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complains of the inadequate salaries State Superintendent of Instruction, gives granted to teachers. In Wheeling they the following statistics : The number of average per month, for Inales, 8139 and school districts is 1,824; the number of for females $42, there being about 8.8 children between tive and twenty-one years months in the year; in other districts of age is 87,244; number of pupils on males receive $34, and females $22, there school-lists, 50,564 ; average attendance, being on the average only 2.7 in the 32,259; total number of teachers, 2,003; school year. The report contains numer- total amount paid to teachers, $124,563, an ons excellent recommendations, among increase of $14,538 over the preceding which are, that the school-fund be appor year ; total number of school-houses, 1,112, tioned upon the basis of average attend- of which 22 are stone, 12 brick, 517 fraine, ance, that five normal schools be estab- and 561 log; amount of money received lished, that a uniform series of text-books from county treasurers, $151,917; amount be adopted, and that proper apparatus be of district taxes, $32,215 : the irreducible pioenred for the schools. The irredu school-fund is now more than $1,000,000, ei ole school-fund is $106,122, and the
and it is believed it will eventually equal aujount cxpended during the last year
$12,600,000, as one-eighteenth of the Stato wus $67,330.
has been set apart. Here, as elsewhere,
the friends of education are grieved by the VIRGINIA.- A vigorous effort is being indifference to school privileges manifested mide for the removal of Randolph Macon
by a large number. Only 87 per cent. of College, as the financial condition of the those entitled to the advantages of the institution is one of serious embarrass schools, are regular in attendance. From inant.
this alone, as the secretary shows, the State
has suffered a loss in money equalling the SocTH CAROLINA.-From the January amount of teachers' salaries. Mr. Blakeley Raport of the State Superintendent of finds no ground for gratitude in the inElication under the Freedmen's Bureau creased number of school-houses, as ski!lin South Carolina, it appears that 109 ful teachers are less numerous than formerteachers were employed among the Freed- ly. He urges the necessity of appointing men of that State in December 6,420 an efficient State Superintendent, and pupils were registered; the average at maintains that nothing else can render tendance, 4,504. Of the number enrolled, the system effective; its buildings are 4.579 were reading: 3.206 studied arith
wretched, its teachers incompetent, its dismetic; 1,346 studied geography; 2,983 trict officers are ignorant, and its annuwere writing. 36 of the teachers were al income is wastefully applied. “Poor Datives ; 73 from the North ; 85 were col
schools are dear at any price, good ones ored. Of the pupils, 565 were free before are cheap at any reasonable cost, and the the war.
latter can not be secured without close and
careful supervision." WESTERN STATES.
-The Normal-school at Winona, under ILLINOIS.-The whole number of papils the charge of Professor W. F. Phelps, is enrolled in the public-schools of Chicago succeeding admirably. There were in during December, 1865, was 16,014, an in- attendance last year eighty-two pupils. o ease of 1,296 over the corresponding The principal holds that county superinA.onth of 1864. The average attendance tendents should exercise more disrriminahus increased 1,989. Notwithstanding the
tion in selecting candidates. The efficiency inereased attendance, no new accommoda-, of the school would be greatly increased if tions have been provided, and the schools none were recommended but those who are over-crowded, while many children are are well advanced in their studies and give unable to gain admission. The number of promise of becoming successful teachers, pupils to each teacher averages about 70. The soundness of the principal's opinion
will appear from the following selections Iowa.-The biennial report of the Super from examination papers of candidates for intendent of Instruction has just been pub- admission: lished. The nuinber of pupils in the State Geography.-1st question. How do we
rease of 7,024, and the average know the earth is round? attendance of 2,215 over the previous year. lst answer. Because it has been travThe number of teachers is 8,820, a decrease ersed over, examined, and found to be of 135. The aggregate amount of teach certainly the case. ers' salaries was $856,725, an increase of 2d answer. The earth at a distance looks $170,053. There are 4,635 school-houses round, also the representation of the globe valued at $2,161,568, an increase of $428,727. is round. 59 institutes were held during the year, To this question there were sixteen corand were attended by upward of 4,000 rect answers, twenty seven imperfect, and teachers.
twelve total failures.
Arithmetic.—3d question. What is a MINNESOTA.-The report of Secretary square root of a nuinber? Blakeley, who unites with his duties as Ist answer. The square root of a number Secretary of the State, the responsibility of is a number multiplied by itself three times.
2d answer. A number multiplied by itself.
Seven perfect, one imperfect, fifteen " can not answer."
Grammar.-2d question. Give the past tense of the verb "to be" in two numbers and three persons ?
Ist answer. I was, thou art, he is.
To this question there were four correct answers, two incorrect, and eight replied “can not answer."
The legislature has passed an act making an appropriation of 10,000, with which to begin an edifice for the school. The bill passed the senate unanimonsly, and the house with but three dissenting votes. A lot has been purchased in the central part of Winona, and the citizens of that place have subscribed $3,000 for the furtherance of the project,
ARKANSAS.--The educational interests of this State are in a very backward condition. The public fund, resulting from the sale of the sixteenth section of land in each geographical township, was alınost entirely swallowed up by the rebellion, as the legislature passed an act requiring school-commissioners to receive war bonds in payment of all public fund claims. The peoplo are willing to pay good rates of tuition, but have not learned the advantages of owning school property and employing permanent teachers. Consequently, there are few who teach from choice; those who are engaged in the business, taking it up from necessity.
WISCONSIN.- At the Methodist Centenary collection in the Central M, E. Church of Detroit, $4,000 were raised for the Garret Biblical Institute of Chicago.
KANSA8.--The State Normal-school at Emporia seems to be gaining rapidly in usefulness and public favor. It has been in operation one year, and sixty students are in daily attendance. The present legislature has appropriated $13,000 for the coming year; $10,000 are to be used in the construction of a suitable building, and the
remainder for the coinnt expenses of the school.
FOREIGN CUBA.-The amount expended on the free-schools last year was $460,000.
IRELAND.-The whole of Protestant Treland is in a ferment respecting the proposed affiliation of the leading colleges with the Queen's University. While this change would doubtless be beneficial to the secondary institutions by causing thein to elevate · their standard of scholarship, there is danger that the non-sectarian system, adopted in these, would be overthrown. On January 20th, a deputation of the Ulster National Educational Association waited on the lord-lieutenant, and presented a me. morial, which stated forcibly the main objections to the change. His excellency promised to lay the paper before her majesty's government.
FRANCE.-Six thousand public libraries have been founded and annexed to common-schools within the last four years.
INDIA.- A Calcutta correspondent of tho London Times says: “Every year the numbers who flock to the schools and colleges of both the State and the missionaries, and aspire to university honors, increase all over India, but especially in Bengal. Recently the enormous hall of the fine new post-office at Calcutta, built just over the Blackhole, was crowded with the university candidates as only the examinationrooms in China are filled. There were one thousund five hundred candidates for matriculation, at or above the age of sixteen, and four hundred and forty-seven undergraduates of two years' standing for the
little go,' called here the first examination in arts, Next week there will be one hun. dred and twenty aspiring Bachelors of Arts, besides Masters of Arts, and those who seek professional degrees. But among the would-be Bachelors, there is not a single Mussulman. The Bengaleso everywhers predominate in the proportion of four-fifths of the whole."
SCIENCE AND THE ARTS.
-Lately, M. Paul Berit stated to the French Academy that “if the tail of a rat be cut off, skinned, and then inserted on. der the skin of the same animal, it will continue to live and grow as before." He has since made further experiments, and has succeeded in grafting the tails upon other rats. The operation of grafting was successful after the tails had been subjected to the following conditions: 1. Ex
posed to the action of air, in a closed tnbe, for seventy-two hours, at a tomperature of 44° to 46° F.; 2. After exposure to a humid heat of 135° F. ; 3. After exposure to a temperature of 30 F.; 4. After complete desiccation ; 5. After desiccation and exposure to dry heat of 212° F.
-A ministerial order has been issued in France, that only utensils tinned with pura
tin should be used in the military hogpitals. M. Jeannel gives the following process for detecting small quantities of lead in tin: he treats five decigrammes of metal filings with an excess of nitric acid, diluted with three times its weight of Water, boils the mixture, filters, and then drops into the solution a crystal of iodide of potassium. If only one ten-thousandth part of lead is present, the yellow precipiEste of iodide of lend is formed, which will Dot disappear upon addition of excess of ammonia.
-At Berlin, they have discovered a new way of making butter. The cream is put into a close linen bag, and buried in the ground at the depth of about a foot and a half. At the end of twenty-four hours it is taken out, and found quite firm. It is then necessary to beat it up with a little water, to get rid of the butterinilk. To prevent any admixture of earth, it is bet ter to inclose the first bag in a second. This method is said never to fail, and the batter to be of a particularly fine quality.
-M. Pouchet has sent a paper to the French Academy on the effects of freezing animals. He finds that no animal really frozen is susceptible of revivification, as freezing disorganizes the blood. The temperature at which the death of insects,
grubs, and snails becomes inevitable is far below the freezing point. Animals may be surrounded by ice without being frozen, unless the temperature be very low. M. Pouchet states that when an animal is frozen, the capillaries contract so as to prevent the passage of the blood, and 'the nuclei of the blood corpuscles escape from the envelopes, and become more opaque than in a normal state.
-It requires as many as 2,000 tons of coal to produce u circular block of aniline 24 inches high by 9 inches wide; but this is sufficient to dye 300 miles of silk fabric.
Fossil REMAINS IN IRELAND.--Dr. E. P. Wright recently read a paper at the meeting of the Royal Irish Academy, by Professor Huxley and himself, on the fossil remains of some large Batrachian reptiles from the Irish coal measures. It was stated that these fossil remains rested on the very bottom of the coal basin at Castlecomer, 1,850 feet below the sea level. The reptiles were six Batrachians; there was one fossil fish and one fossil insect. Professor Haughton said he had Professor Huxley's authority for stating that the coal pit ut Castlecomer had, within a few months, afforded more important discov. eries than all the other coal-pits of Europe.
NOTES AND QUERIES.
(We bave received several answers to the arithmeti- are: Widow's share, %; each child's share, end goestion given in March, but only the following agrees with the decision of the court.-Bd.).
In comparing the dates of settlement of PETERSBURG, VW, April, 1866. different States, as well as the places M R. EDITOR-The most convenient where first settled, as given in two geog.. 11 fractions expressing approximately rapbies, I find a remarkable disagreement. the shares of the widow and children, as re- I will give a few examples, presupposing quired in the "curious question in arithme- that the different names in one or two tie" in the March number of the MONTHLY, cases stand for the same place.
Maine ............ 1625—Bristol............ 1630-York.
... 1788—Marietta ......... 1783-Marietta.
California ......... 1769-San Diego ....... 1769-Monterey.
Mr. McMullen, of New York, has recent. Even the smallest scholar can sharpen his ly invented a PENCIL-SHARPENER’, elite-pencil without powdering his hands which consists simply of a file isolated in a and clothes with pencil dust. If a slender box. Its chief advantage is to keep the lead-pencil, that has not much wood on it, hands, desk, and clothes clean, and to give be used, the file will take away the wood a fine point to the pencil.
with ease, so that no knife need be used, It will be found equally useful in the It is made in two styles, which are furcounting-house, the library, and the school. nished at fifty and seventy-five cents each.
Manufactured and sold by Schermerhorn, Bancroft & Co., 430 Broome-street, New York; 512 Arch. street, Philadelphia ; 6 Custom Houso Place, Cui cago, Ill.
(2) Manufactured and sold by Schermerhorn, Bancroft
& Co., 430 Broomo-street, New York ; 412 Arch. street, Philadelphia ; 6 Custom House Place, Chi. cago, IL
SHORTCOMINGS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
DROM the late message of Governor Fenton it would appear that he T largely attributes the admitted deficiency of the Public School System to the lack of capable public instructors, and he recommends an increase of normal training-schools to obviate the difficulty. There is no reason why excellence in a public instructor should not be obtained in the same way and by the same means that excellence is obtained in any other trade or profession. While the inducements held out to civil engineers, lawyers, book-keepers, and traffickers, exceed those afforded by public parsimony to principals of schools, it is questionable whether the most able end energetic of pupils so instructed, could be retained in the ranks of teachers. The schoolmaster is not paid with reverence as the clergyman, por with fame as the poet ; and, as a rule, will be found to appreciate the importance of wealth as well as his neighbors. It would not be amiss for the State authorities, under the distressing circumstances of which the governor complains, to try the effect of the plan instituted by the Frenchman, who, seeing a number of verbally sympathizing spectators standing round a laborer who was injured by falling from a scaffold, stepped up to him, and, suiting the action to the word, exclaimed, “Sare, I'm sorry for you—one dollare.” Fearing I have not made my meaning sufficiently plain in the foregoing, it is necessary to add, that, in this mercenary age, most men expect to realize pecuniarily on their abilities; and teachers are no exceptions to this rule. Some years ago, when young men went into business on speculation in New York, and acquired fortunes in a short space of time, a young son of Maine, who had been one of the fortunate ones, on revisiting his home in the North, met his brother, who had remained in their native village. “Sam, is that you ?" exclaimed the brother. "You look well; how have you been this long time?” “Oh! I'm all right,” replied Sam ; " but what are you doing? you look rather seedy." “Me; I'm preaching.” “What salary do you get ?” “Only two hundred a year.” “Very poor pay.” “Yes,” replied the brother ; " but it's very poor preaching, too.” The moral of this is, that the quality and effi