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of the days of merry England. Darnick is sur better to divide the labour by different sets all over the rounded and intersected with gardens and orchards country, than to oppress an individual with a large esta-a place of snug white cottages, mossy pales, place to a shorter period ; as at first the lighter and inore

I prefer the divisions being two years in a little wickets, and nice by-paths, with roses, entertaining reading is chiefly in demand, and were the evergreens, and beehives ; mossy and herbaceous, books changed every year, I should be apprehensive of too teeming with all pleasant sights, and delightful strong a taste being formed for amusing works ; but when scents, and worthy to have been the “Our Village” it is stationed for two years, the readers have time to read of Sir Walter Scott. And why should we forget

the more solid and useful books.

Q. 2. At about what expense can each division be pro. Gatton-side—that straggling village over from us, cured ? yet more rural and picturesque than Darnick, and I think a division of fifty volumes bound, or half bound, equally snug? And there is the chain-bridge con

with book-case, catalogue, labels, advertisements, and issupecting Gatton-side with Melrose ; and to the east ing book, may be procured for from L.10 to L.12; but the of it, Allerslie, the residence of Sir David Brewster, and their being recently published.

cost will depend very much on the kind of books wanted,

Very good divisions philosopher, or Knight of the Guelphicorder, and, we might be selected for from 1.8 to 1.10. As perhaps the believe, first in the list of that literary and scientific principal hinderance to the introduction of itinerating libband of knighthood since Sir John Leslie has raries has been the trouble of setting on foot the first divi. died without issue. What could have tempted the sions, I would be willing to superintend gratuitously the

getting up any number of divisions, with the necessary apLord Chancellor to this preposterous dubbing, to paratus, which any individual or society may wish, and which he never would have submitted in his own to procure, at the wholesale prices, any books they may person, we shall not stop to inquire; but, casting require. a hasty, sweeping, farewell glance over the north

Q. 3. At about what expense per annum may each divi. ern points of this grand panorama, Lauderdale,

sion be kept in repair ?

If the books are bound, or half bound at first, I suppose and the Lammermuir range, of which, from our five shillings per annum would both keep them in repair old Mid-Lothian Roman Camp, we surveyed the and supply any volumes which may be lost, and which it other side, we just nod over to Friarshall, Lang- might be difficult to get the reader to replace; if the books lee, and the Pavilion, and soberly descend to Melare in boards with linen backs, seven or nine shillings arose town, and to the nearer examination of the year will repair and bind them as they require

.

Q. 4. How long, with care, may such books last? beautiful ruins of that Abbey on which we have been Part of our books have been in active circulation for all day long casting many a furtive glance. It is a eighteen years, as at the commencement they were used as clear afternoon, and the moon near the full. Din- a Sunday-school library; and förty volumes out of fifty are ner will not occupy many hours; and, while it is pre- that twenty years may be considered the period they will last.

yet fit for circulation, and will last a few years longer, so paring, we shall make survey the first. For survey In forming an establishment of itinerating libraries, I the second, we all know the hour, and the guide too. would recommend the raising as much money from the If thou wouldst view fair Melrose aright,

friends of the institution, as would purchase four or five Go visit it by the pale moonlight;

divisions to begin with, and that they be placed in different For the gay beams of lightsome day

stations, with an intimation that if the books are well read, Gild but to flout the ruins grey.

they will be succeeded by other divisions every second year ; When the broken arches are black in night,

that during the first year they will be issued to any person And each sbafted oriel glimmers white;

who will pay one penny a-volume for reading it; that in When the cold light's uncertain shower

the second year they will be issued gratuitously to any Streams on the ruin'd central tower;

person above twelve years of age, who will take care of When buttress and buttres alternately

them. I consider it of great importance to allow gratui. Seem framed of ebon and ivory;

tous reading, as there are many young persons who are not When silver edges the imagery,

able to pay even a penny a-volume; and others are not And the scrolls that teach thee to live and die;

willing to pay until a taste for reading is formed in them. When distant Tweed is heard to rave,

As another means of raising sunds and promoting the And the owlet to hoot o'er the dead mau's grave,

objects of the institution, I would recommend that, after Then go-but go alone the while

its commencement, all the new books should be kept for at Then view St. David's ruin'd pile; least one year, for the use of annual subscribers of five shil.

I And, home returning, soothly swear,

lings, or such other sum as may be thought proper. Was never scene so sad and fair!

adopted this plan in 1822. Previous to that period, the

greatest number of our annual subscribers was eight; they ON ITINERATING LIBRARIES.

now amount to more than one hundred and fifty; and beThe following inquiries were lately made to me respect. sides adding largely to our funds, this measure has introdu. ing the plan of the East Lothian itinerating libraries,—the ced into a considerable nunher of the most respectable and replies may perhaps suggest some useful information to per- influential families of the district, a number of religious sons who are disposed to iutroduce the plan into their neigh- and useful publications. I have allowed these subscribers bourhood. I shall also be happy to give any additional the privilege of recommending books, to double the amount information concerning that economical mode of diffusing of their subscriptions, on condition that they are not, in the knowledge to any person who may wish it.

opinion of the committee, injurious to the interests of reli. Q 1. How many itinerating divisions of fifty volumes gion or morals ; this privilege has been used by them with would be desirable to form one library?

great discretion, and they have frequently assisted me in For the commencement of a system of itinerating libra- procuring very proper books. ries, four or five divisions would be a very good beginning, In consequence of our having a number of subscribers or even fewer. If that number were stationed each for at the neighbouring towns of Dunbar and North Berwick, two years in a place, it would be eight or ten years before new books are purchased with their own subscriptions for they went the circuit, and in that time it is probable as the use of these stations; besides which, the new books that many more divisions would be added to the establishment. have been one year at Haddington, are sent to North BerTen or twelve divisions could be easily managed by one wick and Dunbar, so as to be double the value of their sub. person, who felt an interest in the plans and it would be scriptions ; and the new books which have been at Dunbar

and North Berwick, are kept another year for the Had | Christian name, has been an objection, founded on a scruple dington subscribers. By this arrangement, all the sub- of conscience, to the payment of tithes, and other demands scribers have access to many more volumes than their own of an ecclesiastical character. Apprehending that the nosubscriptions would have purchased. And after this they tives of our conduct herein are not generally well underare formed into divisions for general circulation, In a stood, and anxiously desiring also that our own members large town, as Edinburgh or Glasgow, a similar plan might may be encouraged and strengthened to act consistently be followed, by placing divisions within the reach of the with our Christian profession, we think it right, at the different squares and streets of the genteel population, many present time, briefly to set forth the reasons of our testi. of whom, I am persuaded, would subscribe for the use of the mony on this important subject. books for the younger branches of their families, as well as

We have uniformly entertained the belief, on the authofor themselves.

rity of Holy Scripture, that when, in the fulness of time, As it is of much importance to gratify the annual sub- according to the all-wise purposes of God, our blessed Lord scribers with the books they wish to read, as early as possi. and Saviour appeared personally upon the earth, He in. ble, in the issuing-book for them, I have adopted the plan troduced a dispensation pure and spiritual in its characof writing the name of the book on the top of the page, ter. He taught, by his own holy example and divine pre. and writing the name of the borrower below it, with the cepts, that the ministry of the Gospel is to he without pe. date when the volume is issued ; and as a volume is fre- cuniary remuneration. As the gift is free, the exercise of quently called for when some person has it, I also enter the it is to be free also : the office is to be filled by those only names of the persons who want it, in the same manner ; who are called of God by the power of the Holy Spirit; and when it comes in, it is immediately sent to them, and who, in their preaching, as well as in their circumspect the date is affixed to their name. By this means some vo lives and conversation, are giving proof of this call. The lumes are never permitted to stand idle in the book-shelf. forced maintenance of the ministers of religion is, in our The issuing-book for the general readers is more casily kept view, a violation of those great privileges which God, in The names of the usual readers are arranged alphabetically, his wisdom and goodness, bestowed upon the human race, and the number of the book is marked opposite their when He sent his Son to redeem the world, and the power name, and under a column for the month in which they are

of the Holy Spirit, to lead and guide mankind into all issued; and when they are returned, the number is merely truth. crossed. It is very useful to call in all the books once a Our blessed Lord put an end to that priesthood, and to year for examination, and to get repaired those which re

all those ceremonial usages connected therewith, which quire it.

were before divinely ordained under the Law of Moses. It is not advisable to require any entry money in addi. The present system of tithes was not in any way instituted tion to the first annual subscription, as it is usually a hin- by Him, our Holy Head, and High Priest, the great Chrisderance to new subscribers. When an addition to the ca

tian Lawgiver. It had no existence in the purest and talogue of the new books is printed, which should be once

earliest ages of the Church, but was gradually introduced, a-year, if it is sent gratuitously to the respectable families as superstition and apostacy spread over professing Chris. in the neighbourhood, it will usually procure more new tendom, and was subsequently enforced by legal authority. subscribers than will pay the expense of printing it. And it further appears to us, that in this enforcing as due

Besides the subscriptions from individuals, we have had “ to God and the Holy Church," a tithe upon the produce of occasional donations to the East Lothian Itinerating Libra- the earth, and upon the increase of the herds of the field, ries from different missionary societies, formed within the an attempt was made to uphold and perpetuate a Divine district, As the libraries have much of the nature of a institution appointed only for a time, but which was abroHome Missionary institution, there is, perhaps, no plan by gated by the coming in the flesh of the Lord Jesus Christ. which such societies can promote the interests of religion, The vesting of power by the laws of the land in the king, at so little expense, and in so inoffensive a manner, as by assisted by his council, whereby articles of belief have been supporting itinerating libraries in their respective districts, framed for the adoption of his subjects, and under which by applying a part of their funds to this purpose, and there the support of the teachers of these articles is enforced, is; by promoting the interests of religion at home. This would

in our judgment, a procedure at variance with the whole ultimately increase their funds for foreign objects, by in- scope and design of the Gospel ; and as it violates the rights creasing the number of their subscribers.

of private judgment, so it interferes with that responsibility Although the principal object of the East Lothian Itiner- by which man is bound to his Creator. ating Libraries is to promote the interests of religion, we

In accordance with what has been already stated, we of have introduced a number of volumes on all branches of knowledge which we could procure, of a plain and popular upon us in lieu of tithes.

course conscientiously object also to all demands made nature ; and this , I am persuaded, has made the institution termed Easter-dues, demands originally made by the

We likewise object to what are much more popular, and also increased the number of re

Church of Rome, but continued in the Protestant Church ligious books which have been read.

of England, for services which we cannot receive. We Much of the success of such institutions will depend on the zeal of the librarians, and on their acting gratuitously; ed in some places, as due to the incumbent of a parish on

also object to Mortaries, sums applied for and still enforcand also by giving a moderate degree of publicity to the

the death of the head of a family. Neither do we find, in plan, by reports, catalogues, and advertisements.

the example or precepts of our blessed Lord and his SAMUEL BROWN. Manager of the East Lothian Itinerating kindred nature, which all had their origin in times of the

Apostles, any authority for these claims, or others of a Libraries, Haddington.

darkness and corruption of the Christian Church. And [This was written some time ago, and Mr. Brown has we further consider, that to be compelled to unite in the now, we doubt not, farther progress to report. ]

support of buildings, where a mode of religious worship is

observed in which we cannot conscientiously unite, and in THE QUAKERS AND THE CHURCH.

paying for appurtenances attached to that mode of worship from which we alike dissent, is subversive of that freedom

which the Gospel of Christ has conferred upon all. of the Reasons why the Religious Society of Friends obe considerations, we have felt it to be a religious duty to me

Deeply impressed with a conviction of the truth of these ject to the Payment of Tilhes, and other Demands of an fuse active compliance with all ecclesiastical demands Ecclesiastical Nature. The Religious Society of Friends has now existed in this compromise whereby the payment of them is to be insured

.

which have been made upon us ; or to be parties to any country for nearly two centuries as a distinct Christian com That this conduct has not arisen from a contumacious munity. have been distinguished from our fellow professors of the will amply testify. And we must also that it will be Amongst other circumstances by which we spirit

, we trust the general character of our proceedings

A BRIEF STATEMENT

his process.

readily admitted, that political considerations have not cloth; when it is dry, place the wrong side upon a light governed our religious Society, but that we have been actu. gauze, then give it a coat of Spanish white, take a painted canated by a sincere desire to maintain, in the sight of God vass not dry, and place the picture upon this canvass, put it and man, a conscientious testimony to the freedom and spi- | into a press, and when the painting is completely dry, if the rituality of the Gospel of Christ, and thus to promote the operation has been well performed, the painting will be found enlargement of his kingdom upon earth.

on the new canvass, and will not be at all influenced by wet In their support of these views, our pious predecessors the gauze, leaving

the first to dry before the second is given,

weather. Some persons give two coats of Spanish white upon underwent many and grievous sufferings, which they bore and it is not till this second is completed that they put the with Christian meekness and patience.

painting upon the canvass.-Quarterly Review.

CURIOSITY OF ART -A very singular, and to the public a Seeing that we have, as a religious society, invariably yet unknown art was practised a few years since in Paris, by made, on this subject, an open confession before men, we which, impressions of different sizes, either larger or smaller earnestly desire that we may all steadfastly adhere to the than the original design, were taken from the same copperoriginal grounds of our testimony; nor allow ourselves to plate. It would seem, that, according to the ordinary way of be led away by any feelings of a party spirit, or suffer any printing, it would be impossible to take from a plate an impresmotives of an inferior character to take the place of those done by Gonord, a watchmaker in that capital, and it has been

sion smaller or larger than the plate itself; but this has been which are purely Christian. May none amongst us shrink ascertained, that, whether the copy be larger or smaller than from the faithful and upright support of our Christian be- the plate, it retains all the traces of the original with the nicest liet, but through the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, seek accuracy. It is supposed to have been executed in this manner. after that meek disposition, in which our Society has uni. An impression of the same size as the plate, is taken on the formly thought it right to maintain this testimony, and surface of some soft substance, such as the elastic compound of which we desire may ever characterize us as a body. It glue and treacle used in conveying, landscapes of china ware: becomes us all, when thus conscientiously refusing a com

this substance is confined in a tube broader at one end than at pliance with the law of the land, to do it in that peaceable the other. If a part of the substance be then removed from spirit of which our Lord has left us so blessed an example. face at the wider end, and the tube be placed with the wider

the narrow end, after the impression has been taken on the surMay we all be concerned, in accordance with the advice end upwards, the elastic substance will fall, and the printed of this meeeing, given forth in the year 1759, “ to demon- surface be compressed within a smaller space. The edges of strate, by our whole conduct and conversation, that we

the tube are then cut to a level with the elastic substance, and really suffer for consciencc-sake, and keep close to the if the impression upon it be conveyed to paper, the copy will guidance of that good Spirit, which will preserve in meek- be smaller than the original plate. If we wish to have a copy ness and quiet resignation under every trial. For if resento larger than the original plate, it may be done by removing the ment should arise against those whom we may look upon substance to a wider tube, in which the printed surface will be as the instruments of our sufferings, it will deprive us of made to expand to the requisite dimensions. These, however, the reward of faithfulness, give just occasion of offence, and are but conjectures, Gonord has hitherto preserved the secret of bring dishonour to the cause of truth. Cavilling or casting reilections upon any because of our sufferings, doth not be

A very beautiful mode of representing small branches of

the most delicate vegetable productions in bronze has been emcome the servants of Christ, whose noly example and foot-ployed by Mr. Chaatrey. A small strip of a fir-tree, a branch steps we ought in all things faithfully to follow.”

of holly, a curled leaf of broccoli, or any other vegetable pro

duction, is suspended by one end in a small cylinder of paper, In conclusion, it is our earnest prayer, that it may which is placed for support within a similarly formed tin case; please the Supreme Ruler of the Universe to hasten the the finest river silt, carefully separated from all the coarser coming of that period when the light of the glorious Gos. particles, and mixed with water so as to have the consistency pel of Christ shall shine forth with unclouded brightness, of cream, is poured into the paper cylinder by small portions at when righteousness shall cover the earth as the waters in order that its leaves may be covered, and that no bubbles of

à time, carefully shaking the plant a little after each addition, cover the sea, and when the kingdoms of this world shall air may be left. The plant and its mould are now allowed to become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ.

dry, and the yielding nature of the paper allows the loamy Signed, in and on behalf of the yearly meeting, by coating to shrink from the outside. When this is dry, it is sur

SAMUEL TUKE.

rounded by a coarser substance; and, finally, we have now the

twig with all its leaves imbedded in a perfect mould. This USEFUL NOTICES.

mould is carefully dried, and then gradually heated to a red

heat. At the ends of some of the leaves or shoots, wires have BOTANY.- The East India Company have presented to the been left to afford air-holes by their removal, and in this state Limxan Society their magnificent' Herbarium, containing the of strong ignition a stream of air is directed into the hole formplanta collected between long. 73° to 114° E. and lat. 32° N. ed by the end of the branch. The consequence is, that the to the equator, by Konig, Roxburgh, Ruttler, Russell, Klein, wood and leaves which had been turned into charcoal by the Hamilton, Heyne, Wight, Finlayson, and Wallich. It includes fire, are now converted into carbonic acid by the current of air, about 1500 genera, more than 8000 species, and amounts in and after some time the whole of the solid matter of which the deplicates, to at least 70000 specimens,

---the labours of half a plant consisted is completely removed, leaving a hollow mould, century.—For many years a large portion of these vegetable bearing on its interior all the minutest traces of its late vegetable riches were stored on the shelves of the India House, without occupant. When this process is completed, the mould being any one sufficiently conversant in Indian Botany to arrange still kept at nearly a red heat, receives the filuid metal, which, and render them subservient to the cause of science. On the by its weight, either drives the very small quantity of air, arrival in this country of Dr. Wallich, the distinguished super- which at that high temperature remains behind, out through intendent of the Company's Garden at Calcutta, in the year the air-holes, or compresses it into the pores of the very porous 1828-who brought with him an immense accession to the substance of which the mould is formed. Herbarium from various parts of India, especially Nepal and Dear provisions must produce one of the following effects the Burmese Empire,--the Court of Directors instructed him they must either lower the condition of the labourer, or raise to make a catalogne of the aggregate collection, and to distri- the rate of wages. Nobody can wish the former result; you bute duplicate specimens to the more eminent societies and must, therefore, wish high'wages to be the result of dear corn naturalists throughout Europe and America. This immense but if wages are high, the price of goods must be high; but if labour bas occupied Dr. Wallich for the last four years ; and it the price of goods be high, our manufacturers cannot compete is the chief selection from these various Herbaria, destined for with foreigners; but if they cannot compete with foreigners, the museum of the India House, which the Court of Directors ourexport trade is diminished, aod the prosperity of our manufacbave, with princely munificence, presented to the Linnæan So- turing population is undermined; and if tneir prosperity is underciety. --The liberality of the East India Company has been duly mined, they will consume fewer provisions; the demand for appreciated throughout the wide circle of science.

agricultural produce in the manufacturing counties will be reMETHOD OF PLACING AN OLD PICTURE UPON A New stricted; the surplus produce will remain in the han'is of the CANTASS IN OIL COLOURS. When your picture has been farmer, and the ultimate result will be a fall of rento, occasioned, properly placed, and the old canvass has been removed with beit remembered, by an attempt to raise them. Let this sink due caution, wipe the wrong side of the picture with a fine deep into your minds.-Lord Milton.

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source.

ON DR. CHALMERS' LATE WORK.

an injudicious law or regulation repealed, Dr. Chalmers Though apparently desultory, one leading idea pervades would say that the benefit thence resulting must be immateDr. Chalmers' work. He lays it broadly down in the first rial; inasmuch as population will forth with expand to the chapter, that all the miseries that amict the labouring -increased limits of subsistence. Were this true, it would afford classes are the result of their own errors and misconduct;- a convenient excuse for every species of abuse. Fortunately, that “there is no possible help for them if they will not however, we do not labour under any such incurable fatahelp themselves ;" that “it is to a rise and reformation in lity. We are acted upon as well by external circumstances, the habits of our peasantry that we should look for deliver as by the monitor within. Were a repeal of the corn laws, ance, and not to the impotent crudities of a speculative le the introduction of an improved system of cropping, or of gislation.” Dr. Chalmers never for an instant loses sight some new and more powerful manure, to occasion a fall of of this principle. It is, in his estimation, the “one thing twenty or thirty per cent in the price of bread, we doubt needful." With it all will be right; without it all will be very much whether the ratio at which population is at prowrong. Amendment, he contends, can come from no other sent increasing would be sensibly affected. But supposing

it were, half a century at least must elapse before wages The error of Dr. Chalmers has arisen from his laying too could be proportionably reduced through such an increase ; much stress on the principle of population, as explained by and the population being accustomed, during all this interMr. Malthus. Neither the repeal nor abolition of the most val, to an increased command over the necessaries and enburdensome taxes or regulations, nor the discovery of new joyments of human life, would have their “standard of sufmachines and processes for reducing the cost of production, ficiency” raised, and would utterly refuse to multiply can, in his estimation, be of any real service. They may en upon their former diet.” Let us not, therefore, attempt to large the field over which population is spread; but it is make the theory of population a scape goat for the errors of impossible they should have any considerable or lasting in- ' blundering legislators. It is not so mechanical a principle fluence over the people. Unless the principle of increase is as Dr. Chalmers would seem to suppose. It is influenced, coatrolled by the greater prudence of the poor, resulting no doubt, by a “ moral and Christian education;" but it is from their better education, every thing that may be done also powerfully influenced by good laws and wise governfor them will be as dust in the balance, or will injure ra- ment.–Edinburgh Review. ther than improve their situation. “ The additional food that may have been created, will be more than overborne in THE DECAY OF GENUINE PSALMODY. the tide of an increasing population. The only difference The gradual disuse in the parochial service of those will be a greater instead of a smaller number of wretched venerable tunes by Purcell, Croft, Jeremiah Clarke, Isaac families a heavier amount of distress, with less of unbro. Smith, Ravenscroft, &c. from which the music of the ken ground in reserve for any future enlargements—a so Church of England, and chiefly, the style of the genuine ciety in every way as straitened as before ; in short, a con. psalm tune, derives its character, is a source of regret to dition of augmented hardship and diminished hope, with all many judicious organists. In a few of the chapels about the burden of an expensive and unprofitable scheme to the the Inns of Court, the old purity of melody and harmony is bargain."-P. 39.

still preserved ; but in parish churches, where music is er. It is obvious, however, that these results can take place posed to the influence of vulgar tastes, and the organist only on the supposition that the population is instantane- only holds his place by the tenure of pleasing the majority, ously, or at least very speedily, adjusted according to varia- there are commonly adopted tunes of the basest and meanest tions in the supply of food and other accommodations. But description, which no art of the harmonizer can render this is very far, indeed, from being the case. It is always tolerable. These tunes have an original taint of vulgarity an exceedingly difficult matter to change the habits of a in the intervals and in the motion of the melody, which no people as to marriage. That they are influenced by exter- ingenuity can cover, and thus the impressive solemnity nal circumstances, no one doubts; but there is a vis inertia which once distinguished the music of the Established to be overcome, that always prevents them from changing Church no longer exists; and the vocal branch of the ser. to the extent that circumstances change. Suppose that, in vice is merged into one“ base, common, and popular style.” consequence of legislative enactments, or of any other cause, The passion in congregations for singing thirds, or somewages in Great Britain were generally doubled, nobody be thing different from the air of the psalm, is one main cause lieves that this would double the marriages next year; and of the banishment of the old tunes, which, independently of though it did, the population could not be doubled for very their grave character, do not readily admit of having many years; and a period of eighteen or twenty years thirds placed beneath the melody. This conceit of making would have to elapse before the stimulus given by the rise harmony extempore, each man and woman his and her own of wages could bring a single labourer into the field. It is part, has reached such a pitch, that it is impossible to be clear, therefore, that, during all this lengthened period, the placed in the midst of a church where every one sings labourers would enjoy an increased command over the ne- without receiving the most distressing sensations. Notes cessaries and conveniences of life; their notions as to what the most horribly false reach the ear on all sides, and not was required for their comfortable and decent support, only when one of the ancient discarded melodies happens to would consequently be raised, and they would acquire those embarrass the congregation, but even in their new especial improved tastes and habits that are not the hasty product favourites, whenever the sequence of thirds is interrupted

. of a day, a month, or a year, but the late result of a long the organist himself cannot escape, and he is frequently series of continuous impressions. Did the supply of labour obliged to play more commonplace harmonies than the adjust itself, like the supply of most commodities, propor- tune would otherwise suggest, to avoid the clash which a tionally to every variation of demand, these results would certain chord would

make with the sounds emitted by the not follow, and Dr. Chalmers would be right in ridiculing congregation. His own taste, by perpetually accommodating all expectations of “ extrinsic assistance." But every one itself to the ignorance of others, as the least of two evils, beknows that the very reverse is the caso that the population comes insensibly lowered ; and a situation which might

afford cannot be speedily increased when wages rise; and that real pleasure in the discharge of its duties, were the music of time is afforded for the formation of those improved habits the church what it ought to be, is at length associated only that are of such essential importance.

with feelings of pain and degradation. Bad voices become Without undervaluing education, we at the same time neutralized by numbers, and their effect is covered by the contend that extrinsic circumstances have a material and organ; but wrong notes nothing can disguise or render lasting influence over the condition of society; that though palatable. The evil has arisen from the spread of a super“ the crudities of speculative legislation" may not raise the ficial knowledge of music, an assumption of superiority, u standard of enjoyment," it may be raised by judicious le- the organist, and a desire to be pleased rather than im. gislative enactments; and that, however well a people may proved ; and that our statement is not chimerical, atten; he instructed, their condition is always powerfully infuenced dance at many of our churches will convince the competent by the conduct of their rulers. Were an oppressive tax, or hearer.

The old psalm tunes bequeathed to us by our forefathers the women." “How shall we go home," he has heard them are so strictly in keeping with the spirit of the church ser- exclaim, "and see our children dying of hunger ;-they have vice, and even with the architecture of the buildings, that had no food for these two days, and we have nothing to give for their purpose they are unequalled. We are never bet

them.” . There was many “ a black and pale face in Scotland ;" ter acquainted with their value as compositions, than when and many of the labouring poor, ashamed to beg, and too honest

to steal, shut themselves up in their comfortless houses, and modern attempts in the same way are brought before us,

would sit with their eyes fixed on the floor till their very sight and which stand in about the same relation to the arche- failed them. The savings of the careful and industrious were types of the style, as a new prayer to the collects, or a new soon dissipated, and many who were in easy circumstances church to one of Sir Christopher Wren's. The beauty of the when the scarcity came on, were sunk in ahject poverty ere it church service consists in its order and regularity, and free- had passed away. Human nature is a sad thing when subjected dom from innovation. There is no thought of altering the to the test of circumstances so trying. As the famine increased, appointed course of morning and evening prayer through people came to be so wrapped up in their own sufferings that out the year, or the fashion of the steeple, or the chiming wives thought not of their husbands, nor husbands of their

wives." of the bells; why should the music of the church (not one of its least important parts) be exposed to change, and made broke out in November, 1694, when many of the people were

The pestilence which accompanied the terrible visitation, pleasing to the vulgar ear, and conformable to the vulgar seized by “strange fevers and sore fluxes of a most infectious taste, rather than to exalt and purify the minds of the con- nature," which defied the utmost power of medicine.

« For gregation ? To please (especially bad judges) is, we imagine, the oldest physician,” says Walker, “had never seen the like not the first object of psalmody. But on this matter every before, and could make no help." In the parish of West one appears to have a voice, but the man whose decision Calder, out of nine hundred "examinable persons,” three hunupon the fit and unfit slmuld be imperative-the organist. dred were swept away, and in Liviston, in a village called the The clergyman interferes not, still less the bishop, to pro. Craigs, inhabited by only six or eight families, there were thirty tect this officer of the church in the stern and unflinching whole villages were depopulated, and the foundations of the

In the parish of Resolis, discharge of his duty; and rather than be at feud with the

houses, for they were never inhabited afterwards, can still be parish, or expose himself to the numberless ill-offices of pointed out by old men of the place. So violent were the effects spies, he at length reluctantly gives up his own inclination of the disease that people who in the evening were in apparent Hence the departure from the severe simplicity of the old health, would be found lying dead in their houses next morning, psalm tune, from solemn chords and rich changes of “the head resting on the hand, and the face and arms 'not unharmony, for the present insipid style of church music; frequently unawed by the rats."

"The living were wearied with and instead of variety, monotony the most wearisome is burying the dead; bodies were drawn on sledges to the place of the consequence ; for nothing is more tedious and samely interment, and many got neither coffin nor winding sheet. “1 thau the constant march of thirds. But the old tunes, sung

was one of four," says the Pedlar, “who carried the corpse of alternately by trebles and tenors in unison, and left free for

a young woman a mile of way; and when we came to the the organist to accompany with such harmonies as his grave, an honest poor man came and said, you must go and fancy and feeling might suggest, would be productive of the help me to bury my son; he has lain dead these two days.

We went, and had two miles to carry the corpse; many neigh. most gratifying variety and the noblest effects. This is bours looking on us, but none coming to assist. I was credione of the most delightful ways in which the organ and tably informed,” he continues, " that in the north, two sisters voices can be employed, and one by which many verses of on a Monday morning were found carrying their brother on a the same psalm may be rendered interesting and various. barrow with bearing ropes, resting themselves many times, and It imposes do restraint upon the accompanyist-it leads to none offering to help them." There is a tradition that in one no wrong riotes, for the progression is plain and easy. Each of the villages of Resolis, the sole survivor was an idiot, and of the performers in a London congregation is so engrossed that his mother was the last person who died in it of the disease. by his own voice that he does not hear his neighbour—this He waited beside the corpse for several days, and then taking is the reason that the confusion gives him no offence.-Allas. and left it standing upright beside a garden wall.–Such were

up on his shoulders, he carried it to a neighbouring village,

the sufferings of the people of Scotland in the seventeenth cenYEARS OF PESTILENCE AND FAMINE IN

tury, and such the plienomena of character which these suffer. SCOTLAND.

ings elicited. We ourselves have seen nearly the same process One night, in the month of August 1694, a cold east wind, repeated in the nineteenth, and so invariably fixed are the prinaccompanied by a dense sulphurous fog, passed over the ciples of human nature, and the succession in even the moral country, and the half-filled corn was struck with mildew; it world, of cause and effect, that the results have been nearly shrunk and whitened in the sun, till the field seemed as if

the same,

M. sprinkled with flour ; and where the fox had remained longest (for, in some places, it stood up like a chain of hills during the

CO-OPERATIVE MELODIES. greater part of the night) the more disastrous were its effects.

THE BREAST'S BRIGHTEST GEM. Prom this unfortunate year until the year 1701 the land seemed Arr._" Hurrah for the Bonnets of Blue." as if struck with barrenness; and such was the change in the

MRS. GRIMSTONE. climate, that the seasons of summer and winter were cold Here's wealth for the merchant in mines, aad gloomy in nearly the same degree. The wonted beat There's wealth for the student in tomes, of the sun was withholden; the very cattle became stunted And there's wealth for the Bacchant in wassail and wines and meagre, the moors and thickets were nearly divested of When in riot and revel he roams : their feathered inhabitants, and scarcely a fly or any other But the wealth of all wealth is a heart insect was to be seen even in the beginning of autumn.

No.

By no narrow feeling confin'd, vember and December, and, in some places, January and Feb. That looks round the world with a wish to impart ruary, became the months of harvest, and labouring people con Its glowings, to gladden mankind. tracted diseases which terminated in death when employed in Then hurrah for the breast's brightest gem, catting down the corn among ice and snow.

Of the scanty

That kindles at sympathy's call; produce of the fields much was left to rot on the ground, and Here's the love and the blessing of all unto them much of what was carried home proved unfit for the sustenance Whose hearts hold a blessing for all ! of either man or beast. There is a tradition, that a farmer of Cromarty employed his children, during the whole winter of

There's pride in the pomp of a throno

There's pride in the patriot band1694, in picking out the sounder grains of coin from a blasted

When they stand in the breach unsustained and alone, heap, the sole product of his farm, to serve for seed in the

And strike for their loves and their land : ensuing spring.

But there's pride that is purer than this, In the meantime the country began to groan under famine.

That runs like a rill in the soul, The little portions of meal which were brought to market were

'Tis a holier pride, for it aims at the bliss, isvariably disposed of, and at an exorbitant" price, before half

Not of me spot of earth, but the whole. the people were supplied; and then, says Walker, there

Then hurrah for the breast's brightest gem, would ensue “a screaming and clapping of

ands among

That kindles at sympathy's call; David Dean's friend, Peter Walker, the pedlar, quoted in our 12th

Here's the love and the blessing of all unto them number, in the article on the Infectious Nature of Superstition.

Whose hearts hold a essing for all !

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