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That of Ireland we may assume at L.50,000,000,-making appointments of commercial life, greatly impair the physiin the whole for the United Kingdom L.300,000,000. or cal powers.-Ibid. this sum more than one-sixth is drawn directly by Govern- ULTIMATE EFFECTS OF STEAM COXVEYANCEment. But that is not the whole. The local taxes amount There seems little doubt that steam-carriages and rail-roads to a very large sum. The poor's rates in England exceed will, in less than fifty years, have entirely superseded the L.8,000,000. Other local taxes and contributions proba present means of conveyance. The obvious consequence is, bly amount to L.10,000,000 more. Then, as we have al. | the greater rapidity of travelling, as well as greater secuready explained, the higher and richer classes are exemptedrity ; but there are others of an important character. The in a great measure from contributing their proper share of diminution of the cost of carriage will equalize the value the national taxation. When these different circumstances of land and its produce in every part of the country; no are taken into view, it will bardly be disputed that one one will go into Wales for economy, for prices will be as third part of every man's income, in the middle and lower low at Hampstead. The capital is considered to have a classes of society, is taken away by the tax collector. market extending in a circle round it, whose radius is from Every man who works nine hours a-day is employed during fifty to sixty miles; the circle will be multiplied in some three of these hours to enable him to pay his taxes. Tait's directions sevenfold, so that the wen will cease to be 3 Magazine.

curse. The general produce of the country will also be The DUKE OF WELLINGTON's Policy. His Grace's habit greatly increased by the easy conveyance of appropriate was never to encourage discussion, or to indulge himself in ar manures; and all those heaps of articles, of which it is gument. It was the general observation in the Peninsula that often remarked they are not worth carriage, will suddenly on dining at head-quarters nothing was ever learnt, but that rise into great value. Treasures will start up under the fret the whole conversation was trifling--a display either of dandy. of some men. A fishery, perhaps, that was not worth L.3, ism or buffoonery from the aides-de-ramp, or “the gentleman's

may become worth L.3000. In steam conveyance, the sons." This system was understood to have been adopted upon

safety of the passenger is the only limit of speed; what, a principle of military prudence that no indiscreet remarks !

then, will be the rate of travelling for a cargo that runs should be made, no false interpretations drawn from any casual observation which might escape the commander. in chief.

no risk ? mackerel, for instance : we may expect mackerel When Sir Thomas Pieton arrived at head-quarters, it always from Brighton in an hour, the cart returns with a load of produced a sensation; and, as he was a highly intellectual per- sugar, salt, soot, or slate, in the same time. Farmers, who son, an amiable young officer of the guards, who played the are the most timid of God's people, and about the most part of a very amusing buffo, was always sent for as a check short-sighted, cry out that horses will cease to be wanted; to all serinus conversation. Force has always been his means, that is very dubious_they may be in still greater demand servility his attendant. While in command' in Paris, his table

-but should draught horses cease to be, what then? femer never feasted any of the enlightened men of Europe ; the con- loats will be wanted, and more wheat may be grown for versation was ever frivolous, a noise with empty words. At

men, or more turnips for sheep.-New Monthly Mag. Cambrai, the same systen, was pursued-no one ever presumed to contradict bis Grace, or to propose any subject of interest as

VERSES BY AN OLD POET. a matter of conversation. From a sketch of the Duke.

In going to my naked bed, as one that would have slept, HEALTH OF SHOPKEEPERS.—They are generally tem- I heard a wife sing to her child, that long before hiad wept : perate in their diet. They injure health, not by direct She sighed sore, and sung full sweet, to bring her babe to rest, attacks, not by the introduction of injurious agents, but by 1 That would not cease, but cried still, in sucking at her breast. witholding the pabulum of life-a due supply of that pure She was full weary of her watch, and grieved with her child; fluid, which nature designed as food for the constitution. She rocked it, she rated it, till that on her it smiled; Be it remembered that man subsists upon the air, more Then kissed she her little babe, and swore by God above, than upon his meat and drink. Numerous instances The falling out of faith ful friends renewing is of love. might be adduced of persons existing for months and years on a very scanty supply of aliment, but it is notorious that

Besides appearing in WEEKLY NUMBERS, the SCHOOLMASTER no one can exist for an hour without a copious supply of

will be published in MONTHLY PARTS, which, stitched in a neat cover, air. The atmosphere which shopkeepers breathe is con- I will contain as much letter-press, of good execution, as any of the sand taminated and adulterated ; air, with its vital principles so | Monthly Periodicals: A Table of Contents will be given at the end es diminished, that it cannot fully decarbonize the blood, nor the year; when, at the weekly cost of three-halfpence, a handsome fully excite the nervous system. Hence shopkeepers are volume of 832 pages, super-royal size, may be bound up, containing pale, dyspeptic, and subject to affections of the head. They much matter worthy of preservation. often drag on a sickly existence, die before the proper end

PART I. for August, containing the first four Numbers, with STONE'S MONTHLY REGISTER, may now be had of the Book

ad of the Book of human life, and leave a progeny like themselves.

sellers, and dealers in cheap Periodicals. Thackral's Effects of Arts and Trades. THE MERCHANT AND MANUFACTURER.---Of the

CONTENTS OF NO. v. causes of disease, anxiety of mind is one of the most fre

Young Napoleon ........

Robert Burns............ quent and important. When we walk the streets of large

Lines on the Church of Krisuvik in Iceland..... commercial towns, we can scarcely fail to remark the hur

Farewell to Fife..... ried gait and care-worn features of the well-dressed passen

Military Flogging...... gers. Some young men, indeed, we may see, with counte

Advantages of Free Trade................................ ances possessing natural cheerfulness and colour ; but these appearances rarely survive the age of manhood. Cuvier

NOTES OF THE MONTH, &c. -Enjoyments of the Poor-The High

land Reaper's Song; The Harvest Moon; Memorabilia of the closes an eloquent description of animal existence and

Month; The Swallow; The Jewish Harvest Home......72, change, with the conclusion that “ Life is a state of force.”

THE STORY TELLER-The Ghaist o' Kininvie, a True Story, 73; What he would urge in a physical view, we may more

Moustache, a Biographical Sketch, 73 ; Original Anecdote of strongly urge in a moral. Civilization has changed our

Henry Brougham............................. character of mind as well as of body. We live in a state of

Hydrophobia............ unnatural excitement ;-unnatural, because it is partial,

COLUMN FOR THE LADIES..... irregular, and excessive. Our muscles waste for want of Female Dress : Miss Wright, the Political Apostle..... action, our nervous system is worn out by excess of action, Method of Leaving Corn in Sheaves in Sweden............**** Vital energy is drawn from the operations for which na THE GLEANER...... ture designed it, and devoted to operations which nature never contemplated. If we cannot adopt the doctrine of a EDINBURGH: Printed by and for JOHN JOHNSTONE, 19, St. Ja foreign philosopher, “ That a thinking man is a depraved Square. -Published by JOHN ANDERSON, Jun., Bookseller, 5,

eller 13, North animal," we may without hesitation affirm, « That inordi

Bridge Street, Edinburgh; by JONN MACLEOD, and ATKINSON

Book sellers, Glasgow; and sold by all Booksellers and nate application of inind, the cares, anxieties, and dis

Cheap Periodicals,

....77

18

.................71.89

" Booksellers and Venders of

THE

AND

EDINBURGH WEEKLY MAGAZINE,

CONDUCTED BY JOHN JOHNSTONE.

THE SCHOOLMASTER IS ABROAD. LORD BROUGHAM.

No. 6.-Vol. I. SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8, 1832. Price THREE-HALFPENCE.

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JEREMY BENTHAM.

| ciple seems to have been benevolence, joined with

an intense love of justice ; and as soon as a very The year 1832 will long be memorable for the dis- moderate income was opened to hin, he retired to appearance of the greatest among those spirits amend those proceedings he had learned only to " that had on earth been sojourning,"_GOETHE, lament over. It is not meant that he shut himself BENTIAM, CUVIER, and—by an eclipse as total as up, and lived like a hermit; on the contrary, he death, and far more mournful—WALTER Scott. loved society, and admitted many to his tableIn the same season, CRABBE, the poet, whose worth but only such as he himself solicited, and never in we seem only to appreciate in his loss, has been number above two or three at a time. In this gathered home, a ripe sheaf; WORDSWORTH, declined manner, singly, at his hospitable board, have sat a into the vale of years, is, in approaching blindness, succession of the greatest men in Europe, for thircompleting his resemblance to Milton, in life as ty years. He husbanded his time with the most in spirit. To the condition of COLERIDGE, if we may avaricious care ; and it was only during the period judge of him from his latest published effusion,* it devoted to refection and relaxation that he saw is painful to advert. In the words of one gone but any body; this was during and after his dinner a little before, and worthy to twinkle as a lesser hour, which was as late as seven or eight o'clock. star even in this glorious constellation . They “ Mr Bentham,” observes the True Sun, in an arhave gone out, one by one, like evening lights.”- ticle written probably by Leigh Hunt, “ was an old Though some of our readers will scruple to place man, with venerable white locks, social and cheerful, Mr. BEYTIAN in this lofty category, and though robust in body, and promising a still longer life; but many of them can know of him only as a name, his it is always impossible to say, in highly intellectual own disciples, who are now neither few nor incon- men, how far the spirit of life is kept up by the siderable persons, will scarcely be contented with mere vivacity of the brain, and subject to abrupt the rank we have assigned their venerable apostle, extinction from causes of accident or weather. who still remains, with the generality of persons, His appearance, both in the amplitude of his look, more glorified in their zeal, than in his own cha- the flow of his reverend hair, and the habitual beracter and pretensions. Mr. Bentham is understood nevolence of his smile, had a striking likeness to to be the founder of a sect in philosophy, or in Franklin ; and, on a hasty glance, the busts of the morals and legislation, the name signifies the less, two might be confounded. He had all the practi. as in a few significant and easily intelligible words, cal wisdom of one of the sages of good sense ; took his creed,—the basis, the object of his system, is exercise as long as he could, both abroad and at defined, to be

home ; indulged in reasonable appetite ; and, notTHE GREATEST POSSIBLE HAPPINESS OF THE GREAT- withstanding the mechanical-mindedness with which ET NUMBER.

his Utilitarianism has been charged, and the suspiThe principles of this, THE UTILITARIAN SYSTEM, I cious jokes he could crack against fancy and the Mr. Bentham has been expounding to the world poets, could quote his passages out of Virgil, like for a half century, from the calm obscurity of phi- a proper Eton boy. He also played upon the or.. lusophic retirement. It is now perhaps better gan, which looked the more poetical in him, beunderstood over the continent of Europe than in cause he possessed, on the border of his garden, a Britain. Mr. Bentham, who was born, lived, and house in which Milton had lived, and had set up a at a very advanced age, lately died in London, be- bust against it in honour of the great bard, hinlonged to two great epochs in literature and in self an organ-player. Emperors, as well as other politics. He was bred a barrister, but early re- Princes, have sought to do him honour, but he was nounced the law as a profession. Its intricacies, too wise to encourage their advances beyond what delays, and injustice, observes the New Monthly was good for mankind. The Emperor Alexander, Magazine, “ soon disgusted one, whose vital prin- who was afraid of his legislation, sent him a dia. • Sonnet in a late Number of Blackwood

mond ring, which the philosopher, to his immortal

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honour, returned, saying (or something to that ef- and wrong, and others of that stamp, have a meanfect) that his object was not to receive rings from ing: when otherwise, they have none. Princes, but to do good to the world."

| When a man attempts to combat the principle Such was the philosopher, the sum of whose doc- of utility, it is with reasons drawn, without his trines we now give in his own words:

being aware of it, from that very principle itself. THE PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY.

His arguments, if they prove any thing, prove, not By the principle of utility, is meant that prin- that the principle is wrong, but that according to ciple which approves or disapproves of every action the applications he supposes to be made of it, it is whatsoever, according to the tendency which it misapplied. Is it possible for a man to move the appears to have to augment or diminish the hap- earth ? Yes ; but he must first find out another piness of the party whose interest is in question : earth to stand upon. or, what is the same thing in other words, to pro. To disprove the propriety of it by arguments is mote or to oppose that happiness. I say of every impossible ; but, from the causes that have been action whatsoever ; and therefore not only of every mentioned, or from some confused or partial view action of a private individual, but of every mea. of it, a man may happen to be disposed not to resure of government.

lish it. Where this is the case, if he thinks the By utility is meant that property in any object, settling of his opinions on such a subject worth whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, the trouble, let him take the following steps, and pleasure, good, or happiness (all this in the pre- at length perhaps he may come to reconcile him. sent case comes to the same thing); or (what self to it. comes again to the same thing,) to prevent the 1. Let him settle with himself, whether he would happening of mischief, pain, evil, or unhappiness wish to discard this principle altogether; if so, let to the party whose interest is considered : if that him consider what it is that all his reasonings, in party be the community in general, then the hapo matters of politics especially,) can amount to? piness of the community ; if a particular individual, 2. If he would, let him settle with himself, whe. then the happiness of that individual.

ther he would judge and act without any principle, The interest of the community is one of most or whether there is any other he would judge and general expressions that occur in the phraseology act by ? of morals: no wonder that the meaning of it is 3. If there be, let him examine and satisfy him. often lost. When it has a meaning, it is this: self, whether the principle he thinks he has found The community is a fictitious body, composed of is really any separate intelligible principle; or the individual persons who are considered as con- whether it be not a mere principle in words, a kind stituting as it were its members. The interest of of phrase, which at bottom expresses neither more the community then is,what? the sum of the in. nor less than the mere averment of his own unterests of the several members who compose it. founded sentiments; that is, what in another per

It is in vain to talk of the interest of the com- son he might be apt to call caprice? munity, without understanding what is the interest 4. If he is inclined to think that his own approof the individual. A thing is said to promote the bation or disapprobation, annexed to the idea of an interest, or to be for the interest of an individual, act, without any regard to its consequences, is a when it tends to add to the sum total of his plea- sufficient foundation for him to judge and act upon, sures; or, what comes to the same thing, to di- let him ask himself, whether his sentiment is to minish the sum total of his pains.

| be a standard of right and wrong with respect to An action then may be said to be conformable to every other man, or whether every man's senti. the principle of utility, or, for shortness sake, of ment has the same privilege of being a standard to utility (meaning with respect to the community at itself? large), when the tendency it has to augment the 5. In the first case, let him ask himself, whether happiness of the community is greater than any it his principle is not despotical, and hostile to all Las to diminish it.

the rest of the human race? - A measure of government, (which is but a par- 6. In the second case, whether it is not anarchiticular kind of action, performed by a particular cal; and whether at this rate there are not as person or persons), may be said to be conformable many different standards of right and wrong as to or dictated by the principle of utility, when in there are men ? And whether, even to the sanie like manner the tendency which it has to augment man, the same thing which is right to-day may the happiness of the community is greater than not (without the least change in its nature,) be any which it has to diminish it.

wrong to-morrow? and whether the same thing is Of an action that is conformable to the principle not right and wrong in the same place at the same of utility, one may always say, either that it is one time? and in either case, whether all argument 18 that ought to be done, or at least that it is not not an end? and whether, when two men have said, one that ought not to be done. -One may say also, “ I like this,” and “ I do not like it,” they can that it is right it should be done ; at least, that it (upon such a principle) have any thing more to is not wrong it should be done: that it is a right say? action; at least, that it is not a wrong action. I 7. If he should have said to himself, No: for When thus interpreted, the words ought, and right, that the sentiment which he proposes as a stand

aru must be grounded on reflection ; let him say son, the historian. And this was to lead to many on what particulars the reflection is to turn? If | happy ones in Shetland ; for it brought a letter to on particulars having relation to the utility of the Mr. Hepburn, from a friend on his way to Athel. act, then let him say, whether this is not deserting stoneford to preach next day, who had fallen from his own principle, and borrowing assistance from his horse and injured himseif, and now solicited, that very one in opposition to which he sets it up: that if any preacher happened to be in the neigh. Or, if not on those particulars, on what other par- bourhood, such reverend person might be sent to ticulars?

officiate in his parish. In this emergency the unsuc. 8. If he should be for compounding the matter, cessful Orkney solicitor was dispatched early on and adopting his own principle in part, and the Sunday morning. His appearance in the pulpit principle of utility in part, let him say how far he drew forth the following letter, addressed by Sir will adopt it?

Hew Dalrymple, to Sir Laurence Dundas :9. When he has settled with himself where he will stop, then let him ask himself, how he justi

Dalzell, May 21, 1775.

DEAR SIR, fies to himself the adopting it so far? and why he

Having spent a long life in pursuit of pleasure and will not adopt it any further ?

health, I am now retired from the world in poverty, and 10. Admitting any other principle than the prin with the gout; so joining with Solomon, that “all is vanity minle of utility to be a right principle a princiule and vexation of spirit," I go to church and say my prayers, ciple of utility to be a right principle, a principle that it is right for a man to pursue ; admitting

I assure you, that most of us religious people reap some

"5 | little satisfaction in hoping, that you, wealthy voluptun(what is not true) that the word right can have a ries, have a fair chance of being damned to all eternity. meaning vithout reference to utility ; let him say, whether there is any such thing as a motive that a Now, Sir, that doctrine being laid down, I wish to give you, man can have to pursue the dictates of it? If my friend, a loop-hole to creep through. Going to church there is, let him say what that motive is, and how

last Sunday as usual, I saw an unknown face in the pulpit,

and rising up to prayers as others, I began to look round it is to be distinguished from those which enforce the church, to find out if there were any pretty girls there, the dictates of utility? If not, then, lastly, let when my attention was attracted by the foreign accent of him say, what it is this other principle can be the parson. I gave him my attention, and had my devotion good for?

awakened by the most pathetic prayer I ever heard. This made me all attention to the sermon. A finer discourse

never came from the lips of a man. I returned in the afterWe have somewhere heard, or read, that Mr.

noon, and heard the same preacher exceed his morning Bentham wished he might be permitted to com work, by the finest chain of reasoning, conveyed by the plete the one-half of his earthly pilgrimage five most eloquent expressions. I immediately thought of what hundred years hence, that he might be enabled to

Agrippa said to Paul," Almost thou persuadest me to be

a Christian.”—I sent to ask the man of God to honour my contemplate the happy effects obtained for man.

roof, and dine with me. I asked him of his country, and kind by his doctrines; a very natural wish for the

what not, and even asked him if his sermons were his own founder of a system, though too surely, could it composition, which he affirmed they were. I assured him have been accomplished, pregnant with deep dis I believed it, for never man spoke or wrote so well. « My appointment. How many new systems will rise

name is Dishington," said he; “ I am assistant to an old

minister in the Orkneys, who enjoys a fruitful benefice of and fall within the next five hundred years ! How

L.50 a-year, out of which I am allowed L.20, for preaching, small progress in eighteen hundred years have the and instructing 1200 people who live in two separate islands; principles of that Divine system made, which, once out of this I pay L.) 5s. a-year to the boatman who transfairly acted on, should supersede, and make void

ports me from the one to the other. I should be happy if

I could continue in that terrestrial paradise; but we hare and useless every other!

a great lord who has many little people soliciting him, for

many little things that he can do, and that he cannot do ; A SHETLAND PARSON, OR GOOD LUCK

and if my minister dies, his succession is too great a prize AT LAST.

not to raise up many powerful rivals to baulk my hopes of preferment." I asked him if he possessed no other wealth.

“ Yes," says he, “ I married the prettiest girl in the island, Ix 1775, Mr. Andrew Dishington, the assistant

and she has blessed me with three children ; and as we are of an old minister in the Orkneys, at a salary of

mme Orkneys, at du salary of both young, we may expect more. Besides, I am so beloved £20 a-year, for which he preached in two islands, in the island, that I have all my peats brought home carcame up to Edinburgh to solicit the survivancy of riage free." _This is my story—now to the prayer of my pehis charge, the incumbent being old, and in bad

tition. I never before envied you the possession of the

Orkneys which I now do, only to provide for this eloquent, health. The poor helper was disappointed. He

innocent apostle. The sun has refused your barren isles his had got his travel, or his sail, for his pains ; but | kindly influence ; do not deprive them of so pleasant a before going back to his family, he made a visit to preacher; let not so great a treasure be for ever lost to that an old familiar of early days, Mr. Hepburn, then

damned inhospitable country; for I assure you, were the

Archbishop of Canterbury to hear him, or hear of him, he the minister of Athelstoneford, East Lothian, and

would not do less that make him an Archdeacon. The man friendly and good a man to poor probationers, I has but one weakness, that of preferring the Orkneys to all that “ his house was known to all the black-coat the earth. This way and no other you have a chance for train." Saturday night came in Athelstone Manse. salvation. Do this man good, and he will pray for you. Many a happy “ Saturday at e'en " must have

This will be a better purchase than your Irish estate, or the

Orkneys.' brightened what has been successively the dwelling of flome, the author of " Douglas." and of Robert The conclusion of Sir Hew's friendly letter is

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not quite in modern good taste. His application, very decent and genteel appearance on Sundays;" was successful. Sir Laurence wrote him:

most of them could read pretty well, and many “ Sir Hew, your man shall get the first vacancy; and to write; all the women spun wool, and knitted the show you that I am fixed in this matter, I will tell you that Shetland hose, once so famous; now so scarce. the Princess Amelia (sister of George 111.) desired the favour | This was a branch of industry their minister did not of me to give my first kirk to a young man of her recommendation. I told her I was sorry I was pre-engaged.

patronize. The knitter's labours yielded only about She asked to whom? I replied, to you, and she said it was ild per day; and for this wool was consumed, well, for that it was for your man she was applying." which, if manufactured into good cloth of all sorts,

But Mr. Dishington's troubles were not yet might, says Mr. Dishington,“ serve all ranks for over. He obtained the presentation of Mid and clothing, and put a stop to the pernicious rage South Yell, but so tardily, that he was in danger they have for foreign fopperies ;” such, no doubt, of losing all benefit from it, the six months being as corduroys, printed shawls, hats, and coloured caabout expired from the death of the last incum- licoes; and certainly cotton frame-knit stockings. bent, and the right of presenting consequently Crabbe the poet would have admired the malapsing to the presbytery. It was now the depth nagement of the poor in Yell. There was, of of winter, and at that season of the year there is course, no workhouse-those dens of human sufusually no communication between Shetland and fering or languishment being still unknown to ruOrkney; but when the unlucky presentee had ral Scotland. The poor of Mr. Dishington's flock given up all for lost, a small vessel came into were clothed from the kirk funds, and each had Papa Sound, in Orkney, very near the manse, where liberty to seek his awmous, his weekly or monthly he then resided ; and on inquiring, he rejoiced to dole, in an alloted district of the parish. hear that it was the Shetland packet on her way from Leith to Shetland. Here was a stroke of

THE OLD BEGGAR.

The aged man had placed his staff across good fortune ; for this packet has never been

A broad smooth stone, and from a bag known, before nor after, to put into Orkney. Mr.

· All white with meal, the dole of village dames, Andrew lost no time in packing up his best black He drew his scraps and fragments, one by one; suit, and kissing his children; he made good his

And scanned them with a fixed and serious look

Of idle computation. landing in time, and became the rejoicing pastor

.

While on he creeps of South Yell, for ever confirmed in his belief of a

From door to door, the villagers in him special Providence, and as devoutly quoting Cicero Behold a record which together binds as if he had achieved a fat Deanery in Lincoln Past deeds and offices of charity, shire.“ Nec vero universo generi humano solum,

Else unremembered, and so keep alive sed etiam singulis, Deus consuli et provideri solet"

The kindly mood in hearts, which lapse of years

And that half-wisdom, half-experience gives -quoth good Mr. Andrew.

Makes slow to feel. By 1790 the three original olive branches, the only Among the farms and solitary huts, plants that grow to any size in Orkney or Shetland,

Hamlets, and thinly-scattered villages, had increased to 10 in number, and the apostle's

The mild necessity of use compels

To acts of love ; and habit does the work means had thriven with them. A manse and offices

Of reason. built at the original expense of L.50, had been repaired for him, A handsome augmentation left the

Some there are iniscellaneous stipend in the following hopeful way:

By their good works exalted, lofty ininds

And meditative, authors of delight Butter 178 lispunds ; 70 lambs, and 5-12ths of a

And happiness, which, to the end of time lamb, and four merks wool with each ; 211 ling,

Will live, and spread, and kindle ; minds like these and the of a ling; 503 cans, and a d can of oil; In childhood, from the solitary Beggar and L.175 158, Scots in money, and L.40 Scots The helpless wanderer, have perchance received for communion elements : altogether L.17, 17s. 70.

(A thing more precious far than all that books

Or the solicitude of love can do !)
English money.

The first mild touch of sympathy and thought,
A SHETLAND FLOCK.

In which they found their kindred with a world
The primitive flock of this primitive pastor de Where want and sorrow were.
serve a passing notice. Their condition is one
which political economists, of a certain descrip-

BEGGAR. tion, would condemn in the lump. They united

The easy man the business of fishermen and cultivators, the ara. Who sits at his own door and like the pear ble land being divided into small portions. They Which overhangs his head from the green wall, married early ; delved their little farms with the

Feeds in the sunshine ; the robust and young,

The prosperous and unthinking, they who live spade, and had no need, their minister tells, of any

Sheltered, and flourish in a little grove great stock of goods to begin life. All that was Of their own kindred-all behold in him required was a cow, a pot, a spade, a tusker, a A silent monitor, which, on their minds buthie, fishing-rods, and a rug or blanket. Of

Must needs impress a transitory thought course the wealthy might have half-a-dozen cows,

Of self-congratulation, to the heart of each

Recalling his peculiar boons, and as many blankets. They had abundance of

His charters and exemptions. peats, and fish in immense quantities. Mr. Dish

Man is dear to man ;-the poorest poor ington says his parishioners of both sexes, made “al Long for some moments in a weary life,

LESSONS TO BE LEARNED FROM THE WANDERING

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