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mart for slaves to the more civilized nations of the radiation goes on till they become colder than the surroundworld, -God forbid that we should any longer sub- ing air, which always contains a portion of water in the ject Africa to the same dreadful scourge, and ex state of vapour, and which, coming in contact with the clude the sight of knowledge from her coasts, cold stones, &c., is condensed, and forms water, which is the which has reached every other quarter of the dew. An experiment illustrative of this in part, is seen globe. I trust we shall no longer continue this com.

every day in bringing a glass of cold water into a warm merce; and that we shall no longer consider our

room; the watery vapour coming in contact with the cold selves as conferring too great a boon on the natives glass is condensed, and forms the místy appearance which of Africa in restoring them to the rank of human the glass presents.

Some substances radiate heat better beings. I trust we shall not think ourselves too li- than others; thus polished stones and metals, which radiate beral, if, by abolishing the Slave-trade, we give them imperfectly, will be found almost dry on a dewy morning, the same common chance of civilization with other while in a rough unpolished condition, they will be found parts of the world. If we listen to the voice of rea- drenched with moisture. son and duty this night, some of us may live to see DistanCE OF THE PLANETS.—The method of investia reverse of that picture from which we now turn gation used to determine the distance of a planet, is the same our eyes with shame. We may live to behold the as that applied to find out the distance of any object within natives engaged in the calm occupations of industry, the shore, passes any object, such as a lighthouse, if the

our view upon the earth. Thus, if a ship coasting along and in the pursuit of a just commerce. We may object lies near her line of course, she very quickly leaves behold the beams of science and philosophy breakit

behind her; but if the object be many miles from her ing in upon their land, which at some happy period line of course, she appears to be nearly abreast of it, perin still later times, may blaze with full lustre; and haps the whole of the day, although sailing at a rapid rate. joining their influence to that of pure religion, may This would enable us to judge of the distance, if the dimi. illuminate and invigorate the most distant extremi- nution of the object in point of size did not also convince ties of that immense continent. Then might we Now, upon this very fact of principle, united with a hope, that even Africa (though last of all the quar- discovery of Kepler's

, and other information gathered at ob. ters of the globe) should enjoy at length, in the servations taken during the transit of Venus over the disk evening of her days, those blessings which have de- of the sun, in 1769 and 1781, do philosophers determine the scended so plentifully upon us in a much earlier distances and measure the diameters of the planets- This period of the world. Then also would Europe, par- times of the planets are as the cubes of their mean dis.

discovery of Kelper's was, that the squares of the periodical ticipating in her provement and prosperity, re

tances from the sun. That is to say, if you multiply the ceive an ample recompense for the tardy kindness numbers expressing the times of going round, each by it(if kindness it can be called) of no longer hinder- self, the products will be to one another in the proportion ing her from extricating herself out of the darkness, of the average distances multiplied each by itself, and that which, in other more fortunate regions, has been so product again by the distance. Thus, if one body take two much more speedily dispelled.

hours, and is five yards distant, the other, being ten yards It is in this view—it is as an atonement for our distant, will take something less than five hours and forty long and cruel injustice towards Africa, that the minutes. Knowing, therefore, the distance of one planet, measure proposed by my honourable friend, Mr. it is easy to find out the distance of all the rest, because the Wilberforce, most forcibly recommends itself to my squares of the periodical times of the planets are as the mind. The great and happy change to be expected cubes of their mean distances from the sun.- The Chris. in the state of her inbabitants is, of all the various

tian Philosopher. benefits of the abolition, in my estimation, the most astronomical instruments has afforded the prospect of being

DISTANCE OF THE PIXED STARS.—The perfection of extensive and important. I shall vote against the able to determine the Annual Parallax, and consequently adjournment; and I shall also oppose every propo- the distance of the fixed stars; but the quantity of deviasition which tends either to prevent, or even to tion is so small as to have hitherto eluded the closest observa. postpone for an hour, the total abolition of the Slave- tion. It cannot amount to a single second in the most contrade.

spicuous and probably the nearest of the stars. These 10POPULAR SCIENCE.

minous borlies must, therefore, be more distant, at least two hundred thousand times, than the measure of the diameter

of the earth. The light emitted from such neighbouring The formation of dew is unknown to many; and as suns, though it fiies with enormous rapidity, must yet trssome conceive it to emanate from the earth, which is not

vel more than six thousand years before it approaches the

confines of our system. But scattered over the immensity the case, I will endeavour to explain it, as clearly as pos- of space, there may exist hodies which, by their magsible, by the theory which is generally received.

nitude and predominant attraction, retain or recall the Heat possesses the well-known property of radiation, which rays of light, and are lost in solitude and darkness Had consists in warm bodies throwing off rays of heat in all the celerity of the luminous particles not exceeded four hun. directions, until they become of the same temperature as the cheering beams of the sun. They would have been arrest

dred miles in a second, we should never have enjoyed the surrounding matter. During the day, the earth becomes ed in their journey, and drawn back to their source, before heated by the sun, and imparts part of its warmth to the they reached the orbit of Mercury. But 8 star similar to surrounding atmosphere ; after the sun sets, the earth, our sun, and having a diameter sixty-three times greater, stones, grass, &c., being much warmer than the air, radi- would entirely overpower the impetus of light.

How To PREVENT GAS EXPLOSIONS.When a strong ate rays of heat, which rays in a cloudy might are reflected smell of gas is perceived, a leakage from some cause mu back upon the earth by the clouds, and its temperature is have taken place; and every door and window in the room reduced little or nothing below that of the air, and no dew which may contain it, should be opened, that the mixture is formed ; hence you never see dew on the ground after a

of gas and atmospheric air may escape. Neither lighted cloudy night. But when the weather is fine, and the sky duced, or allowed to approach the place, until the whole or

candle nor any other inflamed substance should be intro quite clear of clouds, the rays of heat having nothing to re- the mixture of common air and gas is completely expelled flect them, are radiated into vacant space and are lost; the and the room thoroughly ventilatel. It cannot be too



strongly impressed upon every person who is in the practice A BACHELOR'S COMPLAINT OF THE BEHAVIOUR of using gas-lights, that the gas is not explosive of itself, in

OF MARRIED PEOPLE. the state the public receive it from the gas-works ; and to

As a single man, I have spent a good deal of my time in render it capable of exploding, it requires to be mixed in noting down the infirmities of Married People, to console various proportions, of from five portions of coal gas to myself for those superior pleasures, which they tell me I twelve of atmospheric air ; and when mixed in any of these have lost by remaining as I am. proportions, it will not explode unless flame come in contact I cannot say that the quarrels of men and their wives with it. Whenever, therefore, any escape of the gas may ever made any great impression upon me, or had much be discovered to have taken place, the proper recourse is tendency to strengthen in me those anti-social resolutions, ventilation without delay, and preventing the introduction which I took up long ago upon more substantial consideraof a lighted candle, or any other kind of flame where the tions. What oftenest offends me at the houses of married circumstance may occur. Proper ventilation, and keeping persons where I visit, is an error of quite a different descripaway flame, will infallibly tend to prevent accidents from tion ;-it is, that they are too loving. explosion. These are facts which every one should know, Not too loving neither; that does not explain my meanand then he may use gas-lights not only without apprehen- ing. Besides, why should that offend me? The very act sion, but with the most perfect satisfaction.

of separating themselves from the rest of the world to have INFLUENCE OF OCCUPATION UPON THE DURATION

the fuller enjoyment of each other's society, implies that

they prefer one another to all the world. OF LIFE. AMONGST, men of genius, or those who have distinguish

But what I complain of is, that they carry this preference ed themselves in science or literature, life is, at least in mo

so undisguisedly, they perk it up in the faces of us single dera times, of rather a short duration. Mr. D'Israeli, in people so shamelessly, you cannot be in their company a his estimate of the literary character, mentions the excite.

moment without being made to feel, by some indirect hint ment which all eminent men are accustomed to feel, and

or open avowal, that you are not the object of this prefer

Now there are some things which give no offence, which, by acting physically on the brain, tends natnrally to abridge life amongst such persons. But the late Neibhur, there is much offence in them. If a man were to accost the

while implied or taken for granted merely ; but expressed, the Roman historian, we remember, observes in one of his first homely-featured or plain-dressed young woman of his philosophical chapters, that nothing tends more to longevity, than the contemplation of projects, which one has one's se't acquaintance

, and tell her, bluntly, that she was not handconceived, in their progress to a successful development.

some or rich enough for him, and he could not marry her, Hence generals, who have retired from the field, after hav- he would deserve to be kicked for his ill manners ; yet no ing attained the objects of their warfare according to their less is implied in the fact, that having access and opportuwishes, are long-lived--and the historian adduces, as an ex

nity of putting the question to her, he has never yet thought ample of what he says, the case of Camillus. We can our

fit to do it. The young woman understands this as clearly selves quote many modern instances to confirm this opin

as if it were put into words ; but no reasonable young woion. Marlborough, one of the most fortunate leaders that Just as little right have a married couple to tell me by

man would think of making this the ground of a quarrel. erer commanded an army, lived rather too long for his own reputation. We sincerely hope that our posterity will not speeches, and looks that are scarce less plain than speeches, have to repeat the same thing of the Marlborough who suc

that I am not the happy man,-the lady's choice. It is ceeded him, and who, under the name of Wellington, car

enough that I know I am not : I do not want this perpe

tual reminding. ried the glory of the British arms to the ends of the earth. Perhaps it is for a contrary reason that we see so few Bri- sufficiently mortifying ; but these admit of a palliative.

The display of superior knowledge or riches may be made tisk statesmen live loug in office. Those who lead a party, The knowledge which is brought out to insult me, may acand are unsuccessful in their plans, die always prematurely; cidently improve me ; and in the rich man's houses and Witness Pitt, Fox, Canning, &c. in bis 64th year; Newton, at 14 ; Harvey (the discoverer pictures, his parks and gardens, I have a temporary usuof the circulation) at 88 ; Linnæus at 71; Leibnitz at

fruct at least. But the display of married happiness has 70 ; Galileo, 70. On the contrary, Bichat, a modein, died

none of these palliatives : it is throughout purc, unreconin bis 34th year; and Davy, before he reached 60. Amongst

pensed, unqualified insult. 1700 cases of persons in all classes of society, who have least invidious sort. It is the cunning of most possessors

Marriage, by its best title, a monopoly, and not of the reached the age of 100, only one literary man was to be found, and that was Fontenelle. We have before us a list of any exclusive privileges to keep their advantage as much of nearly 300 persons, men and women, in all parts of the out of sight as possible, that their less favoured neighbours, United Kingdom, who had attained to a great age (in no

seeing little of the benefit, may the less be disposed to quesinstance less than 100) during the term of years, beginning most obnoxious part of their patent into our faces.

tion the right. But these married monopolists thrust the with 1807, and ending in 1823, both included, and we can

Nothing is to me more distasteful than that entire com. not discover throughout the whole catalogue, a single name that has linked itself with an expression or a deed worthy of a new-married couple -in that of the lady particularly :

placency and satisfaction which beam in the countenances of being remembered for an hour. So true is it, as an il. it tells you, that her lot'is disposed of in this world ; that lustrious man has profoundly said, and as the only rival of that man's splendid fame which the modern world could you can have no hopes of her. It is true, I have none; nor produce has repeated, “ The duties of life are more than

wishes either, perhaps: but this is one of those truths which life" Rather a curious confirmation of Niebhur's doctrine ought, as I said before, to be taken for granted, not exjust mentioned, is to be found in the ages of all the success

pressed. ful painters. The Italian artists, with very few exceptions founded on the ignorance of us unmarried people, would be

The excessive airs which those people give themselves, lived long iTitian was 96 ; Spenello. was nearly 100 ; Carlo Cignani, 91; Michael Angelo, 90 ; Leonardo da Vin

more offensive if they were less irrational. We will allow ci, 75; Calabresi, 86; Claude Lorraine, 82: Carlo Maratta, craft better than we who have not had the happiness to be

them to understand the mysteries belonging to their own 88 ; Tentoretti, 82 ; Sebastian Ricci, 78 ; Francesco Albano; made free of the company; but their arrogance is not con*: Guido, 68; Guercino, 76; John Baptist Crespi, 76 ; Guiseppe Crespi, 82; Carlo Dolce, 70 ; Andrew Sacchi, 74; his opinion in their presence, though upon the most indis:

tent within these limits. If a single person presume to offer Zucharelli, 86; Vernet, 77 ; and Schidon, 76.Monthly ferent subject, he is immediately silenced as an incompetent Rericu. CEDAR-TREES.-There are now growing on the grounds at

person. Nay, a young married lady of my acquaintance, Greenfield Hall, the property of Ralph Richardson, Esq., two who, the best of the jest was, had not changed her condition cedar-trees, of the immense height of 150 feet; the girth of one above a fortnight before, in a question on which I had the i 11 feet, 7 inches, and its branches extend 50 feet; the girth misfortune to differ from her, respecting the properest mode of the other is 8 feet, 7 inches ---Chester Chronicle.

of breeding oysters for the London market, had the assur.

ance to ask, with a sneer, how such an old Bachelor as I on a friendly footing before marriage, if you did not could pretend to know any thing about such matters. come in on the wife's side—if you did not sneak into the

But what I have spoken of hitherto is nothing to the airs house in her train, but were an old friend in fast habits which these creatures give themselves when they come, as of intimacy before their courtship was so much as thought they generally do, to have children. When I consider how on-look about you—your tenure is precarious-before little of a rarity children are that every street and blind a twelvemonth shall roll over your bead, you shall find alley swarms with them, that the poorest people common your old friend gradually grow cool and, altered towarls ly have them in most abundance-that there are few mar you, and at last seek opportunities of breaking with you. riages that are not blessed with at least one of these bargains, I have scarce a married friend of my acquaintance, upon -how often they turn out ill and defeat the fond hopes of whose firm faith. I can rely, whose friendship did not their parents, taking to vicious courses, which end in po commence after the period of his marriage. With verty, disgrace, the gallows, &c., I cannot, for my life, tell some limitations they can endure that: but that the good what cause for pride there can possibly be in having them. man should have dared to enter into a solemn league of If they are young phenixes, indeed, that were born but one friendship in which they were not consulted, though it in a year, there might be a pretext. But when they are so happened before they knew him,- before they that are common

now man and wife ever met, this is intolerable to them. I do not advert to the insolent merit which they assume Every long friendship, every old authentic intimacy, must with their husbands on these occasions. Let them look to be brought into their office to be new stamped with their that. But why we, who are not their natural-born subjects, currency, as a sovereign prince calls in the good old money should be expected to bring our spices, myrrh, and incense, that was coined in some interregnum before he was born -our tribute and homage of admiration I do not see. or thought of, to be new marked and minted with the

“ Like as the arrows in the hand of the giant, even so stamp of his authority, before he will let it pass cautent are the young children :" so says the excellent office in our in the world. You may guess what luck generally befalla Prayer-book appointed for the churching of women. “ Hap- such a rusty piece of metal as I am in these new mintings

. py is the man that hath his quiver full of them :" so say Innumerable are the ways which they take to insult and I ; but then, don't let him discharge his quiver upon us that worm you out of their husband's confidence. Laughing at are weaponless ; —let thein be arrows, but not to gall and all you say with a kind of wonder, as if you were a queer stick us. I have generally observed that these arrows are kind of fellow that said good things, but an oddity, is one double-headed ; they have two forks, to be sure to hit with of the ways ;—they have a particular kind of stare for the one or the other. As for instance, where you come into a purpose ;-till at last the husband, who used to defer to house which is full of children, if you happen to take no your judgment, and would pass over some excrescences of notice of them (you are thinking of something else, per- understanding and manner for the sake of a general vein of haps, and turn a deaf ear to their innocent caresses,) you observation (not quite vulgar) which he perceived in you, are set down as untractable, morose, a hater of children. begins to suspect whether you are not altogether a humorist, On the other hand, if you find them more than usually en -a fellow well enough to have consorted with in his gaging, if you are taken with their pretty manners, and bachelor days, but not quite so proper to be introduced to set about in earnest to romp and play with them, some ladies. This may be called the staring way, and is that pretext or other is sure to be quickly found for sending them which has oftenest been put in practice against me. out of the room : they are too noisy or boisterous, or Mr. Then there is the exaggerating way, or the way of irony;

- does not like children. With one or other of these that is, where they find you an object of especial regard forks the arrow is sure to hit you.

with their husband, who is not so easily to be shaken I could forgive their jealousy, and dispense with toying from the lasting attachment, founded on esteem, which he with their brats, if it gives them any pain ; but I think it has conceived towards you ; by never-qualified exaggerations, unreasonable to be called upon to love them, where I see to cry up all that you say or do, till the good man, who no occasion,—to love a whole family, perhaps, eight, nine, understands well enough that it is all done in compliment or ten, indiscriminately,—to love all the pretty dears, be to him, grows weary of the debt of gratitude which is due cause children are so engaging.

to so much candour, and by relaxing a little on his part, I know there is a proverb, “ Love.me, love my dog :” and taking down a peg or two in his enthusiasm, sinks at that is not always so very practicable, particularly if the length to that kindly level of moderate esteem, that “ decent dog be set upon you to teaze you or snap at you in sport. affection and complacent kindness" towards you, where she But a dog, or a lesser thing, any inanimate substance, as herself can join in sympathy with him without much stretch a keepsake, a watch or a ring, a tree, or the place where and violence to her sincerity. we last parted when my friend went away upon a long ab Another way (for the ways they have to accomplish so sence, I can make shift to love, because I love him, and any desirable a purpose are infinite) is, with a kind of innothing that reminds me of him ; provided it be in its nature cent simplicity, continually to mistake what it was which indifferent, and apt to receive whatever hue fancy can give first made their husband fond of you. If an esteem for it. But children have a real character and an essential being something excellent in your moral character was that of themselves : they are amiable or unamiable per se ; î which riveted the chain which she is to break, upon any must love or hate them as I see cause for either in their imaginary discovery of a want of poignancy in your colqualities. A child's nature is too serious a thing to admit versation, she will cry, “ I thought, my dear, you deof its being regarded as a mere appendage to another being, scribed your friend Mr.

-- as a great wit." lf, on and to be loved or hated accordingly : they stand with me the other hand, it was for some supposed charm in your upon their own stock, as much as men and women do. 01 conversation that he first grew to like you, and was c011but you will say, sure it is an attractive age,--there is tent for this to overlook some trifling irregularities in your something in the tender years of infancy that of itself moral deportment, upon the first notice of any of these she charms us. That is the very reason why I am more nice as readily exclaims, “ This, my dear, is your good Mr. about them. I know that a sweet child is the sweetest

One good lady whom I took the liberty of exthing in nature, not even excepting the delicate creatures postulating with for not showing me quite so much respect which bear them ; but the prettier the kind of a thing is, as I thought due to her husband's old friend, had the cane the more desirable it is that it should be pretty of its kind. dour to confess to me that she had often heard Mr. One daisy differs not much from another in glory; but a speak of me before marriage, and that she had conceived a violet should look and smell the daintiest. I was always great desire to be acquainted with me, but that the sight rather squeamish in my women and children.

of me had very much disappointed her expectations ; for, But this is not the worst ; one must be aılmitted into from her husband's representations of me, that she had their familiarity at least, before they can complain of in formed a notion that she was to see a fine, tall, officer-like attention. It implies visits and some kind of intercourse. I looking man (1 use her very words ;) the very reverse of But if the husband be a man with whom you have lived which proved to be the truth. This was candid; and I had

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Butter .........
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the civility not to ask her in return, how she came to pitch lions sterling. It will be seen that the articles exported upon a standard of personal accomplishments for her hus- consist entirely of agricultural produce.' Ireland, in fact, band's friends which differed so much froin his own : for seems destined to become the granary of England ; and we my friend's dimensions as near as possible approximated to cannot help hoping that the continually increasing intermine; he standing five feet five inches in his shoes, in which course between the two countries will at last have the I have the advantage of him by about half an inch ; and effect of raising that rich and beautiful country to its pros he no more than myself exhibiting any indications of a per rank amongst the nations. The invention of steam has martial character in his air or countenance.

already done more for Ireland than a thousand acts of Par. These are some of the mortifications which I have en liament; and it must sooner or later, either raise it to the countered in the absurd attempt to visit at their houses. same level as England, or drag down England to the level To enumerate them all would be a vain endeavour; I shall of Ireland. therefore just glance at the very common impropriety of

Cows which married ladies are guilty, of treating us as if we

90,715, Lard

4,542 firkins Horses


5,754 cools were their husbands, and vice versa. I mean, when they Sheep


.258,087 firkins use us with familiarity, and their husbands with ceremony. | Mules

243 Ditto 19,217 haid do. Testacea, for instance, kept me the other night two or Pigs

156,001 Eggs

2,505 crates three hours beyond my usual time of supping, while she Calves


Wheat 277,060 quarters was fretting because Mr. did not come home, till the Lambs

25,725 Oats

880,670 do. oysters which she had had opened, out of compliment to

Hams and tongues 590 bhds. Barley .........21,328 do. me, were all spoiled, rather than she would be guilty of the

Bacon 13,090 bales

............... 423 do. impoliteness of touching one in his absence. This was re

14,564 barrels Beans

8,452 do.

Ditto Tersing the point of good manners: for ceremony is an in- Beef

936 balf do Peas

1,724 do. .6,391 tierces

Malt Fention to take off the uneasy feeling which we derive from Ditto

6,850 do.

1,199 barrels Meal 149,816 loads knowing ourselves to be less the objects of love and esteem Lard

465 tierces Flour ........93,154 sacks with a fellow-creature than some other person is. It endeavours to make up, by superior attentions in little points, for that invidious preference which it is forced to deny in

LOCUSTS. the greater. Had Testacea kept the oysters back for me, The first record of the ravages of locusts which we and withstood her husband's importunities to go to supper, find in history, is the account in the Book of Exodus, of she would have acted according to the strict rules of pro- their visitation to the land of Egypt. Africa appears to priety. I know no ceremony that ladies are bound to ob- bave been generally, the quarter of the globe most serve to their husbands, beyond the point of a modest be- severely subjected to the inroads of the locust tribe. A haviour and decorum : therefore I must protest against the law was enacted and enforced, in the territory of Cyrene, vicarious gluttony of Cerasia, who at her own table sent according to the account of Pliny, by which the people away a dish of morellas, which I was applying to with were obliged to destroy these insects in the egg, in the great good will, to her husband at the other end of the table, larva state, and in the image. A similar law prevailed in and recommended a plate of less extraordinary gooseberries the island of Lemnos, where each person was forced to to my unwedded palate in their stead. Neither can I excuse furnish annually a certain quantity of locusts. According the wanton affront of

to Orosius, A.M. 3800, the north of Africa was so inBut I am weary of stringing up all my married acquain- fested by them, that every vestige of vegetation vanished tance by Roman denominations. Let them amend and from the face of the earth. After this, he adds, that they change their manners, or I promise to send you the full-flew off to sea and were drowned; but their carcases being length English of their names, to be recorded to the terror cast upon shore, emitted a stench equal to what might of all such desperate offenders in future. Your humble have been produced by the dead bodies of 100,000 men. servant,

ELIA. We are told uy St. Augustine, that a pestilence arising STATISTICS.

from the same cause, destroyed no less than 800,000

people in the kingdom of Numidia, and many more in the CATTLE AND SHEEP.—A century ago, our cattle, from countries along the sea-coast. the inferiority of their food, were not one-half, sometimes Blown from that quarter of the globe, the locusts bave even not one-third, of their present weight. It is computed occasionally visited both Italy and Spain. The former that England and Wales now contain, at least, five mil country was severely ravaged by myriads of those desolatlion oren

, and a million and a half of horses, of which ing intruders in 591 A.C. These were of a larger size about a million are used in husbandry, two hundred thou-than common, as we are informed by Mouffet, who quotes sanal for pleasure, and three hundred thousand are colts an ancient historian; and from their stench when cast and breeding mares. The number of sheep is about twenty into the sea, caused a plague, which carried off infinite millions, and eight millions lambs. The number of long- numbers, both of men and cattle. A famine took place wooled sheep is above five millions, their fleeces averaging in the Venetian territory in 1487, occasioned by the raseven or eight pounds; and of short-wooled sheep fifteen vages of these insects, in which 30,000 persons are reported millions, the weight of fleece averaging from three to three to have perished. Mouffet mentions many other instances

The whole quantity annually shorn of the same kind which have taken place in Europe at in England is from eighty to eighty-five millions of pounds. different periods. They entered Russia in immense diviThe Merino were introduced about the beginning of the sions, in three different places, in 1600, darkening the air present century, and were imported in large numbers after with their numbers, and passed over from there into our alliance with Spain, in 1809.

The Cachemere goat Poland and Lithuania. has lately been introduced into Essex, and is thriving. The In many parts they lay dead to the depth of four feet. creat pasturage counties are Leicester, Northampton, Lin. Sometimes they covered the surface of the earth like a coln

, and Somerset; and for butter and cheese, Cheshire, dark cloud, loaded the trees, and the destruction which Gloucestershire, and Wiltshire. The import of butter and they produced exceeded all calculation. They fall sonecheese, from foreign countries is checked by duties, but times upon corn, and in three hours will consume an en. these are important articles of Irish commerce with Eng. tire field, as happened once in the south of France. When

they had finished the corn they extended their devastaIRISH TRADE WITH LIVERPOOL._Some idea of the tions to vines, pulse, willows, and in short, to every thing extent and importance of the trade betireen Ireland and else wearing the shape of vegetation, not excepting even this port may be formed from the following list of Irish hemp, which was not protected by its bitterness. articles imported into Liverpool during the year 1831. It

In 1748 considerable numbers of locusts visited this would not be easy to form an accurate estimate of the country, but luckily they did not propugale, and all soon Falue of these imports

, but it must amount to several mil. I perished.

and a-half pounds.




COLUMN FOR THE YOUNG. languished till the 15th of October, and aial in Holland,

whence his body was brought for burial. All England SIR PHILIP SYDNEY.

wore mourning for his death, and volumes of poetical' taBORN 1554-DIED 1586.

ments and elegies were poured forth in all languages. Abridged from JOHNSTONE's Specimens of the Poets.

If not an eminent poet, Sydney was, in the most geneThis noble soldier and accomplished gentleman was the

rous sense, the warm friend and patron of letters. But in son or Sir Ilenry Sydney of Penshurst, in Kent. In his life-literature, as in every other department, his short life was time, Sydney enjo; ed a popularity both at home and abroad,

one of bright promise, rather than of wonderful achievewhich is not easily accounted for, unless we believe what ment; and perhaps, at the age of thirty-two, the grave nemust have been the truth, that by the charm of his man.

ver closed over any man who combined such universal acners, and the uobility of his nature, he unconsciously dif- complishment, with so many amiable qualities, as this darfused around himself the atmosphere through which his ling of the people of England. His learned tutor had re. character and actions were viewed; and which gave to a

corded on his tomb, that “ he was the tutor of Sir Philip mortal of ordinary proportions the stature and bearing of Sydney ;” and his friend Sir Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, a hero of the old romance. Sydney is the connecting link who long survived Sydney, had this inscription put on between the knight of chivalry and the modern soldier and his monument :-“ Fulke Greville, servant of Queen Elizagentleman, - one of those rare and happy persons who come beth, counsellor to King James, and friend of Sir Philip into the world once in a century to unite the suffrages of Sydney." “ The life of Sir Philip Sydney," says Mr. mankind in one spontaneous feeling of love and admiration. Campbell, “ was poetry put in action." Though his character was composed of all the elements which constitute a hero and a favourite_bravery, genero INSCRIPTION FOR A TABLET AT PENSHURST, THE sity, frankness, courtesy, a noble disinterestedness, and much graceful accomplishment, his person and manners must have created the charm which made him, before the age of thirty

ARE days of old familiar to thy mind, two, the most popular man that ever lived in England.

O Reader ? Hast thou let the midnight hour It was the uniform practice of the age in which he lived, Pass unperceived, whilst thou in fancy lived for youths liberally educated to attend both the universi With high-born beauties and enamour'd chiefs, ties; and Sydney did so before going on his travels.

Sharing their hopes, and with a breathless joy, Paris he was made a gentleman of the bed-chamber—a mark Whose expectation touch'd the verge of pain, of high distinction to a young foreigner. He was here seen Following their dangerous fortunes? If such lore and admired by Henry IV., then only King of Navarre. Hath ever thrill'd thy bosom, thou wilt tread, “ He used him," says Sydney's friend and biographer, Sir As with a pilgrim's reverential thoughts, Fulke Greville, “like an equal in nature, and fit for friend. The groves of Penshurst. SYDNEY here was bort, ship with a king." The massacre of the Protestants, SYDNEY, than whom no gentler, braver man which took place during his residence in Paris, disgusted His own delightful genius ever feign'd Sydney with France. He went to Frankfort, and at the Illustrating the vales of Arcady court of the Emperor distinguished himself by his skill in With courteous courage and with loyal love. martial exercises. Printers were at this time among the Upon his natal day, the acorn here most learned men; and it is a curious trait of ancient man. Was planted. It grew up a stately oak, ners to find scholars and foreigners lodged in their houses. And in the beauty of its strength it stood At Frankfort, Sydney lived in the house of Andrew We And flourish'd, when his perishable part chel. Before returning home, he spent a year in Italy, Had moulderd dust to dust. That stately oak, and it is presumed became acquainted with Tasso. On his Itself hath mouldered now, but SYDNEY's fame return he was immediately taken into favour by Queen Endureth in his own immortal works.--SOUTHEY. Elizabeth, who sent him as ambassador to Vienna, with a secret mission to unite the Protestant states of the empire

Let us explain MR. SOUTHEY's allusion. against Spain. Sydney was but a young diplomatist, but was planted at Penshurst on the day of Sydney's birth, he skilfully accomplished this important object; his man which grew to the noble size of twenty-two feet in circumliness and candour being found more effective in swaying erence, and was pulled down, it is said, by mistake. This men's minds, than the subtlety and crooked policy which statesien of more cunning than wisdom, think it needful

tree was frequently called the bare oak,” says an English to employ. He was at this time only about twenty years writer on trees. Tradition saith, that when the tenants

went to the park gates to meet the Earl of Leicester, they Two years afterwards, Sydney was named as a candidate used to adorn their hats with boughs from the Penshurst for the throne of Poland; but this proposal, which shews oak. Within its hollow trunk was a seat which could acthe estimation in which he was held, was crushed by the commodate five or six persons. Queen, both from political and private reasons.

« She refusel,” says the historian, “to farther the advancement, out of the fear that she should lose the jewel of her times." Irish RELIGION IN Auld LANG SYNE._"No good will

Sir Philip, having formerly united the Protestant states, come of it," said the Colonel. “I mind the time in Cotiwas appointed to assist the people of the Netherlands in vaught when no man clearly knew to what religion he belong throwing off the yoke of Spain, and for this purpose be ed ; and in one family the boys would go to church and the commended the military force sent from England. He was girls to mass, or may be both would joio and go to which ever also made colonel of all the newly-raised Dutch regiments tech the first time I was ever detached from headquarters, I

When I entered the militia, I recolHe was soon joined by Leicester with more troops, and appointed general of horse. On the 22d of September, 1586, who commanded the regiment, happened to be passing throughi


went with the company to Portumoa. Old Şir Mark Blake, in a skirmish near Zutphen, Sydney beat a superior force and the right before he had a desperate drink with Gen. Loftus of the enemny, which he casually encountered, but lost his at the Castle. When I left Loughrea, I forgot to ascertain own life. After his horse had been shot under him he where I should bring the men on Sunday, and I thought this a mounted another, and continued to fight till he received his good opportunity to ask the question. I opened his bed-room death-wound. The anecdote of his dying moments has door softly. Śir Mark,' says I, where shall I march the been told a thousand times, but will never lose its interest :

men?" What kind of day is it?' says he. Rather wet, was ithile borne off the field, faint with the sick languor "Upon my conscience, my lad," he continued, my head's not

"It's like the night that preceded it," said he. which attends the loss of blood, he requested a draught of clear enough at present to recollect the exact position of church soldier beside him look wistfully at it, he put

it away, say- call," and the Colonel shook his head gravely, “ real Christian ing, “ This man's necessity is yet greater than mine." He feeling."-Wild Sports of the Wort.

An oak

of age.

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