critical and appreciative. Lis

in other elementary works. The book positions are well sustained by apt quota

is well printed and bound, and the illustions, and his book will afford profitablo

trations, which are very numerous, are entertainment to all who may read it.

much better than those ordinarily given in 'In preparing the “Student's Practical similar works. Chemistry's the authors have succeeded in

(9) SAAKSPEARE'S DELINEATIONS OF INSANITY,

IMBECILITY, AND SUICIDE. By A. 0. KELLOGG A PLEA FOR THE QUEEN'S ENGLISH. By HENRY M. D).. Assistant Physician, State Lunatie Asylum, ALFORD, D. D., Dean of Canterbury. Tenth Thou Crica, N.Y. New York: Hurd & Houghton, lerno, sand. New York : Alexander Strahan. 16mo. $1.75. Pp. 204.

(8) THE DEAN'S ENGLISH. By WASNINGTON Moox (10) THE STUDENT'S PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY. By 1. Fellow R.S. of Literature. Fourth Edition, New MORTON, A. M. & A. R. LEEDS, A. M. Philadel York: The Same, 16mo, PP. 311. $1.75.

phia : J. B. Lippincott. 12mo. $2.00.

[blocks in formation]

The Law as to Religion in Schools. EC. 9. RAODE ISLAND, continued.- As this little State is to be D regarded as the pioneer, at least in this country, of what is now known as “religious liberty," we give it more attention than its geographical position or territorial extent would otherwise appear to require. On this particular subject the laws of Rhode Island merit a full explanation, both as to their letter and spirit. The Constitution and laws of this State (Ped. Law, art. 5, sec. 8) give no power to a school committee, nor is there any authority in the State, by which the reading of the Bible or praying in school, either at the opening or at the close, can be commanded and enforced. On the other hand, the spirit of the Constitution and the neglect of the law to specify any penalties for so opening and closing a school, or to appoint or allow any officer to take notice of such an act, do as clearly show that there can be no compulsory exclusion of such reading and praying from the public schools. The whole matter must be regulated by the consciences of the teachers and inhabitants of the districts, and by the general consent of the community. Statute law and school committees’ regulations can enforce neither the use nor the disuse of such devotional exercises (Ped. Law, ch. 1, sec. 6). School committees may, indeed, recommend, but they can go no further. It is believed to be the general sentiment of the people of Rhode Island that this matter shall be left to the conscience of the teacher (Pub. Schools Acts, with Rem., 1857, pp. 98, 99). No book should be introduced into any public school by the committee containing any passage or matter reflecting in the least degree upon any religious sect, or which any religious sect would be likely to consider offensive (Id., p. 42). While a committee, on the examination of teachers, should not endeavor to inquire into the peculiar religious or sectarian opinions of a teacher, and should not entertain any preferences or prejudices founded on any such grounds ; they ought, nevertheless, and without hesitation, to reject every person who is in the habit of ridiculing, deriding, or scoffing at religion ; for sach a habit may well be supposed to betray a want of that liberality which the State encourages in religious concernments, and an incapacity to teach in the magnanimous spirit of its laws (Id., p. 36).

Sec. 10. CONNECTICUT.-Although this State may have a record not altogether so clean and so free from the spirit of religious intolerance as that of Rhode Island, yet it would be very unjust to judge Connecticut at this day by its ancient colonial laws (Ped. Law, art. 5, sec. 4). The history of the original colonies of which this State was formed, as well as the action of the General Assembly after the union of these colonies, clearly establish the fact that a good common-school education has ever been considered the birthright of every child of the State. In 1641, a free-school was ordered to be set up in New Haven, and " the pastor, Mr. Davenport, together with the magistrates, was directed to consider what allowance should be paid to it out of the common stock.This is supposed to have been the first small beginning of the American system of freeschool education. In some form, the duty of educating the whole community has been recognized in Connecticut ever since (Com. School Acts of Conn., 1864, p. 2). All the laws of every State must be made and executed in accordance with the letter and spirit of its Constitution, for that is the fundamental law, and contains the principles upon which the government of the State is founded. On examining the Constitution of Connecticut (adopted in 1818), we find that the Rhode Island idea of religious liberty has been almost wholly adopted in that instrument. The exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination, shall forever be free to all persons in this State, provided that the right hereby declared and established, shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or to justify practices inconsistent with the peace and safety of the State" (Const. of Conn., art. 1, sec. 3); bat it is, nevertheless, held and declared to be “the duty of all men to worship the Supreme Being, the great Creator and Preserver of the Universe" (Id., Art. 7, sec. 1); and, perhaps, Connecticut teachers can constitutionally be required to so worship.

Sec. 11. MASSACHUSETTS. --The Constitution of this State says : “No subject shall be hurt, molested, or restrained in his person, liberty, or estate for worshiping God in the manner and seasons most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience ; or for his religious profession or sentiments : provided he doth not disturb the public peace or obstract others in their religious worship" (Const. of Mass., art. 1, sec. 2). But “it is the duty of all men in society, publicly, and at stated seasons, to worship the Supreme Being, the great Creator and Preserver of the Universe” (16.) “The public worship of God, and instructions in piety, religion, and morality, promote the happiness and prosperity of a people, and the security of a republican government (Const. of Mass. Amend., art. 11). It would seem, therefore, that the teachers of Massachusetts might constitutionally be required not only to worship God, as in Connecticut, but to do this “publicly, and at stated seasons.” The school committees are prohibited by statute (Gen. Statutes, tit. xi., ch. 38, sec. 27) from directing any schoolbooks calculated to favor the tenets of any particular sect of Christians to be purchased or used in any of the town schools. It seems to be the settled policy of the State, however, to require the use of the Bible in the public schools ; in fact, since the statute of 1855, “the daily reading of some portion of the Bible, in the common English version," is made obligatory. As Connecticut claims the honor of having established the first free-school on the continent, so Massachusetts claims that "she, first of all, established a sytem of public instruction, and supported it by the essential and distinctive characteristics of a State-the right and duty of taxation." (Sec. Rep., 1861, p. 57.) Neither Massachusetts nor Connecticut, however, can dispute with Rhode Island the honor of having been the first "to hold forth a lively experiment, that a most flourishing civil state may stand and best be maintained with a full liberty in religious concerit ments" (Ped. Law, art. 5, sec 8). Rhode Island's “sure foundation of happiness to all America,” has certainly been adopted to a considerable extent in Connecticut and Massachusetts ; but the former gives religious liberty to those only who worship God, and the latter gives it only to those who worship God “publicly and at stated seasons."

Sec. 12. MAINE.—This State has adopted the principal features of the Rhode Island theory of religious liberty, at least in substance. No religious test can be required as a qualification for any office or trust (Const. of Me., art. 1, sec. 3). It seems, however, that a rule of school, requiring every scholar to read from the Protestant version of the Bible, may be enforced (38 Maine, 376).

Sec. 13. New HAMPSHIRE.--After setting forth some principles that harmonize perfectly with those advanced in Rhode Island, the Constitution of this State asserts and maintains as follows: “As morality and piety, rightly grounded on evangelical principles, will give the best and greatest security to government, and will lay, in the hearts of men, the strongest obligations to due subjection ; end as the knowledge of these is most likely to be propagated through a society by the institution of the public worship of the Deity, and of public instruction in morality and religion; therefore, to promote these important purposes, the people of this State have a right to empower, and do hereby fully empower, the Legislature to authorize, from time to time, the several towns, parishes, bodies corporate, or religious societies, within this State, to make adequate provision, at their own expense, for the support and maintenance of public Protestant teachers, of piety, religion, and morality” (Const. of N. H., part 1, art. 6).

Sec. 14. VERMONT.-To a declaration of religious liberty, amounting to about the same in substance as that which is maintained in Rhode Island, the Constitution of this State adds the following : “Nevertheless, every sect or denomination of Christians ought to observe the Sabbath, or Lord's day, and keep up some sort of religious worship, which to them shall seem most agreeable to the revealed will of God” (chap. 1, art. 3).

Sec. 14. New York. The “lively experiment” of Rhode Island has, it is thought, been fully adopted by the Empire State, and is, at least in substance, incorporated in the Constitution. “ The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed in this State to all mankind (Const. of N. Y., art. 1, sec. 3). The school-teacher, in common with all others, can insist upon enjoying the benefit of this constitutional provision, but it behooves him, nevertheless, to bear in mind, under all circumstances, that he is the agent of the State, and must teach in the spirit of its laws. He should never for a moment forget that his scholars are protected by the law equally with himself. While he may exact from his examiners and others, he must himself also exhibit the liberality and magnanimity in this respect that is proclaimed in the organic law of his State, or he is unfit for the vocation of public teacher, and he may be so declared. The State, however, so far as it can consistently with its organic law, and without prejudice to any, would foster piety in the citizen ; and, therefore, it is not considered unlawful to open and close school with prayer and reading of the Scriptures, provided that all discussion of controverted points and sectarian dogmas be carefully avoided. The policy of New York is the same in this respect as that of Rhode Island (sec. 8).

Sec. 15. New JERSEY.--The law as to religion is the same, in substance, in this State as in New York and Rhode Island (Const. of N. J., art. 1, sects. 3, 4.) . Sec. 16. PENNSYLVANIA.—Täis State, like several others, seems to contradict itself on the subject of religious liberty. “No preference shall ever be given, by law, to any religious establishments or modes of worship" (Const. of Pa., art. 9, sec. 3.) “No person who acknowledges the being of a God and a future state of rewards and punishments, shall, on account of his religious sentiments, be disqualified to hold any office or place of trust or profit under this Commonwealth” (Id., sec. 4). If this is an attempt to imitate the liberality of Rhode Island, it is not altogether successful. “We, therefore, declare, that no man shall be compelled to frequent or to support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatever, except in fulfillment of his own voluntary contract ; nor enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods ; nor disqualified from holding office ; nor otherwise suffer on account of his religious belief; and that every man shall be free to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and to profess, and by argument to maintain, his opinion in matters of religion; and that the same shall in novise diminish, enlarge,

« 上一頁繼續 »