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the expenses of the post office department after the first day of March, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and sixty-three, shall be paid out of its own revenues.

8th. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.

9th. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.

10th. To define and punish piracies and felonies coinmitted on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations.

11th. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water.

12th. To raise and support armies; but no appropriations of money for that use shall be for a longer term than two years.

13th. To provide and maintain a navy.

14th. To make rules for government and regulation of the land and naval forces.

15th. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Confederate States, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.

16th. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such parts

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of them as may be employed in the service of the Confederate States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress.

17th. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may be by cession of one or more States and the acceptance of Congress become the seat of the Government of the Confederate States, and to exercise alike authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the State in which the same shall be for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings, and

18th. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the Government of the Confederate States, or in any department of office thereof.

$ 9. The importation of negroes of the African race from any foreign country, other than the slaveholding States or Territories of the United States of America, is hereby forbidden,, and Congress is required to pass such laws as shall effectually prevent the same.

2d. Congress shall also have the power to pro

hibit the introduction of slaves from any State not a member of, or territory not belonging to, this Confederacy.

3d. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

4th. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, or law denying or imparting the right of property in negro slaves, shall be passed.

5th. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

6th. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State except by a vote of twothirds of both Houses.

7th. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another.

8th. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law, and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

9th. Congress shall appropriate no money from the treasury except by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses—taken by yeas and nays, unless it be asked and estimated for by some one of the heads of depart

ments and submitted to Congress by the President, or for the purpose of paying its own expenses and contingencies or for the payment of claims against the Confederate States, the justice of which shall have been judicially declared by a tribunal for the investigation of claims against the Government, which is hereby made the duty of Congress to establish.

10th. All bills appropriating money shall specify in federal currency the exact amount of each appropriation and the purpose for which it is made, and Congress shall grant no extra compensation to any public contractor, officer, agent, or servant, after such contract shall have been made or such service rendered.

11th. No title of nobility shall be granted by the Confederate States, and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emoluments, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign State.

12th. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for redress of grievances.

13th. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

14th. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner prescribed by law.

15th. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized.'

16th. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger, nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

17th. In all criminal prosecutions the accused

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