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from these voracious animals, but for their destruction. The method most in use consists in sticking into the trunk of the tree old blades of knives, standing upwards, scythes, and pieces of pointed iron, disposed circularly round it, when the tree is straight, or at the place of bending, when the trunk is crooked. The bear has commonly dexterity enough to avoid these points in climbing up the tree; but when he descends, as he always does, backwards, he gets on these sharp hooks, and receives such deep wounds, that he usually dies. Old bears frequently take the precaution to bend down these blades with their fore-paws as they mount, and thereby render all this offensive armour useless.

Another destructive apparatus has some similitude to the catapulta of the ancients. It is fixed in such a manner that, at the instant the bear prepares to climb the tree, he pulls a string that lets go the machine, whose elasticity strikes a dart into the animal's breast. A further mode is to suspend a platform by long ropes to the farthest extremity of a branch of the tree. The platform is disposed horizontally before the hive, and there tied fast to the trunk of the tree with a cord made of bark. The bear, who finds the seat very convenient for proceeding to the opening of the hive, begins by tearing the cord of bark which holds the platform to the trunk, and hinders him from executing his purpose. Upon this the platform immediately quits the tree, and swings in the air with the animal seated upon it. If, on the first shock, the bear is not tumbled out, he must either take a very dangerous leap, or remain patiently in his suspended seat. If he take the leap, either involuntarily, or by his own good will, he falls on sharp points, placed all about the bottom of the tree; if he resolve to remain where he is, he is shot by arrows or musket balls.


White butterbur. Tressilago alba.

January 27.

St. John Chrysostom.

St. Julian of Mans. St. Marius.


It is observed in Dr. Forster's "Perennial Calendar," that "Buds and embryo blossoms in their silky, downy coats,

often finely varnished to protect them from the wet and cold, are the principal be tanical subjects for observation in Janu ary, and their structure is particularl worthy of notice; to the practical gar dener an attention to their appearance i indispensable, as by them alone can he prune with safety. Buds are always formed in the spring preceding that in which they open, and are of two kinds, leaf buds and flower buds, distinguished by a difference of shape and figure, easily discernible by the observing eye; the fruit buds being thicker, rounder, and shorter, than the others—hence the gardener can judge of the probable quantity of blossom that will appear:"

Lines on Buds, by Cowper.
When all this uniform uncoloured scene
Shall be dismantled of its fleecy load,
And flush into variety again.
From dearth to plenty, and from death to life,
Is Nature's progress, when she lectures man
In heavenly truth; evincing, as she makes
The grand transition, that there lives and

A soul in all things, and that soul is God.
He sets the bright procession on its way,
And marshals all the order of the year;
He marks the bounds which winter may noɩ


And blunts his pointed fury; in its case,
Russet and rude, folds up the tender germ,
Uninjured, with inimitable art;
And ere one flowery season fades and dies,
Designs the blooming wonders of the next.

"Buds possess a power analogous to that of seeds, and have been called the viviparous offspring of vegetables, inasmuch as they admit of a removal from their original connection, and, its action being suspended for an indefinite time, can be renewed at pleasure."

On Icicles, by Cowper.
The mill-dam dashes on the restless wheel,
And wantons in the pebbly gulf below.
No frost can bind it there; its utmost force
Can but arrest the light and smoky mist,
That in its fall the liquid sheet throws wide.
And see where it has hung th' embroidered

With forms so various, that no powers of art,
The pencil, or the pen, may trace the scene!
Here glittering turrets rise, upbearing high
(Fantastic misarrangement !) on the roof
Large growth of what may seem the sparkling


And shrubs of fairy land. The crystal drops That trickle down the branches, fast con gealed,

Shoot into pillars of pellucid length,
And prop the pile they but adorned before,


Earth Moss. Phascum cuspidatum.
Dedicated to St. Chrysostom.

January 28,

St. Agnes.—Second Commemoration.
St. Cyril, A. D. 444. Sts. Thyrsus, Leu-
cius, and Callinicus. St. John of
Reomay, A. D. 540. Blessed Margaret,
Princess of Hungary, A. D. 1271.
St. Panlinus, A. D. 804. Blessed
Charlemagne, Emperor, A. D. 814.
St. Glastian, of Fife, A. D. 830.
St. Thyrsus.

Several churches in Spain are dedicated to him. In 777, the queen of Oviedo and Asturia presented one of them with a silver chalice and paten, a wash-hand basin and a pipe, which, according to Butler, is" a silver pipe, or quill to suck up the blood of Christ at the communion, such as the pope sometimes uses-it sucks up as a nose draws up air."

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John Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf, a celebrated printer, letter-founder, and bookseller of Leipsic, died on this day, in the year 1794 he was born there November 23, 1719. After the perusal of a work by Albert Durer, in which the shape of the letters is deduced from mathematical principles, he endeavoured to fashion them according to the most beautiful models in matrices cut for the purpose. His printing-office and letterfoundery acquired very high reputation. It contained punches and matrices for 400 alphabets, and he employed the types of Baskerville and Didot. Finding that engraving on wood had given birth to printing, and that the latter had contributed to the improvement of engraving, he transferred some particulars, in the province of the engraver, to that of the printer; and represented, by typography, all the marks and lines which occur in the modern music, with all the accuracy of engraving, and even printed maps and mathematical figures with movable types; though the latter he considered as a matter of mere curiosity: such was also another attempt, that of copying portraits by movable types. He likewise printed, with movable types, the Chinese characters, which are, in general, cut in pieces of wood, so that a whole house is often necessary to contain the blocks employed

No. 7.

for a single book. He improved typemetal, by giving it that degree of hardness, which has been a desideratum in founderies of this kind; and discovered a new method of facilitating the process of melting and casting. From his foundery he sent types to Russia, Sweden, Poland, and even America. He also improved the printing-press.

and progress of the art of printing, furBesides this, his inquiries into the origin nished the materials of a history, which he left behind in manuscript. He published in 1784, the first part of "An Attempt to illustrate the origin of playingcards, the introduction of paper made from linen, and the invention of engraving on wood in Europe;" the latter part was finished, but not published, before his death. His last publication was a small "Treatise on Bibliography," &c. published in 1793, with his reasons for retaining the present German characters. With the interruption of only five or six hours in the twenty-four, which he allowed for sleep, his whole life was devoted study and useful employment.


Double Daisy. Bellis perennis plenus Dedicated to St. Margaret of Hungary.

January 29.

St. Francis of Sales, A. D. 1622. St.
Sulpicius Severus, A. D. 420. St. Gildas
the Abbot, A.D. 570. St. Gildas, the
Scot, A. D. 512.

This being the anniversary of the king's accession to the throne, in 1820, is a Holiday at all the public offices, except the Excise, Stamps, and Customs.


Flowering Fern. Osmundu regalis
Dedicated to St. Francis of Sales.

January 30.

KING CHARLES'S MARTYRDOM. Holiday at the Public Offices; except the Stamps, Customs, and Excise.

St. Bathildes, Queen of Navarre, a. D. 680.
St. Martina. St. Aldegondes, A. D. 660.
St. Barsimæus, a. D. 114.

St. Martina.

The Jesuit Ribadeneira relates that the

emperor Alexander IV., having decreed that all christians should sacrifice to the Roman gods, or die, insinuated to St

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Lumi Cromi sys. - one can scarce sincere i prester absurdity than retainng the tree acintas dedicated to the house if Yuar. Was the preservation of Janes a pater ding to England ball de testrict of the Spanish armimiä, or when test is established? Leve nur ir ass free for the execution if eng Startes Are we at this day si guitus cod When is the

san u be wasted out! What sense is there a banking leaven for the restorazun of a family, when it so soon became Desiree an

Acuring a de Life of William Lily, waren by himself" Charles I. caused de nui asticger to be consulted

f wan a fy Manna sannnet e encerr, mut ne wry, a te u ning umsefne that, made a center and mutter to the emperor, and - fet armga de ara a dark cloud; but the enteric * to underwand 1* Then he emper commanded her to be muret. The pant's acres of these operations and ber erages, an oder parcari Acording to him, books and make ni hey no machet; she had a factory of shining, which the pouring of ace lust vpn her wonid not quench; when m gaol, men in daring white sorrocoded her; she could not feel a hundred and eighteen wounds; a fierce bon, who had feated three days, would not eat her, and fre would not barn her; but a sword cut her head off in 228, and at the end of two days two eagles were found watching her body. "That which above all confirmeth the truth of this relation," says Kitadeneira," is, that there is nothing herein related but what is in brief in the lessons of the Roman Breviary, commanded by public authority to be read on her feast by the whole church."


On this day, in the year 1649, king Charles I. was beheaded. In the Common Prayer Book of the Church of England, it is called "The Day of the Martyrdom of the Blessed King Charles I.;" and there is "A Form of Prayer, with Fasting, to be used yearly" upon its re


The sheet, which received the head of Charles I. after its decapitation, is carefully preserved along with the communion plate in the church of Ashburnham, in this county; the blood, with which it has been almost entirely covered, now appears nearly black. The watch of the unfortunate monarch is also deposited with the linen, the movements of which are still perfect. These relics came into the possession of lord Ashburnham immediately after the death of the king.-Brighton Herald.

usment. This's Lily's account: Es majesty. Charles L'baving infisted me Sects w his person, was, for money, Devered into the hands of the Engush parimament, and, by several removas. wis had to Hampton-court, about July or August, 1647; for he was there, and at this time when my house was visited with the plague. He was dextrous to escape from the soldiery, and to coscure himself for some time near London, the citizens whereof began now to be early, and alienated in affection from the parliament, inclining wholly to his majesty, and very averse to me army. His majesty was well informed of all this, and thought to make good use hereof: besides, the army and parliament were at some odds, who should be masters. Upon the king's intention to escape, and with his consent, madam Whorewood (whom you knew very well, worthy esquire) came to receive my judgment, viz. In what quarter of this nation he might be most safe, and not to be discovered until himself pleased. When she came to my door, I told her I would not let her come into my house, for I buried a maid-servant of the plague very lately: however, up we went. After erection of my figure, I told her about twenty miles (or thereabouts) from London, and in Essex, I was certain he might continue undiscovered. She liked my judgment very well; and, being herself of a sharp judgment, remembered a place in Essex about that distance, where was an excellent house, and all conveniences for his reception. Away she went, early next morning, unto Hampton-court, to acquaint his majesty; but see the misfortune: he, either guided by his own

approaching hard fate, or misguided by Ashburnham, went away in the nighttime westward, and surrendered himself to Hammond, in the Isle of Wight. Whilst his majesty was at Hamptoncourt, alderman Adams sent his majesty one thousand pounds in gold, five hundred whereof he gave to madam Whorewood. I believe I had twenty pieces of that very gold for my share." Lilly proceeds thus: "His majesty being in Carisbrook-castle, in the Isle of Wight, the Kentish men, in great numbers, rose in arms, and joined with the lord Goring; a considerable number of the best ships revolted from the parliament; the citizens of London were forward to rise gainst the parliament; his majesty laid his design to escape out of prison, by Sawing the iron bars of his chamber window; a small ship was provided, and anchored not far from the castle to bring him into Sussex; horses were provided ready to carry him through Sussex into Kent, that so he might be at the head of the army in Kent, and from thence to march immediately to London where thousands then would have armed for him. The lady Whorewood came to me, acquaints me herewith. I got G. Farmer (who was a most ingenious locksmith, and dwelt in Bow-lane) to make a saw to cut the iron bars in sunder, I mean to saw them, and aqua fortis besides. His majesty in a small time did his work; the bars gave liberty for him to go out; he was out with his body till he came to his breast; but then his heart failing, he proceeded no farther: when this was discovered, as soon after it was, he was narrowly looked after, and no opportunity after that could be devised to enlarge him." Lilly goes on to say, "He was be

headed January 30, 1649. After the execution, his body was carried to Windsor, and buried with Henry VIIIth, in the same vault where his body was lodged. Some, who saw him embowelled, affirm, had he not come unto this untimely end, he might have lived, according unto nature, even unto the height of old age. Many have curiously inquired who it was that cut off his head: I have no permission to speak of such things; only thus much I say, he that did it is as valiant and resolute a man as lives, and one of a competent fortune. For my part, I do believe he was not the worst, but the most unfortunate of kings."

Lilly elsewhere relates, "that the next Sunday but one after Charles I. was beheaded, Robert Spavin, secretary unto lieutenant-general Cromwell at that time, invited himself to dine with me, and brought Anthony Pierson, and several others, along with him to dinner. Their principal discourse all dinner-time was, who it was beheaded the king: one said it was the common hangman; another, Hugh Peters; others also were nominated, but none concluded. Robert Spavin, so soon as dinner was done, took me by the hand, and carried me to the south window; saith he, 'These are all mistaken, they have not named the man that did the fact; it was lieutenant-colonel Joice: I was in the room when he fitted himself for the work, stood behind him when he did it; when done, went in again with him. There is no man knows this but m master, viz. Cromwell, commissary Ireton, and myself.'-' Doth not Mr. Rushworth know it?' said I. 'No, he doth not know it,' saith Spavin. The same thing Spavin since hath often related unto me when we were alone."


SHROVE TUESDAY regulates most of the moveable feasts. Shrove Tuesday itself is the next after the first new moon in the month of February. If such new moon should happen on a Tuesday, the next Tuesday following is Shrove Tuesday. A recently published volume furnishes a

list, the introduction of which on the next page puts the reader in possession of serviceable knowledge on this point, and affords an opportunity for affirming, that Mr. Nicolas's book contains a variety of correct and valuable informa

tion not elsewhere in a collected form:-

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