« 上一頁繼續 »
D. 360. The Old Testament of all these translations, except the Syrian, is taken from the Septuagint, and not immediately from the Hebrew text.
We will now give some account of the translations of the Bible into the English language. There have been some who have affirmed that Adelme, Bishop of Sherburn, who lived in the beginning of the eighth century, translated the Psalms into the Saxon tongue. That however is uncertain, as some of the best historians make no mention of it ; yet it is possible, as he was a man of great parts, and of great learning for those times, and said to be the first Englishman who wrote in the Latin language About the same time, or a little after, Bede, commonly called the venerable Bede, translated some parts of the New Testament, some say the whole Bible, but that is not probable. Near 200 years later king Alfred translated the Psalms into the same language. In 1382 Wickliff finished his translation of the Bible, which is yet extant; that is to say, there are copies of it in some publick and private libraries. All these translations were made from the Vulgate. In the reign of Henry the eighth several editions of the Old and New Testaments were published in English; one of the most remarkable is that of William Tyndal in 1530. The translation of the New Testament was made from the original Greek, but probably the Old Testament either from the Latin of the Vulgate, or the Greek of the Septuagint. This was soon followed by the improvements of Coverdale and Mathews. By order of the king, Tonstal, Bishop of Durham, and Heath, Bishop of Rochester, made a new translation, which was published in 1541: but, not pleasing Henry, was suppressed by authority. In the reign of king Edward the sixth another translation was made, two editions of which were published, one in 1549, and the other in 1551. In the reign of queen Elizabeth another translation was made, which, being revised by some of the most learned of the Bishops, went by the name of the Bishops' Bible. This professed to be translated from the Hebrew of the Old Testament, and the Greek of the New, though in some instances, when there was a difference, it preferred the Septuagint to the Hebrew.
This last circumstance, with some others, induced king James the first . to select fifty-four persons, eminent in learning, and particularly well acquainted with the original languages in which the Old and New Testaments were written, to make a new translation of the whole Bible. In the year 1607, forty-seven of those persons, the other seven probably having died, assembled together, and arranged themselves into committees, to each of which a portion was given to translate. They were favoured not only with the best translations, but with the most accurate copies, and the various readings of the original text. After about three years assiduous labour, they severally completed the parts assigned them. They then met together, and while one read the translation newly formed, the rest had each a copy of the original text in his hand, or some one of the ancient versions, and when any difficulty occurred they stopped, till by common consultation it was determined what was most agreeable to the inspired Original. This translation was first published A. D. 1610, and is the one which has been ever since that time printed by publick authority, and generally used in the British dominions. It may be added with safety, that it has been generally approved by men of learning and piety of all denominations, of which its having never been superseded by any other, for one hundred and eighty years, is a sufficient proof.
DATES OR TIME OF WRITING THE BOOKS
Years from the
deach of Christ. MATTHEW's Gospel, 6
Years from the birth of Christ,
Years from the death of Christ,
Years from the birth of Christ.
Mark's Gospel, - - - - - 10 First Epistle of Peter, - - 19 Paul's 1st and 20 Epistles
to the Thessalonians, - 19 Luke's Gospel, --..23 Paul's Epistle to the Gala
tians, ......... 23
Luke, - ....... - 30 43 | Paulstwo Epistles to Tim52 othy, the one to Titus,
and the 20 Epistle gen52 eral of Peter, - - - - - 30
John in the Isle of Patmos
wrote the Revelation, - 61 - Gospel, -...-- 63 - three Epistles near
the end of his life, - - - 65 57 N. B. The times of writing
the Epistle of James and that of Jude not so certainly known, but supposed, - ........ 33
- two Epistles to the Carinthians, and that to the Romans, - - - - - 24 - to the Philippians, to Philemon, Colossians, E
phesians, and Hebrews, 29 Acts of the Apostles by
The Names and ORDER of all the BOOKS of the OLD and NEW
TESTAMENTS, and of the APOCRYPHA, with the Number of their Chapters.
The Books of the Old Testament. GENESIS hath Chapters
5011 Ecclesiastes hath Chapters - - Exodus ............... 40 The Song of Solomon -.. Leviticus --...
Isaiah -...-.-.-.-.-- Numbers - .-..
Jeremiah ............. Deuteronomy - •
Lamentations ---------Joshua ----
Ezekiel ....... Judges - - - -
Daniel .... Ruth ----
Hosea ---I. Samuel -
Joel ---II. Samuel - .
Amos --I. Kings - -.
Obadiah .. II. Kings ---
Jonah ... I. Chronicles --
Micah -... II. Chronicles -
Nahum ... Ezra - ....
Habukkuk -. Nehemiah ...
Zephaniah -.. Esther ---
10 Haggai ---Job ......
Zechariah .... Psalms ...
-- 150 Proverbs ---
The Books called Apocrypha. I. Esdras hath Chapters -..--.-9 Baruch, with the Epistle of Jeremiah 6 II. Esdras - --- -- --- --- 16 The Song of the Three Children - Tobit --------------.. 14 The Story of Susanna - - ... - Judith ----------
- 16 The Idol Bel and the Dragon - ... The rest of Esther ---- - - -- 6
The Prayer of Manasses ---.. Wisdom - ---
. - 19
I. Maccabees ----------Ecclesiasticus - - -
... 51 II. Maccabees - .......... 15
The Books of the New Testament.
Matthew hath Chapters
28 || 1. Timothy hath Chapters - -.... Mark ------------
II. Timothy .............4 Luke ............. 24 Titus - ................ 3 John ---------------- 21 Philemon -........... The Acts of the Apostles
To the Hebrews ---The Epistle to the Romans
The Epistle of James I. Corinthians --------
I. Peter -... II. Corinthians -----
II. Peter -... Galatians --.--.
I. John -.... Ephesians - ....
II. John ---Philippians -....
III. John - -.. Colossians ---..
Jude ...... 1. Thessalonians - ..
Revelation II. Thessalonians.
THE OLD TESTAMENT.
THE FIRST BOOK OF MOSES, CALLED GENESIS.
and herb yielding seed after his kind, and 1 The Creation of heaven and earth. 26 | the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in
Of man in the image of God. 29 The itself, after his kind : and God saw that it appointment of food.
was good. IN the beginning God created the hea 13° And the evening and the morning Iven and the earth.
were the third day. 2 And the earth was without form, and 14 | And God said, Let there be lights in void; and darkness was upon the face of the firmament of the heaven, to divide the the deep : and the Spirit of God moved day from the night ; and let them be for upon the face of the waters.
signs, and for seasons, and for days, and 3 And God said, Let there be light: and
years. there was light.
15 And let them be for lights in the fir4 And Göd saw the light, that it was mament of the heaven, to give light upon good: and God divided the light from the the earth : and it was so. darkness.
16 And God made two great lights; the 5 And God called the light Day, and the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser darkness he called Night : and the eve- light to rule the night : he made the stars ning and the morning were the first day. || also.
6 And God said, Let there be a firma 17 And God set them in the firmament ment in the midst of the waters, and let it of the heaven, to give light upon the earth : divide the waters from the waters.
18 And to rule over the day, and over 7 And God made the firmament; and di- the night, and to divide the light from the vided the waters which were under the fir- || darkness: and God saw that it was good. mament from the waters which were 19 And the evening and the morning above the firmament; and it was so were the fourth day.
8 And God called the firmament Hea 20 And God said, Let the waters bring ven : and the evening and the morning forth abundantly the moving creature that were the second day
hath life, and fowl that may fly above the 99 And God said, Let the waters under earth in the open firmament of heaven. the heaven be gathered together unto one 21 And God created great whales, and place, and let the dry land appear: and it every living creature that moveth, which Was so.
the waters brought forth abundantly after 10 And God called the dry land Earth, their kind, and every winged fowl after his and the gathering together of the waters kind : and God saw that it was good. called he Seas; and God saw that it was 22 And God blessed them, saying, Be good.
fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in 11 And God said, Let the earth bring the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and 23 And the evening and the morning me fruit-tree yielding fruit after his kind, || were the fifth day. whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: ||
24 And God said, Let the earth bring and it was so.
forth the living creature after his kind, 12 And the earth brought forth grass, ll cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of
8 Man is formed.
The ircc of knowledge. • the earth after his kind : and it was so. bis nostrils the breath of life ; and man
25 And God made the beast of the became a living soul. earth after his kind, and cattle after their | 8 | And the LORD God planted a garkind, and every thing that creepeth upon, den eastward in Eden; and there he put the earth after his kind : and God saw the man whom he had formed. that it was good.
9 And out of the ground made the 26 And God said, Let us make man in | LORD God to grow every tree that is our image, after our likeness: and let them pleasant to the sight, and good for food ; have dominion over the fish of the sea, and the tree of life also in the midst of the over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, I garden, and the tree of knowledge of and over all the earth, and over every good and evil. creeping thing that creepeth upon the 10 And a river went out of Eden to earth.
water the garden : and from thence it 27 So God created man in his own im was parted, and became into four heads. age, in the image of God created he him; 11 The name of the first is Pison: that male and female created he them.
is it which compasseth the whole land of 28 And God blessed them, and God said || Havilah, where there is gold ; unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and 12 And the gold of that land is good : replenish the earth, and subdue it: and there is bdellium and the onyx-stone. have dominion over the fish of the sea, il 13 And the name of the second river and over the fowl of the air, and over eve- || is Gihon : the same is it that compasseth ry living thing that moveth upon the earth. the whole land of Ethiopia.
29 And God said, Behold, I have giv- || 14 And the name of the third river en you every herb bearing seed, which is is Hiddekel : that is it which goeth toupon the face of all the earth, and every li ward the east of Assyria. And the fourth tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree river is Euphrates. yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. 15 And the LORD God took the man.
30 And to every beast of the earth, and and put him into the garden of Eden, to to every fowl of the air, and to every thing | dress it, and to keep it. that creepeth upon the earth, wherein 16 And the LORD God commanded there is life, I have given every green the man, saying, Of every tree of the herb for meat ; and it was so.
garden thou mayest freely eat: 31 And God saw every thing that he 17 But of the tree of the knowledge of had made, and behold, it was very good. || good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it : And the evening and the morning were for in the day that thou eatest thereof the sixth day.
thou shalt surely die. CHAP. II.
18 | And the LORD God said, It is not 1 The first sabbath. 8 The garden of || good that the man should be alone : I will
Eden. 17 The tree of knowledge. 19 make him an help meet for him. The creatures named. 21 Woman || 19 And out of the ground the LORD made, and marriage instituted. God formed every beast of the field, and THUS the heavens and the earth were every fowl of the air, and brought them 1 finished, and all the host of them. unto Adam to see what he would call
2 And on the seventh day God ended them; and whatsoever Adam called evhis work which he had made ; and he ery living creature, that was the name rested on the seventh day from all his ll thereof. work which he had made.
20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, 3 And God blessed the seventh day, and to the fowl of the air, and to every and sanctified it : because that in it he | beast of the field : but for Adam there had rested from all his work which God was not found an help meet for him. created and made.
21 And the LORD God caused a deep 4 These are the generations of the sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept; heavens and of the earth when they were and he took one of his ribs, and closed up created, in the day that the LORD God the flesh instead thereof; made the earth and the heavens,
22 And the rib, which the LORD God 5 And every plant of the field before had taken from man, made he a woman, it was in the earth, and every herb of and brought her unto the man. the field before it grew : for the LORD 23 And Adam said, This is now bone God had not caused it to rain upon the of my bones, and flesh of my flesh : she earth, and there was not a man to till the shall be called Woman, because she was ground.
taken out of Man. 6 But there went up a mist from the 24 Therefore shall a man leave his faearth, and watered the whole face of the ther and his mother, and shall cleave unto ground.
his wife ; and they shall be one flesh. 7 And the LORD God formed man of il 25 And they were both naked, the man the dust of the ground, and breathed into " and his wife, and were not ashamed.