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think that pupils can not fail to be confused " How does God move ? by the multiplicity and complexity of In a mysterious way. things following each other in such rapid God moves in a mysterious way-why? succession. Are we told that experience is To perform his wonders. against us--that pupils do not become con- What is the use of plants ? fased, as is shown by their ability to place To tell what he does. the parts of sentences in the diagrams fur- What is the use of in the sea ? nished for them? That does not prove To tell where he plants his footsteps. that tha operation is other than mechani- What is the use of rides ? cal: it proves that the machine has been To tell what he does. taken apart and boxed-just “that, and -- What is the use of upon the storm ? nothing more."

To tell where he rides." The system of analysis, as here presented,

“ Remark--The young pupil has seen, in inevitably leads us into absurdities. Take, this exposition of the four lines written for example, the nursery doggerel : above, that words have meaning."

In all candor, has “the young pupil” This is the priest all shaven and shorn, That married the man, all tattered and

seen any such thing? Or, if he has, think torn,

of his acquiring the idea, by means of diUnto the maiden all forlorn,

rect instruction, that God acts in a bidden, That milked the cow with the crumpled secret way, for the purpose of performing horn, That tossed the dog,

wonders : or think of his imagining the That worried the cate

Ruler of the Universe astride a storm, and That killed the rat,

having a jolly ride, like a boy coasting on That ate the malt,

his sled. We should prefer that our boys That lay in the house,

gain no such ideas of God. That Jack built.

It is ignoring both philosophy and good First, what is the use (adopting the au- common sense, to select, as a first lesson thor's style of analysis) of all after the “for the young pupil," highly figurative word doggerel? It tells what particular language, and never give him a single hint nursery doggerel is meant-hence, it is an of its figurative character. adjective. And thus, all after the word But if our author is unfortunate in his priest is an adjective, because it tells what system of analysis, and in his exposition of particular priest is meant. And that it re- language, he is still more unfortunate in quires all to tell this, will be seen at a his definitions, formed to accord with his glance; for, take away a single link from theory. the chain-let it be some other cow, or dog, “A sentence is an assemblage ot' words or cat, and the identity of the priest is 80 combined, as to assert an entire propogone. And so in each case, all that follows sition." This rules out all sentences which man, muiden, cow, dog, cat, rat, malt, and simply command. “Go to the ant, thou house, is an adjective. Thus, we have ad- sluggard, consider her ways, and be wise,” jectives within adjectives-a nest of adjec- is not a sentence, because it asserts nothing. tives--the whole an adjective! Similar “Every sentence must have a subject examples of the adverbial phrase may be and a predicate.”

given. Both these--the adverbial phrase, “Go thou and do likewise," is not a sen, and the adjective phrase--we consider tence, under the definition, because it does

logical absurdities. Neither the one an- not contain a predicate. swers to the true idea of the adverb, nor “The subject of a sentence is that of the other to the true idea of the adjective. which something is asserted.”

But let us look at our author's first les- In the command, “Come thou here ;" son, and then at some of his definitions thou is not the subject, because nothing is framed to meet his particular "system of asserted of thou as a subject. analysis."

“A transitive sentence is a sentence that "Gəd moves in a mysterious way,

asserts an act which terminates on an obHis wonders to perform;

ject." He plants His footsteps in the sea, “Keep thine own secrets," is not a tranAnd rides upon the storm.”

sitive sentence; because it does not assert On this passage, among other questions an act which terminates on an object. we have the following:

“An auxiliary sentence is a sentence

that is used as an element in the structure definition, though the definition might not of another sentence, or of a phrase." lie? Did he not see the absurdity of his

Examples. “A mortal disease was "Possessive Adjectives," and " Possessive upon her vitals, before Cæsar had passed the Specifying Adjectives," under his definie Rubicon." Is this auxiliary sentence (in tion of the word possessive ? that every italics) used in any sense, in the structure objection which he urges against the posof the other sentence? What does struc- sessive case, applies with equal force to his ture mean? “A prefix is one or more let possessive adjectives? ters placed before a radical to form a deriv- “A relative pronoun is a prononn ased ative word." "A suffix is one or more to introduce a sentence, which qualifies its letters added to a word to make it deriva- own antecedent."

A relative pronoun tive." Is that what prefixes and suffixes may introduce a sentence, etc. But is this are for-just to make words derivative? We a definition by which a pupil can tell a relconfess our ignorance. We supposed that ative pronoun ? " That is the man to whom prefixes and suffixes were attached to words I gave it. That is the very thing for which for the purpose of varying their significa- I contended.” What are whom and which tion,

in these examples ? relative pronouns ?-not A noun or pronoun varied in its or- under the definition. What then are they? thography, so that it may indicate a re- The author has placed them in his list of lation of possession, is in the possessive relatives, but in his definition he has excase."

cluded them from the class. “The possessive case does not always in- There is much more of a similar characdicate possession."

ter in the book deserving attention ; but 6. Children's shoes. Here the word chil- we have already extended this notice to an dren's does not imply ownership. It sim- unusual length. We will, however, add ply specifies shoes' as to size.” That is, that the author has done as well with a the possessive case is not the possessive faulty system as any one could have done; case of the definition. Did it occur to the and has pursued, to the end, a bad theory, author that his trouble might lie in the with amazing consistency.

EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.

NEW ENGLAND.

instruction, from the elementary principles

of knowledge through the highest branches MASSACHUSETTS.-Six merchants of Bos- of a collegiate course, to every child in the ton have contributed $30,000 toward the city, between four and twenty-one years new memorial hall of Harvard University. of age, who can obtain admission into its

two hundred spacious schools; it furnishes RHODE ISLAND.-At its late session, the

books, stationary, and apparatus, withont legislature passed a bill prohibiting the exclusion of children from any public charge to either parent or pupil, and exschool on account of color or race. The During 1865, the aggregate number of puact went into effect on May 12th.

pils in the several schools was 216,955, CONNECTICUT.—The Yale College faculty During 18 weeks in the early part of the

with an average attendance of 91,502. is about to open a boarding-house for stu

year, there were held 48 evening schools, dents next term, the object being to furnish good and substantial food at cost

with 24,056 pupils enrolled, and an av

erage attendance of 11,487. There are prices.

upward of 2,500 teachers, whose agMIDDLE STATES.

gregate salaries exceed $1,300,000. The

professors in the Free Academy receive NEW YORK.-At the session just closed,

$3,750 per annum, principals of the gram

mr schools, $2,250, and the average salthe legislature passed an act establishing four additional Normal Schools.

ary of male teachers in grammar schools

is somewhat more than $1,500. The low-In extent, operation, and means, the est salary given to female teachers in common-school system of New York city is grammar schools is $400, and the highest, unrivalled in the world. It proffers free $1,200. By act of the legislature, the namo property heretofore set apart and approthere were 807 schools in operation, attended by 34,098 pupils. The amount of

If the Free Academy has been changed to being essential to the preservation of the The College of the City of New York.” rights and liberties of the people, it shall

be the duty of the legislature of the State PENNSYLVANIA.-La Fayette College has to make suitable provisions for the supreen reorganized and endowed. Several port and maintenance of public schools. cew professors have been appointed.

Seo. 2. The legislature shall, as early as

practicable, establish a system of free SOUTHERN STATES.

schools throughout the State; and as a

basis for the endowment and support of MARYLAND.--During 1865, the first year

said system, all the funds, lands, and other of the public school system in this State, priated, or that may hereafter be set apart

and appropriated for the support and teachers' salaries was $75,983.97, and the

maintenance of public schools, shall con; total expenditure, $34,753.62.

stitute the public-school fund; and said

fund, and the income derived therefrom, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.—The Rev. Mr.

shall be a perpetual fund, exclusively for

the education of all the white scholastic inKimball, of the Freedmen's Bureau, Su

habitants of this State, and no law shall perintendent of the Education of the colored children within the department of

ever be made appropriating said fund to Washington, has just rendered a report to

any other use or purpose whatever. General lIoward, in which it is shown

Various propositions were inade to amend

this section, but the majority in every inthat there are at present 62 day schools in the city, with 115 teachers, and an average

stance either luid them upon the table, or attendance of 4,756 pupils of the whole

rejected them. The proposition to strike number in attendance, 5,383 can read, and

out the word “white' was voted down by

60 yeas to 6 pays. 2,804 are able to write. In addition to the day schools, which are wholly supported

This section, infamons as it is, was not by the contributions of benevolent North

considered enough, and therefore the folern aid societies, there are 16 night

lowing was adopted : schools, 24 Sunday schools, and six in

Sec. 7. The legislature may provide for dustrial schools, all of which are well at

the levying of a tax for educational purtended,

poses: Provided, the taxes levied shall be

distributed from year to year, as the same -M. H. de Mariels, editor of Le Mes- may be collected; and, provided, that all sager Franco-Américain, has just estab- the sums arising from said tax, which may lished, near Washington, a farm school, be collected from Africans, or persons of after a model of similar institutions in African descent, shall be exclusively apFrance and Algiers, for colored orphans of propriated for the maintenance of a systein both sexes. The institution is capable of of public schools for Africans and their accommodating 200 inmates.

children ; and it shall be the duty of the

legislature to encourage schools among Virginia.- A majority of the students these people. of the University of Virginia have been in Among the propositions to amend this the Confederate army, mostly as officers. section was one by Mr. Roberts (President

of the Secession Convention), which was, GEORGIA.—The legislature, by resolu- that the legislature may tax one race withtion, has authorized the appointment of a out taxing the other, or may impose a committee to prepare a system of common- different rate of taxation upon the two school education, to be reported at the races, as the public interest may require. next session.

Upon a former occasion, Mr. Roberts

expressed himself against education in TEXAS.-The Texas school fand is larger general, and proclaimed the educational than in any other State, the whole amount system of New England a magnificent at present being $3,351,992.46, and a uni- failure;" but to-day, he appeared to have versity fund of $307,87.04. Besides this, some new ideas. Be warned the conveneach county in the State is entitled by law tion "that unless something was done for to four leagues of land, equal to 17,712 the education of the colored children, we acres, for school purposes, while 162,183 should see trouble. When this ordinance acres were also appropriated for univer- was read at the North, it would excite the sities.

indignation of the people, and before we None of this enormous fiind has yet knew it, the country would be overrun been used for school purposes, as no edn- with Yankee men and women, who, under cational system has ever been organized. pretence of teaching the niggers, would On March 19th, the Convention, after ma- poison their minds, and thus sow the seeds ture deliberation and a free discussion, of disaffection. The speaker's warning adopted the following sections in the edu- did not alarm the House, and his amendcutional bill, as reported by the committee ment was voted down ; and then, an old having the subject in charge:

Union member offered the following: Sec. 1. A general diffusion of knowledge Provided, that all sums collected from maint

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Africans shall be collected by assessors out blackboards, and 3,943 w and collectors of African descent, to be The number of children of elected or appointed as the legislature may the State is 385,582, and t provide for.

public money apportioned to In defense of this amendment, it was 46 cents. urged that inasmuch as it seemed to be settled that the negro educational system CALIFORNIA.-The biennial 1) was to be self-sustaining, there was no Swett differs from any other we good reason why the colored men should and, in the fullness with which not collect their own funds: if they did, ters relating to school managerne they would have a larger sum; and if the cussed, it resembles a labored ea funds were stolen, they would have the treatise rather than the abstract ra benefit of the stealings, instead of being State officer. In the State there ar robbed, as usual, by white men.

white children, of whom 41,376 be This amendment was laid upon the table the public schools and 12,478 to by S8 yeas to 10 nays.

schools. The average attendance of No better illustration of the feeling, not during the last year was .83, and .59 only of the convention, but of the people whole number enrolled in the State. generally, toward the colored race, can be were 821 districts and 947 schools given, than this act of barbarity and in- grades. Of the latter, 39 are brick, justice; and when it is submitted to the are wood, 12 are adobe, 69 are rented, people for their approval or rejection, it 149 disgrace the State. 102 new sch will be adopted by a large majority. houses were erected during the past y

There were & schools for blacks, attend
WESTERN STATES.

by 278 pupils. The number of teach

was 1,155, of whom only 468 were signit Onio.— The subscription fund for the ficiently intelligent or alive to their or endowment of Antioch College already

interests to subscribe for an education amounts to $120,000, and the friends of journal, and only 272 attended coun the College are hopeful of securing a quar

institutes. The total expenditures fo ter of a million.

1865 were $885,116;--for teachers' salaries

$526,856; for school-buildings, $257,804 WISCONSIN.-We take the following di- for rent, etc., $89,056; for school libra gest from the Wisconsin Journal of Educa- ries, $5,792 ; and for apparatus, $3,777 tion:

an increase of expenditure of $227,917 According to the State Superintendent's The whole school property is valued ai Report there are 11,943 more scholars re- $1,024,999. The average salary of maler ported as attending public schools this teachers was $74; of females, $62. $8,000 year than last. The whole number of were appropriated for the State Normal

of members is 66 per cent. of the whole num- School." "The total amount expended for ber over 4 and under 20 years of age in educational purposes, since the founding of the State. The number less than 4 years public schools, is estimated at $8,737,000. ay es of age, who have been registered, is 1,252. Throughout the State there has been a

so The number over 20 years of age, who have very gratifying increased average in the attended school, is 1,523. The average daily attendance. Since 1863 the number length of tiine the public schools have been of school children has increased .26, while red lept during the past year is 14 days more the attendance has increased .46. During than it was last year, and more than it has 1865 the increase of census children was

con ever been, except in 1860. The number of .095, and of children on school-rolls .16. teachers employed in public schools was The average length of the school-year is 7,532. During the past year there has been now 7.36 months, which equals that of an increase of 518 male teachers. The New York, and is exceeded only in Massa

th demand for teachers is at present greater

chusetts and Nevada. In his report Mr. than the supply. Hundreds of persons Swett recommends the introduction of possessing limited attainments are em- calisthenics into the schools. He discusses ployed, not because the people are indif- The Bible in the Schools, Moral Training, ferent to their qualifications, but because School Discipline, Pedagogical Law, and the scivool-houses would be unoccupied other subjects in a series of carefully' preunless these were employed. There has pared papers. The report is a fine model been an increase in the monthly wages which other superintendents might imitate paid to teachers. The average wages of to their advantage. male teachers was $36.45, an increase of $4,06; of female teachers, $22.24, an in

FOREIGN crease of $2.31. There has been raised by tax for school purposes $2.70 for each child ITALY.-The annual expenditure for eduover 4 and under 20 years of age, and $4.07 cational purposes is $3,007,818, of which for each child registered as a member of only one-tenth is devoted to elementary public schools. The number of school schools, which the country most needs. pupils. There are 517 school-houses with learned societies, and an army of officials.

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vey a proper idea of the sp. AMERICAN in those days.

k, in 1694, by act of the

5, Seminary priests, or ot!
J'y any power or jurisdicti
f Rome, residing or by
Ities, required to depo

(Plant. Laws, p. 2
JULY ssachusetts. (Pla

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No. 7. Maryland, where -, 1866.

jbtained a home,
PELS.,

PP.GOGICAL LAW
in this provi
ir to be the

V.
y of the th
reproachfu The Law as to Religion in Schools.

gress shall make no law respecting the establishment of ough the

Hibiting the free exercise thereof." (U. S. Const., Art. 1 anse, he It would seem to follow from this, that

any

State 1 fined f. third sion, and cause the same to be taught in its schools ; for if

make no law respecting the establishment of religion, it can

prohibiting the establishment of it. It is entirely within

of the several States, therefore, to establish a religion for siniste

or not, just as they may deem proper. It follows, also, that la terbe Plant y establish a religious test for teachers ; and this may be done Set Sec's of private as well as of public schools

. As we deem it of ae art importance that teachers should know precisely what is and is peakiod of them by law in matters of religious concernment, upon aintah

consciences of men everywhere are so tender, and which are so true"

likes and dislikes, disputes and contentions, we will now proceed the law of the several States on this point, and at the same

a legal history (gleaned from law records only) of the origin Bar . 2. disabls of religious liberty in our country.

In England, in the time of Charles II., all persons were pro

om teaching school, “ unless they be licensed by the ordinary, reby

ribe a declaration of conformity to the liturgy of the Church, Linglong any ently frequent divine service established by the laws of this

(13 and 14 Car. 2, c. 4 ; 17 Car. 2, c. 2.) This was the bild arles from whom Roger Williams obtained the charter for Rhode

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duty, and 3. In Massachusetts, our pious Pilgrim fathers thought it their Guten founding a State, to make the weak in faith sound by fear, and

as follows: “If any person within this jurisdiction shall broach maintain any damnable heresies, as denying the immortality of the

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