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shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

18th. In suits of common law where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact so tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the Confederacy than according to the rules of the common law.

19th. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted.

20th. Every law or resolution having the force of law shall relate to but one subject, and that shali be expressed in the title.

§ 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation, grant letters of marque and reprisals, coin money, make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts, pass any bill of attainder or ex post facto law, or law imparting the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 2d. No State shall without the consent of Congress lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection law, and the net produce of all duties and imposts laid by any State on imports or exports shall be for the use of the Treasury of the Confederate States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress.

3d. No State shall, without the consent of Congress lay any duty of tonnage except on sea-going vessels, for the improvement of its rivers and harbors navigated by the said vessels, but such duties shall not conflict with any treaties of the Confederate States with foreign nations, and any surplus of revenue thus derived shall after making such improvements be paid into the common Treasury, nor shall any State keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State or with a foreign power to engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such eminent danger as not to admit of delay. But when any river divides or flows through two or more States they may enter into compacts with each other to improve the navigation thereof.

ARTICLE II.

§ 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the Confederate States of America. He and the Vice-President shall hold their offices for a term of six years, but the President shall not be reeligible. The President and Vice-President shall be elected as follows:

2d. Each State shall appoint in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in Congress, but no Senator or Representative, or person holding any office of trust or profit under the Confederate States shall be appointed an elector.

3d. The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for President and VicePresident, one of whom at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves, they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify and transmit sealed to the Government of the Confederate States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be

counted, the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person shall have such a majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But, in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the Representative from each State having one vote, a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the VicePresident shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

4th. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President, a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary for a choice.

5th. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President, shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the Confederate States.

6th. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the Confederate States. .

7th. No person except a natural born citizen of the Confederate States, or a citizen thereof at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, or a citizen thereof born in the United States, prior to the 20th December, 1860, shall be eligible to the office of President, neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of thirtyfive years, and been fourteen years a resident within limits of the Confederate States, as they may exist at the time of his election. : 8th. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of the removal, death, resignation or inability both of the President and the Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer

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