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first entrazice as matrons among their mothers, and cousins,

THE BISHOPS. and aunts, and sisters, something like a presentation at court, to a girl in high life of the same age, and conducted

The Dublin Evening Post thus characterises the with almost as much forin. Churching was nothing to this Churches of England and Ireland :-æremonial!

“How coines it to pass, that the Church of Englsoil, taken It is time I should now turn to the husbands. Their as an aggregate, for there may be. perhaps, some half-a-dozen coats, hats, and aprons I have already noticed. I forgot, exceptions, is the most ignorant Church in Europe? lo one bowever, that the latter had its tuck, as well as the former word, because she is the richest Church in Europe---and secondits cock to one side, equally characteristic. They were a

ly, because learning is not in England the ladder of preferment. good-humoured, jolly, hard-bargain-making, but honest set

It is not denied, however, that there are some able and erudite

men on the Episcopal Bench. Dr. Bloomfield, Bishop of Lonof fellows, almost as passionate as their pampered dogs, but don, is profound in the metres of the Greek play-writers-Dr. Dearly as faithful, 109., Constant drinkers, without ever Malthy has actually superintended the edition of a Greek Prokeing drunk ; incessant wagerers, but never ruined by gam- sodial Lexicon. Good men and well skilled in the dithyrambling; charitable and church-goers, to their own particular bic of Eschylus, but ignorant, as far as the world knows, of chapela dissenting one-upon the mere question of the Chrysostom or Basil. Dr. Marsh, who has done good service congregation electing the pastor, without being very reli- by his clever translation of Michaelis--and, bigoted Armenian gious, and humane enough, as the world goes, to every ing, than three-fourths of his brethren. Dr. Cupplestone, as

as he may be, is more worthy his place on the score of learnthing but unruly bullocks, “ camstary” sheep, and game liberal as an Oxford divine can be in politics, and that is not

The sport the last-named animals afforded in fighting was to them “ the universal passion,” the real un much, is, however, a man of considerable rank as a churchdoubted, undebated point of unanimity, and never-failing and with a reasonable share of the fashionable theology of the

The Sumners are fortuoate and decent, pious, no doubt, gincidence of feeling, if not of opinion; for if that had day; Dr. Burgess, who puzzles himself and the learned upon Leen unanimous, then there would among them have been the contested text of the three witnesses, and writes 'stepping no room for bets Once in their day, they could all handle stones' to the elements of the Hebrew Grammar --Dr. Brinkley, the gloves, too ; and were at any time « troublesome who owes his elevation in the Church solely to his mathemacustomers" in a row, to the watchmen, or other antagonists. tical knowledge-Doctor Laurence, a really learned linguist

But in this, and canine fighting, and free swearing, they, and liberal divine, though he voted against Emancipationthough tolerable at these, too, were fairly outdone by their and Dr. Whately, the Archbishop of Dublin, an able man, dwn journeymen and apprentices,-if it be right to say honesty of Blanco White, a good scholar, and a great profi,

certainly a learned theologian, though he believes in the that, when they got older, they were surpassed in these acenneplishments by those of the classes through whose grada- the men of any mark or note upon the Bench in England op

cient in rhetoric, logic, and political economy.

There are all tiong they had themselves gone. To be sure, such as never Ireland. For we suppose Doctor Vanmildert, who is only pot beyond the second stage of the craft, were more daring known by his Bampton lectures, and his edition of Waterlands add reckless in these matters than those who aimed at, or works-or Dr. Mant, who published some foolish charges, and had attained promotion; for, as I have said, their numbers made some rhyming translations of the Psalms, though a pretty Tere replenished almost wholly from among themselves, by scholar-or Dr. Jebb, though a good man, who has written a the system of constant intermarriages. Such as remained pleasing, but superficial book upon Biblical literature-or Dr.

burneymen all their lives, or were driven back to that Elrington, who has given an edition of Euclid, and a few nojoint by failure in business, these were the scape-graces popery, pamphlets or Dr. Phillpotts, who deals ,60 largely in of the body generally the incorrigibles, in short; but were

what Lord Durham called pamphleteering slang, and question

able assertions or a few other right reverend and most reconnected by the ties of relationship or otherwise, verend doctors, known in the world of letters by the publicawith the magnates and masters, that their peccadilloes were tion of a shilling brochure ;-we suppose, we say, that none of regarded with a merciful eye, and looked upon rather as the these will be thrust under our noses, as men of learning or excesses of a son than of a servant, so close was the connec- hoary divines-as the living lights of the Church, the Latimers, in between master and man, who generally lived under Bulls, Barrowen, and Taylors of modern times. Good men, if

same roof. Accordingly, though always boisterous, you please, decent men, proper men, and as ft timbering for a and often wild, this portion of the little state was seldom bishop, though not more bit certainly than the Editor of the criminal, in the Old Bailey sense of the term. The members Dublin Evening Post- but not persons whose names will be al were sad dogs, however-tearing, swearing, swagger; horde of Bishops, nati consumere fruges—the Beresfords,

remembered thirty years hence. As to the numerus-as to the lor prit about them. Terrible drinkers, and devils among the Powlers, Tottenhams, Latvs, Alexanders, Howleys, Lindsays--girls were they but then, with their alliterative brethren the high offices they hold in the Church-to the princely in

no man can say, with any truth, that they were preferred to the Bakers, they were the first and most fearless at a city comes in which they wallow to the magnificent patronage fire, if they were the most upruly in a city mob. Many's which the Irish portion of them enjoy-on account either of the life these two classes of worthies have saved, when the their superior sanctity or surpassing erudition. They are, police stood timidly looking on at the burning rafters, and generally speaking, ignorant men, versed in the value of Church the shrieking wretches beneath them; and thousands of lands, and in the laws of fines and renewals learned in rich pounds' worth of property they have rescued for the insur. soups and fine wines, in bullocks and green crope-readers of abice offices and the non-insured sufferers, with an honesty Blackwood's Magasine, the trumpery travels of the day, and to both, that would have scorned to pocket so much as a

Mr. Colbura's Novels ; but utterly deficient in any other pack of cards, although their own had been even more greasy Service almost as well as their chaplains.

attribute, except the faculty of reading parts of the Communion and old than they were. After a king's birth-night, an ilismination, or a riot, the recruiting parties stationed in deducible principally from its political character–from its close

“But this deplorable condition of the Anglican Church is 981, were sure of some dashing and fearless fellows of five connexion

with the state--from its immense riches and their Let ten, from these bodies ; and the king never had better unconscionable distribution. The object of a man with any 8 braver soldiers during war. Killing had always been prospects

, ne they are called, or with any interest among the the trade of many of them-fighting the

amusement of all political circles in England, when he enters the Charch, is and tramping their daily exercise. To be sure, it was riches. If he brings talents and decent acquirements to the batches in the one case, and long moorland roads, when markets, so much the better ; but these are so far from being ou to bring home their masters' purchases of cattle, in the necessary, that they are sometimes found to be impediments in other; but both trained the feet to wearisome marches, and a man's progress. Phillpotts was not preferred for his talents the scen who would often risk their whole cash on a throw as a clergyman, but for being a ready pamphleteer. Law was at pitch and toss their favourite game of chance-were made a bishop because he was the brother of an able political likely to have the true military indifference as to saving judge, Ellenborough ; Lindsay, because he was the brother of

a Sotch nobleman ; Tottenhamn, because of his relationship to Dones. Unpublished. Author of the Chameleon.

the house of Ely; and the Beresfords, because because they were Beresfords. The higher ranks of the Church, therefore, give a tone to the subordinate classes."

[graphic]

THE POLISH FUGITIVES.

preserved, and the product of his manufacture greatly inBY THE AUTROR OF THE CORN LAW RHYMES.

proved, both as regards accuracy of form, and the capabiliThe day went down in fire,

ty of making articles of greater dimensions than was forThe burning ocean o'er ;

merly possible." A sin, and grey-hair'd sire,

TEMPERATURE OF ENGLAND.—The mean temperatur Walk'd silent on the shore.

of London is about two degrees higher than that of the They walk’d, worn gaunt with cares,

surrounding country; the difference exists chiefly in the Where land and billow meetAnd of that land was theirs

ing the whole year the mean temperature of England does The dust upon their feet.

not vary in different years more than four degrees and a. Yet they, erewhile, had lands

half.-Mechanics' Magazine. Which plenteous harvests bore;

TEMPERATURE OF SUMMER HEAT.-The last sum, But spoil'd by Russian bands,

mer was distinguished by an unprecedented regularity of heat, Their own was theirs no more.

From the register of a clergyman, at Kineton, who kept They came to cross the foam,

an account of the weather for many years, it appears that And seek beyond the deep,

there were, between the first of May and the thirtieth of A happier, safer home,

September, 64 days at and above 70 degrees, and 80 day, A land where sowers reap.

at and above 69 degrees. The last week of September ve Yet, while the playful gold

particularly marked by high temperature, the mercury Laugh'd into purply green,

having on the 25th reached 80 in a situation perfectly seThe crimson clouds that rollid

cluded from solar influence :-a degree which he never le. The sea and sky between,

fore observed at so late a period in the year. The youth his brow uprais'd

Whitewashing and colouring the inside walls and the From thoughts of deepest wo,

ceilings of cottages should not be attempted till they have And on the ocean gazed,

dried at least a year. If the plaster be of the commonest Like one who froots a fue.

kind, without a finishing coat of stucco, it is only adapted The sire was calm and mild,

for water colours, or colours rendered tenacious by glue-paste, And brightly shone his eye,

or other mucilaginous matter, instead of oil, because of its While like a stately child,

porosity, which would wholly absorb the oil. The best He look'd on sea and sky.

common colouring for cottage walls is what is technically But on his son's lean cheek,

called lime whiting, which is nothing more than the finest And in his hands grasp'd hard,

particles of lime or chalk mixed with water, with the ad A heart that scorned to break,

dition of a small quantity of size. The colour of this With dreadful feelings warr'd ;

varied by the addition of the black of charcoal (commonly For he had left behind

called blue black, as distinguished from the soot of lata A wife who dungeon'd lay,

wbich is called lamp-black,) or by yellow ochre, by vent. And loath'd the mournful wind,

grise, or any cheap pigment.- Encyclopedia of Cottage That sobb’dAway, away!

Villa, and Farm Architecture.
Five boys and girls had he:

Party MEN.--Fidelity to engagements, dae consisting
In fetters pined they all ;

of thought and conduct, respect for the useful institutinas And when he saw the sea,

of the country, and personal honour, are all sacrificed by On hin he heard them call.

the true party man; and there is not a single advantage Oh, fiercely he dash'd down

arrived at through party views which better motives will The tear-that came at length!

not secure.-Westminster Revier.
Then almost with a frown,
He prayed to God for strength.

TO CORRESPONDENTS.
“ Hold up!" the father cried,

To our Culross Correspondent we can only say, that if the for “ If Polaod cannot thrive,

“potchin Bob's" gun contracts on being heated, and expands og The mother o'er the tide

cooled, we are as much puzzled as the “ learned dominie," and May follow with her five.

“scientific doctor chap” to account for it. The only explanatias *

can give, is by supposing Bob's gun to have a well developed ergond, “ But Poland yet shall fling

imitation, which, impelling it to imitate its master, it too bas become! Dismay on Poland's foes,

“potcher" -a violater of the laws of expansion ; because we can assute As when the Wizard King'

him it is quite different with ordinary guns.
Aveng'd her ancient woes.
“Por soon her cause will be

CONTENTS OF xo. XXI.
Roused Europe's battle cry:

CHRISTMAS........
• To perish or be free:

German Christmas Customs-Houscbold Affections..
To conquer or to die !""

The Court of Sinde......
His hands clasp'd o'er bis head,

Emigration....
The son Inok'd up for aid ;

Lord Kenyon....
“ So be it, Lord!" he said,

King James and the Witches........
And still look'd up and pray'd :-

John Cly the Miller-Widow Sharks's Adventures-Scene in
Till from his eyes, like rain,

the Baths of Leuk..
When first the black clouds growl,

The Drama.......
The agony of pain,

The Waits-Superstitions of the Welsh.
In tears, gush'd from his soul.

Tue STORY TELLER-Love and Authorship.
The name which the Turks, in their superstitious dread, gave to Sketches of Society-Butchers-Bakers...
the great Sobieski.

The Bishops...
SCRAPS,

The Polish Fugitives............
ORIGINAL AND SELECTED.'

SCRAPS, ORIGINAL AND SELECTED-Glass Blowing Tempera-
Glass BLOWING.—Among the prizes awarded by the ture of England-Party Men, &c. .........
Paris Academy of Sciences, at their last sitting, was the fol-
lowing:—"To Israel Robinet

, workman, for the substitution EDINBURGH: Printed by and for John JORNSTONE, 19, St. James' of the action of a machine for that of the human lungs, Square. Published by JOHN ANDERSON, Jun., Bookseller, 59, North in glass blowing, 8000 francs. By means of this valuable

Bridge Street, Edinburgh ; by John MACLEOD, and ATKINSON & Ca.

Booksellers, Glasgow ; and sold by all Booksellers and Venders invention, the health of the glass blower will in future be Choap Periodicals,

.........

THE

EDINBURGH WEEKLY MAGAZINE

CONDUCTED BY JOHN JOHNSTONE.

THE SCHOOL MASTER IS ABROAD.-LORD BROUGHAM.

No. 22.-Vol. I. SATURDAY, DECEMBER 29, 1832. Price THREE-HalFPENCE

TO OUR READERS.

1832, we shall only say, that our strenuous efforts Wiru the present year, we close the first volume will be given to improve the details and arrangeof the SCHOOLMASTER, to commence 1833 with a

ment of the Work ; and, also, to maintain it in Dew volume. There are several reasons which its present creditable position as a cheap Literary dictate this arrangement; and the size of the Periodical, and an independent Political Register. volume, which, with the POLITICAL REGISTER, con

19, St. James's SQUARE,

28th December 1832. tains above 400 pages, is of itself conclusive. Many of the Subscribers to the Monthly Parts, who form The SCHOOL MASTER is regularly stereotyped, and a numerous and fast-increasing class of our Readers, may be had by Booksellers' Monthly Parcels in the have suggested the necessity of half-yearly volumes, different towns, and by Carriers, when ordered, in places from the unwieldy size of a fire-side book which where there is no Bookseller. sould contain, with the Political Register, above The Editor begs once more to apologize to those senaing 1000 pages.

orders for copies of the SchoOL MASTER from towns and We cannot close this portion of the Work, with villages out of the direct line of communication, for seeming out making our respectful' acknowledgments to inattention to their requests, and suggests to them the prothose friends and well-wishers, known or anony-wriety of ordering Monthly Parts, which form at once a mous, who have either directly co-operated in a NEWSPAPER, a LITERARY JOURNAL, and a Review. design, which to them appeared useful and meri.

ON THE MISMANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC torious, or have sent us sometimes useful sugges

INSTITUTIONS, tions, and at others valuable information. The The Christmas holidays are a convenient and spontaneous testimonies of approbation, received privileged season for going about to see sights ; from persons of high moral, literary, and

and tens of thousands would avail themselves of

political eminence, have been most cheering and the heavy expense attending this rational mode

such opportunities, save for one small obstruction, satisfactory; and our reception, by the public of enjoyment. The narrow exclusive spirit, which at large, has been more liberal and encourag- shuts the doors of all our national institutions in ing than we could have reasonably anticipat- the face of the public, has long been a reproach to ed in a Work begun after the field seemed Great Britain among foreigners, and a cause of pre-occupied, where so many had failed, and so

complaint at home. Let us hope that a better era

has arrived, and that the omnipotent spirit of few succeeded. As we have employed no clap- Reform will soon extend to College Libraries and trap of any kind, nor bestowed any pains in in- Museums. troducing the Work beyond what is apparent in The spirit of reformation is extending like the its internal qualities, there is no assumption in circles on a broken surface of water. Mankind believing that it is for its intrinsic merits the pub- are industriously and steadily repairing the delic, but especially the instructed classes, wherever deem it irrelevant, at this interesting period, to

cays of the past; and the Schoolmaster cannot the SCHOOLMASTER has been seen, have at once point out the necessity of repairing some abuses placed it on a level with the best of the cheap which have too long existed as a reproach to the Periodicals; while from the higher cast of its liter- land. Wo mean the mismanagement of many of ary selections, and the greater length of the pieces, our public institutions and national works, which are it is allowed to rank above any literary work hi- shamefully closed against every man who cannot af

ford to pay for seeing, what is certainly, in a meatherto attempted upon the same scale.

sure, his own. Other nations endeavour to render taking leave of our kind and courteous Readers of their capitals the resort of travellers, by admitting

In now

strangers to admire and copy whatever of beauty seen, and they shall rapidly increase. Let the heand excellence in the arts they have collected roic child go and kneel at the graves of the illus. with immeasurable care and expense. The ancient trious dead—let him decipher the simple tale of kingdoms of the East possessed this secret of im- their glories sculptured on the marble; and we proving their fame. Egypt, for long, was the cen- shall behold our children as great as our fathers tre of science. Her magnificent and unrivalled have been ! Alexandrine Library, induced philosophers to

HEAT. sojourn in her states: and, when superstition had nearly extinguished the infant struggles of

(Concluded from page 318.) the medical science at Rome, physicians found a We have already, in former Numbers, noticed stimulus to their exertions in the comparative fa- the remarkable property possessed by heat, of causcility of prosecuting their researches in the cities ing bodies to expand. We shall conclude the sub. of Egypt. At one period of the profession, there ject of heat, by making a few observations on the were only two skeletons in the world.— Yet those manner in which it is communicated from one two were in Egypt—and to Egypt the students of body to another. Heat has a constant tendency te medicine flocked, from very remote parts of the diffuse itself, till all bodies become of the same earth, despite of the formidable obstacles of dis- temperature. This is effected in two ways, by contance and delay. Italy produced the greatest duction and by radiation. When we place the end painters, because her galleries of painting were at of a poker in the fire, the heat is conducted from their command. And Bonaparte knew, that if the fire into the poker, and from that part of the once he succeeded in accumulating the pillage of poker in contact with the fire to the other parts Europe within the walls of the Louvre, he should of it; which mode of communication is called com. render Paris the Emporium of the Arts. And yet duction. When, on the other hand, a warm body we, who boast of our encouragement to every li- is suspended in the air, rays of heat are emitted beral pursuit, have, by throwing paltry difficul or radiated on every side; and in this case the heat ties in the way, degraded our name to a level with is said to be communicated by radiation. First, that of the bigoted Spaniard. We have expended then, of conduction. Bodies possess the power the British money in equipping frigates to convey of conducting heat in very different degrees. If here the mutilated fragments of the statues of we place the end of a poker, or other rod of iron, Greece ; and, by the conduct of Lord Elgin, have in the fire, it will speedily become red hot; and if brought down upon our heads the opprobrium and it be not too long, the heat will soon be conducted curse of that greatly injured people. The Elgin to the other end, so as prevent us from laying hold Marbles lie shattered about the court-yard, or bun. of it. On the contrary, if we put the end of a dled up in heaps in the cellars of the British Mu- piece of wood in the fire, it will begin and con. seum, -Government being unable to grant the tinue to burn, but the wood a few inches from the money for building a suitable gallery for their re- flame, will hardly be sensibly heated. Iron, then, ception. And the British Museum is open to the is a good, while wood is a bad, conductor of heat. public only three days a-week, during only a part A piece of iron feels much colder to the touch on of the year. Westminster Abbey—the monument- a cold day than a piece of wood, though both be al home of our warriors and bards-is closed to of the same temperature. This arises from the pilgrims that have journeyed from a distance, to iron conducting the heat more rapidly out of the bend at the shrine of most that is revered and sa- hand than the wood. The metals are the best concred in our annals. An Englishman must pay half-ductors; and, indeed, as a general rule, the densa-crown to gaze on the tombs of his sires. The est bodies are the best conductors. Glass, how. public buildings in London are notoriously known ever, though a dense body, is, as we formerly mento be barred against those who come not with a tioned, a bad conductor: so is earthen-ware, wool, silver key, and foreigners depart dissatisfied, and fur, cotton, and the like substances. Though, at disgusted with our parsimony, and ignorant of the first sight, water appears to be an excellent conmany attractions which, under a worthier admini. ductor, it is in reality a very bad one. stration of these affairs, they might have witnessed ply heat to the bottom of a pan of water, the heat, with delight. Our libraries, too, instead of being no doubt, quickly reaches the top ; but it is conuseful and honourable to our name, are the foulest veyed in quite a different manner from conduction. blots of all. Who can gain admittance to the ma When we place a pan of water on the fire, the heat nuscript collections in the British Museum? Not quickly passes into the metal, and from the metal those who can benefit from the classic pages, en- into the water in contact with it; the water, which gulfed there, as in a tomb. Who can say that is thus heated, expands, becomes bulk for bulk his studies in our Scottish metropolis, are benefited lighter than that above it, and consequently it by the volumes on the shelves of its University? rises, while the colder water above takes its place : Not the students who pay for its support. Let this, also, in its turn being heated, expands and this reproach be wiped away from us, and instead rises. And thus currents of heated water are conof our sons spending our money in the celebrated stantly ascending, and currents of colder water schools abroad, we shall have foreigners crowding descending, till the whole is heated to the 212th defor instruction to ours.

Let our public edifices be gree. A different process, however, commences at

If we ap

this point. Water, under the ordinary pressure potatoes from the effects of frost, we place over of the atmosphere, cannot be heated above the them a thick covering of earth and straw, which 212th degree, as at this point it is converted into are both bad conductors of heat, and thus prevent steam. The water, which is now at the bottom, the heat in the interior of the pit from escaping. does not therefore rise as formerly, but remains at Heat, as we have said, is also communicated by the bottom, where it is converted into steam, radiation. The heat of the sun is communicated which bubbling to the top, constitutes what we call to the earth in this manner. Radiated heat does boiling. Heat, therefore, in the case of boiling not at all increase the temperature of the air water, is not conducted from particle to particle, through which it passes. This is proved, from the but is conveyed to the top in consequence of the well known fact, that, as we ascend in the air, its water itself rising. The rapidity with which heat temperature decreases, though, at the same time, is conveyed from the metal forming the bottom of we approach nearer the sun. The rays of heat pass a vessel in which water is boiling, is very well directly from the sun to the earth, where they are shewn by the common experiment of taking a boil. absorbed. The air, therefore, in contact with the ing kettle from the fire, and placing it on the earth is heated, and consequently expands and hand, without being in the slightest degree incom- rises; and the colder air above taking its place, we moded. The heat, however, speedily returns when have continual currents of warm air ascending, and the water ceases to boil, as we soon find, if we con- of cold air descending, which not only prevents tibue to hold the kettle in our hand. That water impure vitiated air from collecting on the surface is a bad conductor may be easily proved ; if we of the earth, but prevents it from becoming insupplace a piece of ice at the bottom of a glass-tube, portably hot, which it would soon do were the air and pour over it a quantity of cold water, we may stationary. This salubrious exchange of air would cause the water to boil a few inches above the ice, not, it is evident, take place, if the air interrupted and yet the ice will remain unmelted. In this the rays of heat. Bodies possess the power of racase, the coldest water being already at the bot- diating heat in different degrees.. This property tom, there are no currents; and as the water does depends, to a great extent, on the nature of the not conduct the heat downwards, the ice remains surface; black rough surfaces being the best, and unaffected. Air, also, is a bad conductor; and, in- bright shining surfaces the worst radiators. Bodeed, it is supposed, that it is the quantity of air dies also differ in their capability of absorbing retained in the interstices of cotton, fur, &c. that rays of heat. Those substances which radiate heat causes them to conduct heat so slowly. The know- readily, also absorb it readily. When, therefore, ledge of the different conducting powers of bodies it is wished to prevent heat from escaping, as in has added greatly to the comforts of man, in cold conveying heated air or steam from one apartment countries especially, where, to preserve life, it is to another, as is often done in manufactories, pipes absolutely necessary to employ some means to pre- with bright resplendent surfaces ought to be emvent the heat generated in the body from making ployed, as they do not readily radiate the heat. its escape too readily. For this purpose, man It is, because black surfaces absorb heat more has selected those substances which do not con- readily than surfaces of a lighter colour, that white duct heat readily, as wool, fur, or cotton. It hats are found more comfortable in warm weather is a popular notion, that clothes are in them- than black ones. selves actually warmer than our bodies, and that Bodies have different capacities for heat. By it is by imparting heat that they are effectual in this we mean, that if equal quantities of heat be adkeeping our bodies warm. This, however, is a mis. ded to different bodies, their temperatures will not take. Clothes, on the contrary, when first put on, be equally raised. Thus, the quantity of heat are considerably colder than the bodies; and it is which will raise a pound of quicksilver 28 degrees, only by preventing the heat generated in our bodies will only raise an equal weight of water one defrom escaping too easily, that they are of any ad- gree. Water, therefore, has 28 times the capacity vantage. A little reflection will soon convince for heat that quicksilver has. Almost every sub. any one of this. It is well known, that a thin co stance differs in its capacity for heat from any vering of snow effectually defends wheat and other other substance. This paper is, however, already winter plants from the effects of frost. It is plain, much too long; and we must, therefore, conclude. that in this case, the effect cannot arise from heat It has been our object merely to excite an interest being imparted from the snow to the plants. Snow in the minds of our readers regarding the interestis a bad conductor of heat, and its beneficial in- ing properties of heat; and those who may wish to fluence arises from its preventing the heat which pursue the subject a little farther, cannot do betis in the soil from escaping. Again, the same sub- ter than peruse Nos. 4 and 5 of The Library of stances are used, to keep bodies both warm and cold. Useful Knowledge, which are exclusively devoted to Thus, in ice-houses, where the object is to keep the consideration of heat. the place as cool as possible, that the ice may be Dumoulin, the famous physician, being at the point of prevented from melting, the walls are lined with death, surrounded by numbers of physicians who were deblankets, straw, and the like substances, that the ploring the loss of him, said to them—“Gentlemen, I leave heat during the warm summer weather may be pre- them by several, each of whom believed himself to be one

behind me three great physicians." Being pressed to name vented from entering. In like manner, to preserve of the three, he replied, “ Water, exercise, and simple food.”

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